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A    STUDY   OF   THE    ORIGIN    OF 


G.    SERGI, 

OK   HOilE. 





\ViiEN  this  little  book  was  first  published  in  an  Italian 
edition  in  1895,  and  in  a  German  edition  in  1897,  I 
was  still  unable  to  obtain  many  anthropological  data 
needed  to  complete  tha  picture  of  the  primitive  in- 
habitants of  Europe.  In  the  English  edition  the 
book  is  less  incomplete,  richer  in  anthropological 
and  ethnological  documents,  and  hence  more  con- 
clusive ;  it  also  contains  replies  to  various  objections 
which  have  been  brought  forward.  This  English 
edition,  therefore,  is  not  so  much  a  translation  of  a 
work  already  published  as  a  new  book,  both  in  form 
and  arrangement. 

The  conclusions  I  have  sought  to  maintain  arc  the 
following : — 

(i.)  The  primitive  populations  ol  Europe,  after 
Homo  Neandertlialensis,  originated  in  Africa;  these 
constituted  the  entire  population  of.Neplitliic^times. 

(2.)  The  basin  of  the  Mediterranean  was  the  chief 
centre  of  movement  whence  the  African  migrations 
reached  the  centre  and  the  north  of  Europe. 

(3.)  From  the  great  African  stock  were  formed 
three  varieties,  in  accordance  with  differing  telluric 
and  geographic  conditions :  one  peculiarly  African, 


remaining  in  the  continent  where  it  originated ; 
another,  the  Mediterranean,  which  occupied  the  basin 
of  that  sea;  and  a  third,  the  Nordic,  which  reached 
the  north  of  Europe.  These  three  varieties  are  the 
three  great  branches  of  one  species,  which  I  call 
Eurafrican,  because  it  occupied,  and  still  occupies, 
a  large  portion  of  the  two  continents  of  Africa  and 

(4.)  These  three  human  varieties  have  nothing  in 
common  with  the  so-called  Aryan  races ;  it  is  an 
error  to  maintain  that  the  Germans  and  the  Scandi- 
navians, blond  dolichocephals  or  long-heads  (of  the 
Reihengraber  and  Viking  types),  are  Aryans ;  they 
are  Eurafricans  of  the  Nordic  variety. 

(5.)  The  Aryans  are  of  Asiatic  origin,  and  con- 
stitute a  variety  of  the  Eurasiatic  species;  the 
physical  characters  of  their  skeletons  are  different 
from  those  of  the  Eurafricans. 

(6.)  The  primitive  civilisation  of  the  Eurafricans 
is  Afro-Mediterranean,  becoming  eventually  Afro- 

(7.)  The  civilisation  had  its  origin  in 
Asia,  and  was  transformed  by  diffusion  in  the  Medi- 

(8.)  The  two  classic  civilisations,  Greek  and  Latin, 
were  not  Aryan,  but  Mediterranean.  The  Aryans 
were  savages  when  they  invaded  Europe :  they  de- 
stroyed in  part  the  superior  civilisation  of  the 
Neolithic  populations,  and  could  not  have  created 
the  Greco-Latin  civilisation. 

PREFACE.  vii 

(9.)  In  the  course  of  the  Aryan  invasions  the 
languages  of  the  Eurafrican  species  in  Europe  were 
transformed  in  Italy,  Greece,  and  elsewhere,  Celtic, 
German,  Slavonic,  etc.,  being  genuine  branches  of 
the  Aryan  tongue;  in  other  cases  the  Aryan  lan- 
guages underwent  a  transformation,  preserving  some 
elements  of  the  conquered  tongues,  as  in  the  Neo- 
Celtic  of  Wales. 

Some  of  these  conclusions  no  longer  arouse  the 
same  opposition  as  when  I  first  brought  them 
forward.  The  arguments  meeting  with  most  resist- 
ance are  those  tending  to  overthrow  the  ancient 
conception  of  an  Aryan  civilisation.  The  future  will 
enable  us  to  see  these  questions  more  clearly. 

G.   SERGI. 

ROME,  February,  igor. 





PREFACE          v 


The  Early  Phase— The  New  Phase — Germanism — The 
Alleged  Homeric  Evidence — Celts  or  Lithuanians? — The 
Western  Asiatic  Origin. 


The  Problems— The  Mediterranean  Hasin— The  Racial 
Names  of  the  Mediterranean  Family  -Method  of  the 



The  Cradle  of  the  Mediterranean  Stock— The  Il.imilcs. 





Libyans  on  Egyptian  Monuments— The  Evidence  of  Hero- 
dotus and  other  Classic  Writers — The  Berbers — Origin  of 
the  Libyans — The  Myth  of  Atlantis—  The  African  Blonds — 
Physical  Characters  of  the  Libyans. 


THE  EGYPTIANS          84 

The  African  Origin  of  the  Egyptians— The  Art  of  Writing — 
Physical  Anthropology  of  the  Egyptians. 

THE  WESTERN  LIBYANS         ...         ...         ...         ...     114 

Craniology  of  the  Ancient  Berbers— The  Physical  Char- 
acters of  the  Modern  Population. 


THE  CANARY  ISLANDS  ...         ...         ...         ...     128 

The  Origins  of  the  Canary  Population— Physical  Characters 
of  the  Population. 



The  Hittites— The  Armenoids  of  Lycia— Cyprus— The 





The  Invasion  of  Europe— The  Iberians— The  Ligurians— 
The  Pelasjjians— The  Italic  Problem— The  Etruscans. 



Current  opinions  regarding  the  first  inhabitants  of  Europe — 
Euroi>e  not  peopled  from  the  North— Homo  Neandcr- 





Great    Britain— France— Switzerland— Germany— Bohemia 
— Scandinavia — Russia. 

CHAPTER  xir. 

MINGLING      ..          233 

The    Euro|xran   Pigmies— The   Neolithic    Brachyccphals— 
The  End  of  the  Diffusion  and  the  New  Invaders  of  Europe. 




RANEAN AND  ALLIED  STOCKS    ...         ...        ...     247 

General   Physical   Characters— The    Eurafrican    Species — 
The  Eurasiatic  Species. 



IN  EUROPE          266 

Architecture  of  Tombs— Culture— Writing— Language. 




The  Early  Phase — The  New  Phase — Germanism — The  Alleged 
Homeric  Evidence— Cells  or  Lithuanians  f — The  Western 
Asiatic  Origin. 

The  Early  Phase. — Whenever  there  has  been  any 
attempt  to  explain  the  origin  of  civilisation  and  of 
the  races  called  Aryan,  whether  in  the  Mediterranean 
or  in  Central  Europe,  all  archaeologists,  linguists,  and 
anthropologists  have  until  recent  years  been  domi- 
nated by  the  conviction  that  both  civilisation  and 
peoples  must  have  their  unquestionable  cradle  in  Asia.  / 
It  is  well  known  that  this  conviction  has  been  largely 
determined  by  the  discovery  of  Sanscrit,  which  has 
served  as  a  foundation  for  the  comparative  study  of 
the  languages  called  Aryan,  Indo-European,  and  also 
Indo-Germanic.  Thus  "  Arya"  was  assumed  to  be  the 
centre  of  dispersion,  at  all  events  in  part,  according  to 
primitive  ideas  of  Biblical  source  transported  from  the 
valley  of  Mesopotamia  to  the  Hindu  Kusch,  and 
Europe  became  an  Asiatic  colony  into  which  civili- 
sation had  been  imported  together  with  its  population. 
I  need  not  refer  to  the  scientific  enthusiasm  pro- 



duced  by  the  study  of  Indian  books  and  of  com- 
parative philology,  nor  to  the  eminent  men  who 
employed  their  intellect  and  activity  in  building  up 
a  literature  which  honours  every  European  country. 
I  will  only  recall  that,  as  in  earlier  times  it  was 
believed  that  every  tongue  was  derived  from  Hebrew, 
so  it  was  now  believed  that  European  tongues,  with 
the  exception  of  a  few  classed  among  other  linguistic 
families,  were  all  derived  from  one  mother  tongue 
together  with  those  of  the  Asiatic  group;  and  it 
appeared  that  Sanscrit,  more  than  its  sister  tongues, 
inherited  the  maternal  characters  in  form  and  sound. 

It  was  not  long  before  these  principles  were  applied 
to  European  ethnology  and  anthropology.  Civilisa- 
tion was  supposed  to  come  from  Asia,  the  cradle  of 
the  Aryan  speech  and  people,  the  centre  of  dispersion 
of  European  nations.  European  peoples  in  various 
troops,  and  at  various  successive  periods,  had  set 
out  from  the  common  Asiatic  centre  and  established 
themselves  in  their  different  seats  in  Europe,  bearing 
with  them  a  common  patrimony  of  language  and 
civil  and  religious  institutions;  there  were  thus 
various  distinct  groups,  like  the  Italo-Greeks,  the 
Celts,  the  Letto-Slavs,  the  Germans,  originally  con- 
stituting a  single  people  with  the  Asiatic  group  of 

According  to  the  more  general  opinion,  the  Aryans 
had  invaded  Europe  from  east  to  west,  and  then  from 
north  to  south,  subjugating  the  primitive  and  savage 
peoples  they  met  with  in  the  course  of  their  occupa- 
tion. During  various  pauses,  of  different  length, 
before  reaching  their  final  destinations,  they  had 
begun  to  vary  and  diverge  in  language  and  other 
social  manifestations,  constituting  so  many  distinct 


varieties  of  the  original  single  stock.  The  Italo- 
(iivcks  would  thus  have  been  united  during  their 
t'ust  pause  in  Europe,  and  would  have  had  language, 
religion,  and  customs  in  common;  then  they  would 
have  separated  into  two  quite  distinct  groups,  occupy- 
ing their  definite  scats  in  the  two  peninsulas  of  the 
Mediterranean,  Italy  and  Greece,  where,  finally,  each 
group  would  have  become  a  distinct  and  charac- 
teristic people,  an  Aryan  variety. 

Thus  it  happened  that  Greeks  and  Italians  were 
two  distinct  peoples,  whose  common  origin  and  com- 
mon patrimony  of  language  and  civilisation  were 
concealed  by  the  appearance  of  new  and  special 
forms  arising  in  their  own  peculiar  seats.  The  same 
phenomenon  was  supposed  to  have  occurred  in  the 
case  of  the  other  European  groups,  Slavonic,  Celtic, 
and  Germanic,  and  of  the  Asiatic  or  Indo-Iranian 
groups.  All  these  peoples,  developing  separately,  and 
varying  in  their  development  according  to  region, 
became  strangers  to  each  other;  it  was  Sanscrit,  with 
the  scries  of  studies  to  which  it  gave  rise,  which  un- 
veiled the  intimate  relationship  between  languages  so 
diverse  and  peoples  so  remote.  Some,  like  Pick,  have 
even  wished  to  show  that  these  European  peoples  are 
only  a  single  people  with  many  languages,  which 
must  be  regarded  as  dialects  of  a  single  national 
tongue.  When  that  is  admitted,  the  two  classic 
peoples  of  antiquity,  Greeks  and  Latins,  are  essen- 
tially Aryans,  and  their  civilisation  is  wholly  of 
Aryan  character. 

Hut  Indo-Germanism  was  not  satisfied  with  these 
results,  which  \vcre  regarded  as  unquestionable;  it 
invaded  other  regions  and  peoples  at  first  excluded 
from  the  I nd<>- European  stock,  and  attempted  to 


reduce  the  ancient  relic  of  Iberian  language,  Basque, 
to  the  Aryan  root,  as  well  as  Armenian.  Nor 
was  that  enough:  a  language  which  appeared 
mysterious,  and  was  so  far  indecipherable,  must 
also  be  brought  into  the  Indo-Germanic  field,  and 
extraordinary  mental  efforts  (it  is  enough  to  refer  to 
Corssen)  were  made  to  reconstruct  Etruscan  grammar 
according  to  Aryan  morphology. 

Anthropology,  meanwhile,  investigating  the  physi- 
cal characters  of  European  peoples,  though  without 
studying  them  deeply  or  completely,  made  it  clear 
that  between  ancient  Italians,  Greeks,  Celts,  Ger- 
mans, and  Slavs  there  were  profound  and  character- 
istic differences  which  showed  clearly  that  they  could 
not  all  belong  together  to  the  same  human  root;  that 
there  might  be  linguistic  relationship  without  blood 
relationship,  and  that  various  peoples  might  have  a 
common  civilisation  without  having  a  common  origin. 
Thus  anthropology  sought  out  the  characteristics  of 
European  peoples  on  its  own  account,  independently 
of  linguistics  and  its  results;  but  on  coming  to  the 
study  of  origins  it  could  not  neglect  linguistic, 
archaeological,  and  historical  studies  as  auxiliaries 
to  its  own  efforts  as  regards  the  most  ancient  epochs 
of  humanity.  Falae-ethnology  and  palae-anthropology 
were  born  of  the  research  into  fossil  man  in  Europe  and 
elsewhere;  the  first  of  these,  especially,  soon  adapted 
itself  to  the  results  acquired  by  linguistics,  and  looked 
towards  the  east  as  the  cradle  of  European  peoples 
and  their  civilisation. 

/      Thus  Indo-Gcrmanism  led  to  almost  entire  forget- 

fulness  of  the  most  ancient  civilisations  of  the  earth, 

|  those  born  in  the  valleys  of  the  Euphrates  and  the 

r  Tigris,  and  in  the  valley  of  the  Nile;  no  influence  was 

THE   NEW   PHASE.  5 

granted  to  them  over  Greco- Roman  classic  civilisation, 
almost  none  anywhere  in  the  Mediterranean;  Asiatic 
Indians  were  sought  as  the  bearers  of  civilisation  in 
E&ypti  a"d  Indo-Germans  in  Northern  Africa  and 
Western  Asia. 

The  New  Phase. — This  enthusiastic  period  of 
Indo-Germanism  was  followed  by  another  period 
with  other  characters  which,  in  a  more  or  less 
modified  form,  has  lasted  to  the  present  day. 

When    it    was    recognised    that    the    peoples    of 
Aryan  tongue  and  civilisation   are   not   anthropolo- 
gically a  single  stock,  the   idea  arose   that   among 
these  one  must  represent  the  authentic  and  original 
Aryan  stock,  while  the  other  peoples  must  merely  /  - 
have  been  Aryanised,  receiving  their  language  and/ 
civilisation  from  the  first.     But  in  the  working  out  of 
this  inquiry,  and  the  special  and  general  investigations 
regarding  the  various  manifestations  of  Aryan  civili- 
sation, some  doubts  arose  among  linguists  and  philo- 
logists as  to  the  Asiatic  origin  of  the  European  stock  ;  / 
in  some,  indeed,  doubt   grew   to   a  conviction   that 
Asia  was  not  the  cradle  of  the  Aryans.      Latham, 
Benfey,   and   Geiger   were   the   first   to    think   of  a 
European  origin   for  the  Aryans.      To-day  the  old 
hypothesis  of  the  immigration  from  Asia  into  Europe  , 
is  still  maintained  by  a  few  of  the  eminent  original 
upholders  of  the  eastern  origin,  who,  like  Max  Miiller 
to  the  last,  are  unwilling  to  abandon  their  ancient 
convictions;  later  archaeologists  and  linguists,  philolo- 
gists and  palai-cthnologists,  have  supported  the  theory 
of  a  European  origin  with  keen  enthusiasm,  while 
among  anthropologists  there  is  either  doubt  or  tacit 

If    the    populations    speaking    Aryan    languages 


derived  from  one  people  with  one  mother  tongue 
constitute  distinct  families,  as  they  undoubtedly  do, 
which  is  the  Aryan  population,  or  the  genuine  Aryan 
stock,  in  which  the  movement  of  Aryan  civilisation 
arose  ?  What  do  the  other  populations  possessing 
Aryan  language  and  civilisation  represent?  Where 
is  the  centre  or  cradle  of  the  primitive  Aryan  stock  ? 
These  problems  closely  touch  the  populations  and 
civilisation  of  the  Mediterranean,  because  the  two 
classic  peoples  of  antiquity,  who  exerted  the  greatest 
influence  on  the  ancient  and  modern  worlds,  belong 
to  the  Mediterranean  ;  it  is  necessary,  therefore,  to 
discuss  these  problems,  at  all  events  briefly,  before 
coming  to  others  which  more  directly  concern  the 
Greek  and  Italian  peoples  and  their  civilisation. 

But  it  may  not  be  useless  to  point  out,  first  of  all, 
that  from  the  analytic  studies  and  criticisms  bearing 
on  the  Indo-European  linguistic  patrimony  a  fact 
emerges  which  is  worthy  to  be  noted,  since  it  seems 
to  me  to  be  of  capital  importance  in  the  solution  of 
the  anthropological  problems  of  Europe.  In  the 
early  days  of  the  study  of  the  Indo-European 
languages  it  was  accepted  as  a  demonstrated  fact 
that  the  vocabulary  of  all  the  Aryan  tongues  was 
common,  at  all  events  in  its  more  fundamental  parts, 
including  the  elementary  cognitions  useful  to  human 
life ;  that  all  the  elements  that  subserve  social  life, 
the  family,  primitive  religion,  inventions,  useful  arts, 
were  indicated  in  the  various  Indo-European  languages 
by  words  of  common  origin  ;  that  the  traditions  of 
the  common  country,  and  the  animals,  plants,  and 
metals  employed  in  primitive  conditions,  might  be 
read  in  the  spoken  or  written  linguistic  documents. 

But  all  this  common    patrimony  has   continually 

THE   NU\V    PHASE.  7 

diminished  when  subjected  to  criticism,  and  has  , 
been  reduced  to  a  few  elements.  Hence  it  appears — 
or  so  at  least  it  seems  to  me  that  we  must  interpret 
the  linguistic  phenomena — that  among  all  the  peoples 
of  Aryan  tongue  the  language  was  an  importation, 
learned  and  assimilated  by  each  people  according  to 
its  own  habitual  phonetic  conditions,  which  con- 
stituted the  physiological  laws  of  its  primitive 
pronunciation ;  whence  were  derived  change  and 
transformation  according  to  these  laws,  which  were 
different  for  each  people.  The  phenomenon  is  not 
new,  and  seems  to  me  precisely  similar  to  that 
produced  by  the  importation  of  the  Latin  tongue 
into  Gaul,  Spain,  and  other  countries,  where  the 
populations,  possessing  their  own  languages,  in 
assimilating  Latin  talked  it  as  the  phonetic  and 
physiological  conditionsof  their  own  tongue  demanded,/ 
— thus  giving  birth  to  the  various  Romance  tongues. 

At  this  distance  of  time  it  is  difficult  to  ascertain 
what  people  originally  possessed  the  Aryan  speech 
and  civilisation,  and  propagated  it  or  imposed  it  on 
other  European  peoples  of  different  physical  type. 
But  it  seems  to  me  impossible  to  admit  that  a  people 
among  whom  the  language  is  more  fragmentary  than 
in  others,  and  the  civilisation  still  in  a  rudimentary 
state,  can  have  been  that  which  originally  carried 
both  speech  and  civilisation  to  peoples  who  afterwards 
became  famous  in  history  for  their  political  and  civil 
greatness.  How  far  we  arc  to-day  from  those  posi- 
tions which  were  regarded  as  unquestionable  by  Pictct,  / 
Max  Miiller,  Hopp,  Pott,  and  others,  may  be  clearly 
seen  in  the  recent  works  of  Schradcr  and  others. 

Such  considerations  may  serve  to  show  that  these 
problems  are  not  simple  and   isolated,  but  various, 


complicated,  and  bound  together,  and  that  their 
solution  depends  on  the  united  and  convergent 
researches  of  ethnological  and  anthropological 
science;  archaeological  and  linguistic  investigations, 
carried  on  separately,  can  never,  in  my  opinion,  reach 
decisive  and  sure  results. 

The  second  phase  of  Indo-Germanism  is  therefore 
still  determined  by  the  fact  that  linguists  and 
historians,  ethnologists  and  anthropologists,  have 
entered  the  field  to  show  the  European  origin  of  the 
Aryan  stock,  although  the  name  Aryan  no  longer 
befits  a  people  having  origin  in  Europe.  The  more 
enthusiastic,  in  settling  this  great  problem,  have 
brought  together  in  a  compact  phalanx  all  the 
arguments  offered  by  archaeology,  linguistics,  and 
anthropology,  and  have  engaged  with  confidence  in 
the  struggle.  In  spite  of  the  divergence  of  results, 
both  as  regards  the  physical  type  of  the  primitive 
Aryan  stock  and  the  localisation  of  its  centre  of 
origin  and  dispersion,  many  agree  in  believing  that 
the  Aryan  peoples  of  the  Mediterranean,  the  Greeks 
and  Italians,  emigrated  into  their  two  peninsulas 
from  the  centre  or  the  north  of  Europe,  conquering 
and  subjugating  the  first  inhabitants,  to  whom  they 
imparted  their  speech  and  civilisation. 

It  may  be  useful  to  examine  some  of  the  argu- 
ments which  appear  a  convincing  demonstration  to 
those  who  are  unprepared  to  meet  them  or  surprised 
by  their  vivacity. 

Germanism. — I  mean  by  "  Germanism  "  the  theory 
which  attempts  to  prove  that  the  Germans  are  the 
primitive  Aryans;  Poschc  and  Pcnka l  are  the  boldest 

1  Th.  Posche,  Die  A>ier,  Jena,  1878;  C.  Fenka,  Die  Herknnft  der 
Aii'er,  Wicn,  l8S6. 


upholders  of  the  view  that  sees  the  fair  race  every- 
where. "  The  fair  race  is  found  from  the  Arctic 
Ocean  to  the  Sahara,  from  the  Atlantic  to  Lake 
Baikal  and  the  Indus;  the  southern  shore  of  the 
North  Sea  is  their  centre  of  diffusion;  there  is  the 
chief  station  of  the  fair  race;  and  from  these  shores 
of  the  Baltic  they  moved  in  all  directions."  Thus 
wrote  Posche;  but  Penka,  who  equally  recognised 
the  extension  of  the  fair  race,  only  found  it  as  an 
exception  in  regions  remote  from  the  centre  of  origin, 
and  sought  to  justify  the  rarity  of  the  type  by 
climatic  conditions  to  which  the  fair  Aryans  could 
not  adapt  themselves  and  so  disappeared.  If  this 
argument  may  in  some  degree  hold  good  for  extreme 
climates  like  those  of  Scandinavia  and  Africa, 
Central  and  Southern  Europe  and  India,  it  scarcely 
holds  good  for  the  difference  between  Central 
Europe  and  the  Mediterranean,  between  Germany, 
Italy,  and  Greece,  or  between  Bavaria,  Wurtemberg, 
Prussia,  and  the  Baltic  regions. 

The  fair  races  speaking  an  Indo-Germanic  tongue,  / 
like  the  Celts,  Germans,  and  Slavs,  wrote  Posche, 
have  subjugated  the  non  -  Indo-Germanic  brown 
races  and  imposed  their  language  and  civilisation 
upon  them;  even  though  the  fair  race  was  small  in 
number,  it  has  acted  in  the  same  manner  as  when 
"the  ancient  fair  Indo-Gcrmans  attacked  the  Finns, 
subjugated  them,  made  them  prisoners  by  thousands, 
reduced  them  to  slavery,  and  little  by  little  in- 
corporated them."  Thus  the  fair-haired  people,  a 
pure  Indo-Germanic  race  for  Posche,  Pcnka,  and 
others,  reached  Greece  and  Italy,  subjugated  their 
primitive  brown  populations,  and  gave  them  their 
own  Aryan  speech  and  civilisation.  In  Homer  and 


in  traditions  these  writers  believe  they  find  traces 
of  the  dominion  of  the  fair-haired  lords  of  these 

Thus  the  hypothesis  that  the  fair  race  is  the 
primitive  and  authentic  Aryan  race  is  more  than  a 
theory  for  these  writers ;  it  is  a  thesis,  and  the  proofs 
of  the  thesis  always  set  out  from  the  presupposition 
that  the  Aryans  are  fair.  Penka  also  maintains  that 
Scandinavia  has  been  the  cradle  and  centre  of 
diffusion  of  the  fair  race,  the  characteristics  of  which 
are  white  skin,  blue  eyes,  high  stature,  and  an  elon- 
gated or  dolichocephalic  head.  The  arguments  may 
be  summarised  in  the  following  propositions:  (i) 
the  type  of  the  inhabitants  of  Scandinavia  is  identical 
with  the  physical  type  of  the  pure  Aryans ;  (2)  this 
type  has  persisted  unchanged  in  that  peninsula  from 
prehistoric  times;  (3)  the  Aryan  type  is  identical  with 
the  palaeolithic  type  of  Central  Europe;  (4)  the  fauna 
and  flora  of  Scandinavia  are  in  harmony  with  linguis- 
tic results  as  to  the  place  of  origin  of  the  Aryans; 
(5)  the  Stone  Age  in  Scandinavia  corresponds  to 
the  culture  of  the  primitive  Aryan  race  before  its 

If  we  look  into  Penka's  arguments  we  soon  dis- 
cover that  between  two  of  them — the  persistence 
of  the  Scandinavian  type  and  the  identity  of  the 
Aryan  type  with  the  palaeolithic  type  of  Central 
Europe — there  is  no__agrcemcnt,  but  contradiction. 
The  Neanderthal  type  is  for  Penka  the  palaeolithic 
type;  now  between  this  and  the  Teutonic  dolicho- 
cephalic type,  which  for  German  authors  is  that  of 
the  Reihcngrabcr,  there  is  an  enormous  difference; 
one  might  even  say  an  abyss  lies  between  them. 
The  difference  is  so  great  that  Virchow  considers 


the  Neanderthal  skull  pathological,1  Davis  explained  | 
it  by  synostosis,  while,  indeed,  it  seems  to  me  normal  I 
only  because  it  is  found  at  Brux  and  at  Spy  in  un-  1 
changed  form,  without  pathological  signs.  It  would 
seem  that  for  Pcnka  dolichocephaly  is  enough  to 
show  the  identity  of  the  Quaternary  and  the  Germanic 
types,  but  in  that  case  all  dolichocephalic  skulls, 
even  Australian,  might  be  considered  Indo-Gcrmanic. 
Penka,  indeed,  feels  constrained  to  admit  develop- 
ment, and  the  transformation  of  the  Neanderthaloid 
type  into  the  Germanic,  which  contradicts  his 
principle  of  the  persistency  of  type,  accepted  for  the 
Scandinavian  type.  There  is,  however,  no  middle 
path.  Either  the  Scandinavian  type  is  the  per- 
sistent primitive  Aryan  type,  in  which  case  the 
palaeolithic  type  of  Central  Europe  is  not  Aryan, 
or  the  palaeolithic  type  is  primitive,  and  then  the 
Scandinavian  type  is  derived,  and  consequently  not 
persistent,  but  recent  There  is  another  fact  against 
Pcnka's  assertions,  i.e.,  the  contemporaneous  occur- 
rence of  the  untransformed  Aryan  Neanderthaloid 
type  with  the  transformed  Aryan  Scandinavian  type, 
if  it  is  true,  as  it  unquestionably  is,  that  the  two  forms 
still  persist.2 

Since,  however,  the  fact  of  the  persistence  of 
cranial  types  is  now  assured  in  anthropology,  and 
since  the  persistency  of  the  Neanderthal  type,  now 

1  On  the  ground  that  the  Neanderthal  skull,  as  well  as  the  other^ 
bones  of  the  skeleton,  revealed  a  numlwr  of  pathological  changes, 
Virchow  reached  the  conclusion  that  we  arc  here  in  presence  of  an  specimen  which  cannot  lie  regarded  as  typical  of  a  race  until 
confirmed  l>y  further  discoveries.  (Zfi/stAri/t  fiir  Ethnologie,  1872, 
p.  157;  also  i*.,  1894,  p.  427.) 

•  See  in  my  Sftde  e  Varicta  Umane;  "Cli  abitanti  piimilivi  di 
turopa,"  1900. 


rare  and  disappearing,  has  been  shown,  it  is  im- 
possible  to  admit  that  the  Aryan  type  is  palae- 
olithic in  the  sense  understood  by  Penka. 

But  let  us  examine  more  closely  the  so-called 
Germanic  type,  which  ought  to  be  fair,  of  high 
stature,  with  blue  eyes,  and  elongated  head.  Let 
us  see  how  it  js  distributed  in  its  own  country,  in 
Germany  and  the  neighbouring  regions,  which  are 
now  Germanic  lands.  In  order  to  be  brief,  I  will 
simply  transcribe  the  exact  summary  of  the  labours 
of  German  anthropologists  made  by  Moschen,  when 
speaking  of  the  modern  population  of  Germany  with 
special  reference  to  the  origin  of  the  Trentine  popula- 
tion1:— "The  old  doctrine  of  the  dolichocephaly  of 
the  modern  Germans  had  already  been  attacked  by 
Welcker,2  who  summed  up  the  results  of  his  researches 
on  this  subject  in  the  following  words :  '  The  modern 
Germans  are  in  part  brachycephalic,  in  part  ortho- 
cephalic,  never  (speaking  here  of  averages)  dolicho- 
cephalic;' and  he  added  that  'if  the  primitive 
Germanic  stock  was  dolichocephalic,  we  must  say 
that  the  Germans  of  old  Germanic  stock  are  only 
found  in  insignificant  numbers  in  Germany.'  Later 
researches  have  shown  that  the  present  populations 
of  southern  Germany  are  in  great  part  brachycephals, 
among  whom  mesocephals  are  rare  and  dolichocephals 
quite  isolated.  Only  in  Central  and  Northern  Germany 
are  dolichocephals  found  more  or  less  numerously,  and 
they  only  become  prevalent  in  the  extreme  north, 
in  Denmark  and  Sweden.  Let  us  examine  a  few 

1  "I  Caratteri  fisici  e  le  oiigini  dei  Trentini,"  Arch,  per 
P Aiitropologiat  Florence,  1892. 

8  Ueber  IVachsthum  und  Ban  des  Mcnschlichen  Schadels,  Leipzig, 
1862,  p.  65;  and  "  Kran.  Mitlheilungen,"  in  Archiv  fur  Anlh., 
lid.  i.,  1866,  pp.  149-150. 


figures.  In  the  Tyrol,  Holl1  has  found  among  1820 
skulls  examined  in  various  valleys  only  33  dolicho- 
ccphals,  representing  1.8  per  cent,  while  the  meso- 
cephals  arc  in  a  proportion  of  14.9  per  cent,  and  the 
brachyccphals  (with  the  hyper-brachycephals)  in  that 
of  83.2  per  cent;  while  Ranke2  found  among  100 
skulls  of  Antcrium,  near  Bolzano,  no  dolichocephals, 
IO  mesocephals,  and  90  brachycephals ;  and  among 
100  skulls  of  the  valley  of  Eno,  near  Innsbruck,  again 
no  dolichocephals,  23  mesocephals,  and  77  brachy- 
cephals. In  upper  and  lower  Austria  and  in  the 
Salzburg  district,  Zuckerkandl3  measured  300  skulls  ; 
the  dolichocephals  were  in  the  proportion  of  2.7 
per  cent.,  the  mesocephals  23  per  cent,  and  the 
brachycephals  74.3  per  cent  In  southern  Bavaria, 
of  some  100  skulls  measured  by  Ranke,  the  dolicho- 
cephals were  in  the  minute  proportion  of  0.8  per 
cent,  the  mesocephals  16.3  per  cent.,  the  brachy- 
cephals 82.9  per  cent.4  In  southern  Baden,  of 
100  modern  skulls  of  which  Ecker  has  published 
measurements,  there  were  no  dolichocephals,  and 
the  brachycephals  were  in  the  proportion  of  84 
per  cent6  In  northern  Bavaria,  Ranke  measured 
250  skulls,  of  which  12  per  cent  were  dolicho- 
cephals, 20  per  cent  mesocephals,  and  68  per 
cent,  brachyccphals.  In  Fricsland,  Virchow  found 
1 8  per  cent,  dolichocephals,  51  per  cent  mcso- 

1  "  Ueber   die   im   Tirol   vorkommenden   Schiidelformen,"    Alitth. 
Ant  hi  of.  GeselL  \V>en,  Bd.  xv.,  Heft  2. 

*  Beitrdf^e  :i/r  fhys.  Anthrop.  der  Hayern"  Milnchen,  1883,  p.  94, 
tab.  \i.-\ii. 

*  "Beitriige  zur  Craniologie  der   Deutschen   in  Oesterr,"   Mitth. 
A  nth.  (Jesell.  ll'ien,  1883. 

*  flfifniff,  etc.,  pp.  22-23. 

8  Cran/'a  tiermanitt  merid.  ofdd.%  Freiburg,  1865. 


ccphals,  and  31  per  cent,  brachycephals.  Among  83 
Danish  skulls  Schmidt  found  57  per  cent,  dolicho- 
cephals,  37  per  cent,  mesocephals,  and  5  per  cent, 
brachycephals.  According  to  Retzius1  and  Ecker,2 
dolichocephaly  predominates  among  the  modern 
Swedes,  in  every  respect  agreeing  with  the  skulls 
of  the  ancient  Franks  of  the  Reihengraber." 

From  the  statistics  of  colour  of  hair  and  eyes  in 
Austria,  Switzerland,  and  Germany,3  it  appears  that 
"  the  brown  area  extends  from  the  west  of  Austria 
through  Switzerland  (fair  n.i  per  cent.,  brown  25.7 
per  cent.),  Bavaria,  Wurtemberg,  Baden,  and  Alsace- 
Lorraine,  hence  in  all  southern  Germany,  where  the 
frequency  of  blonds  varies  from  18.4  to  24.5  percent, 
and  of  brunets  from  25.2  to  19.2  per  cent.  In 
central  Germany  the  blonds  gradually  increase  in 
a  northerly  direction,  varying  from  25.3  to  32.5  per 
cent,  while  the  brunets  gradually  diminish  in  the 
same  direction,  varying  from  18.22  to  13.2  per  cent 
It  is  only  in  northern  Germany  that  the  blonds 
decidedly  predominate,  varying  from  33.5  to  433 
per  cent,  while  the  brunets  vary  between  12. 1  and 
6.9  per  cent"  In  the  whole  German  empire,  according 
to  Virchow's  statistics,  the  blonds  are,  on  the  average, 
31.8  per  cent,  the  brunets  14.05  per  cent,  and  the 
mixed  type  54  1 5  per  cent. 

1  "  Ueber  die  Schadelformen  der  Nordbewohnern,"  Eth.  Schrijteit, 
Stockholm,  1864.  pp.  1-24. 

2  Of.  fit.,  pp.  30-91. 

3  "  Gcsammtl>ericht    iiber    die   von   der  deutschcn   anthr.   Gescll. 
veranlassten  Erhebungen  iil>er  die  Farbe  der  Haut,  der  Haare  und  dor 
Augen,"    etc.,    Aichiv  f.    Anthr.,    xvi  ,    1886,    von    R.     Virchow  ; 
Kollmann,    "Die   statist.    Erhebunjjcn,"   etc.,    Deukschriflen    Gesell. 

fitr  Natiirwiss.,  xxviii.,  Basel,  1881  ;  Schimmer,  "  Erhelmngen  iil>er 
die  Farbe,  etc.,  bei  den  Schulkindern  Oesterreichs/'  Mitth.  Anlhr. 
Gesell.  'Wien,  1884. 


It  is  worth  while  to  consider  some  of  Virchow's 
opinions,  concerning  facts  of  so  much  weight,  both 
regarding  the  physical  characters  of  the  skull  and  the 
external  characters  of  colour  of  skin,  eyes,  and  hair. 
At  the  Congress  of  German  Anthropologists  at 
Dresden  in  1874,  Virchow  spoke  regarding  the  ex- 
tension of  brachycephalic  skulls  in  historical  and  prc- 
historical  times.1  He  discussed  a  Finnic  theory 
which  he  seemed  disposed  to  accept,  and  he  formu- 
lated the  problem  as  follows :  "  Can  we  anywhere 
find  traces,  either  in  ancient  or  modern  times,  of  a 
Finnic  population,  and  are  the  Finnic  or  Lapponic 
types,  or,  as  is  said  in  France,  the  Esthonic,  those  that 
stand  at  the  basis  of  the  development  of  the  actual 
population  ?  "  At  the  end  of  a  long  discussion  Vir-  ' 
chow  was  disposed  to  admit  that  the  Finns -have 
contributed  to  the  brachyccphaly  of  the  north  and 
the  Ligurians  to  that  of  the  south.  A  little  later, 
discussing  in  a  special  work1  the  facts  of  German 
anthropology,  he  said :  "  No  one  has  proved  that  all  { 
Germans  possess  the  same  cranial  form,  or,  in  other  )  / 
words,  that  they  formed  a  single  nation,  like  the  more 
pure  type  that  we  see  among  the  Suevi  and  the 
Franks."  He  admits,  that  is,  that  various  types  have 
formed  the  Germanic  people.  At  the  Congress  of 
Karlsruhe,  in  1885,  he  again  expressed  his  opinion 
when  presenting  the  results  of  the  inquiry  into  colour 
of  hair  and  eyes.3  In  order  to  explain  the  large 
proportion  of  bruncts  in  Germany  he  proposes  three 
hypotheses:  (i)  two  stocks  entered  Germany,  one 

1  Anhivf.  Anthrof>.,  \V\.  vii. 

a  Htilriige  zur  physiichtn  Anlhrof>.  der  Deutsthen,  clc.,  Ik-ilin,  1877, 
p.  36  »• 

minilberichl,"  etc  ,  Axhiv  f.  Anffi.,  xvi.,  1886. 


fair,  the  other  dark,  so  that  the  population  was  mixed 
from  the  first ;  this  theory  he  does  not  accept ;  (2) 
the  fair  was  transformed  by  Darwinian  methods ;  but 
this  transformation  is  not  possible,  because  there  is 
not  sufficient  difference  of  physical  conditions  be- 
tween northern  and  southern  Germany  to  produce 
such  a  change  ;  it  is  known  that  other  German 
anthropologists,  such  as  Holl1  and  Ranke,2  have 
mistakenly  admitted  such  a  possibility;  (3)  there  has 
been  a  varied  and  continuous  mixture  of  types 
belonging  to  various  populations.  Virchow  believes 
that  mixture  can  establish  a  race,  that  a  fair  popula- 
tion can  become  dark  by  mixture,  and  vice  versd. 
Thus  the  Celts  had  much  influence ;  we  know,  he 
says,  that  where  the  Celts  entered  the  population  is 
dark  ;  "  I  am  prepared  to  believe,"  he  adds,  "  that 
the  primitive  Celtic,  like  the  primitive  Italic,  popula- 
tion was  not  formed  of  blond  but  of  brunet  Aryans." 

These  doubts  and  difficulties  expressed  by  Virchow 
concerning  the  minority  of  the  fair  dolichocephalic 
race  in  Germany  suffice  to  show  how  fantastic  are  the 
easy  demonstrations  of  Posche  and  Penka.  Virchow 
himself  asks  if  the  supposed  authentic  German  type 
is  not  disappearing.  And  these  two  authors  wish  to 
show  that  this  is'  what  is  happening.  Penka,  as  I  ; 
have  said,  believes  that  the  pure  Germanic  type  has 
diminished  in  Germany,  and  is  only  exceptionally 
found  in  southern  Europe,  in  Italy  and  Greece, 
because  it  has  not  withstood  the  climate  of  those 
regions.  We  may  leave  aside  Italy  and  Greece,  the 
climate  of  which  is  not  liable  to  destroy  the  Germanic 
or  any  other  race  ;  if,  however,  we  consider  Germany 

1  "  Ueber  die  im  Tirol,"  etc.,  of.  cif. 

2  Beitriige,  etc.,  op.  fit.,  p.  123. 


itself  we  cannot  reasonably  grant  that  the  climate  of 
Bavaria  and  Wurtcmbcrg  is  not  adapted  to  the  Ger- 
manic race,  and  I  need  not  contest  so  improbable  a 

It  seems  to  me  that  the  existence  of  ji  pure  Gcr-^ 
manic  stock  cannot  be  demonstrated,  whether  in 
prehistoric  or  in  protohistoric  times.  We  do  not  find 
in  Germany  a  pure  dolichocephalic  race,  tall,  fair, 
numerous,  diffused  widely  throughout  Europe  ;  we 
find  instead  a  mixed  population  of  varying  type  in 
all  the  prehistoric  graves  of  German  territory. 

Von  Holder,  the  author  of  a  work  on  Wurtembcrg 
skulls   which   is  of   fundamental  importance  in    the 
study  of  Teutonic  anthropology,1  has  found  a  series 
of  the  most  diverse  types,  Germanic,  Turanian,  Sar- 
matian,   pure   and    mixed,   in    his   opinion,  with   no 
predominant  Germanic  type.     Lissauer  finds  a  mix- 
ture of  forms  among  ancient  Prussian  skulls,  while 
Virchow,  who  has  examined  a  vast  number  of  skulls! 
from  old   Germanic  graves,  finds  the  most   varying  1 
shapes  among  the  primitive  population  of  Germanic  I 

Why,  then,  affirm  that  the  dolichocephalic  type  is 
disappearing,  or  has  disappeared,  when  in  reality  it 
has  never  predominated  on  Germanic  soil?  Virchow 
never  said  a  truer  thing  when  he  affirmed  that  the 
Germans  have  shown  various  types  of  skulls  from  the 
first,  and  were  never  a  homogeneous  nation  with  a 

1  /.nsaiHmtns!tllnn;  tier  /'//  Wiirteinberg  vorkommcthien  SchaJel- 
fomifn,  Stuttgart,  1876. 

*  Cf.  ZtituMftfSr  Ethnologic,  IM.  x.,  Lissauer,  "Crania  Prussica," 
iml.  cef.  63-86;  Bel.  xii.,  Virchow,  "  Altc  Berliner  Schatlel,"  incl.  cef. 
78-86;  it/.,  "  Schiidel  von  Ncuesta«Iter  J-'cMc,"  ind.  cef.  68-85;  xiii  , 
i'./.,  "  Schiitlel  von  Kirlia  (Thuring.),"  ind.  cef.  80-86;  /'</.,  "  \..n 
Spanil.iu,"  iml.  cef.  78.6  83,  etc. 



pure  type  that  might  be  found  among  the  Suevi  and 
the  Franks.  I  believe  that  I  am  in  the  right,  since  my 
opinion  is  founded  on  anthropological  and  historical 
data,  when  I  affirm  that  at  their  origin  the  Germans 
were  not  a  distinct  people  from  the  Celts  or  from  the 
Slavs,  with  both  of  whom  they  were  always  united 
and  often  confused.  The  Franks  of  the  fifth  century 
were  a  northern  people,  less  mixed  in  earlier  times, 
and  hence  appearing  somewhat  more  uniform  in  the 
graves  of  the  Rhine  district  at  a  rather  late  epoch. 

The  Alleged  Homeric  Evidence. — These  brief  con- 
siderations seem  to  me  to  be  sufficient  to  show  that 
since  it  is  difficult  to  find  the  Germans  in  their  own 
home  we  cannot  expect  to  find  them  as  an  Aryan 
stock  in  Greece  and  Italy,  subjugating  the  dark 
populations  and  creating  the  two  great  Mediter- 
ranean civilisations,  Hellenic  and  Latin,  also  called 
Aryan  ;  still  less  can  we  connect  them  with  the  more 
ancient  Mycenaean  or  yEgean  civilisation,  as  it  is 
to-day  called.  ,The  disappearance  of  the  Germanic 
type  among  the  Mediterranean  populations,  assumed 
by  Penka,  is  a  necessity  imposed  by  the  fact  that  this 
type  is  sought  in  vain  where  it  is  supposed  to  have 
dominated,  except  as  a  sporadic  element  easy  to 
explain  through  the  course  of  ages  by  the  immigra- 
tion of  races  or  families  or  individuals. 

But  I  cannot  pass  in  silence  the  supposed  testimony 
to  the  presence  of  the  fair  type  in  Greece,  and  to  its 
superiority  over  the  darker  population,  furnished  by 
the  Homeric  poems,  in  which,  it  is  affirmed,  the 
heroes  and  gods  are  described  as  of  the  fair  type 
with  blue  eyes.  I  have  made  a  special  investigation 
into  this  point  and  here  present  the  results. 

In    Homer    Athena   is  glankopis;    glaukos  means 


blue,  like  the  sea  and  the  unclouded  sky;  it  is  also 
equivalent  to  phoberos,  terrible  (of  the  eyes);  the 
olive  is  glaukos  also,  and  Athena  is  the  guardian 
of  the  olive;  it  also  means  shining,  and  is  said  of 
the  dawn  and  the  stars.  In  Athena's  case  glaitkopis 
means  that  her  eyes  are  brilliant  and  terrible. 
Empedocles  uses  glaukopis  of  the  moon,  and  it  is 
even  doubtful  if  in  Homer  it  ever  means  blue. 

Apollo  in  Homer  is  c/irysaoros,  that  is  to  say 
bearing  a  golden  sword;  the  title  of  "fair"  is  later; 
xant/ws  is  never  used  of  Apollo  in  Homer,  and  if 
he  were  fair  it  would  be  like  the  sun.  Apollo  with 
golden  hair,  chrysokoman,  is  found  in  Euripides 
and  Athenaeus,  as  "  fair  Dionysus  "  is  found  also  in 
Euripides,  that  is  to  say  at  a  much  later  time. 
Xanthos  means  a  reddish  fairness,  and  also  brown. 
Artemis  is  eustefhanos;  there  is  nothing  as  to  being 

Aphrodite  is  chryse,  golden,  that  is  to  say,  brilliant, 
splendid,  not  fair. 

Demeter  is  xantlie,  fair,  it  is  true,  but  we  must 
remember  that  Demeter  (Ceres)  is  the  symbol  of 
harvest,  fair  like  the  spike  of  corn,  as  of  Poseidon 
(Neptune),  who  is  kyanochaites,  that  is  to  say  with 
bluish,  blackish,  even  black  hair,  like  the  dark  and 
deep  waves  of  ocean;  kyanos  is  black,  blue-black, 
violet,  in  Homer  sometimes  blacker  than  melas. 
In  Demeter,  therefore,  the  title  of  fair  is  only  a 
symbol  for  the  colour  of  harvest. 

Eos,  the  dawn,  is  c/irysothronos,  riwdodaktyhs> 
krokopeplos,  because  the  colour  of  dawn  is  golden, 
rosy,  and  red. 

Thetis,  on  the  other  hand,  is  argyropeza,  i.e.,  with 
silver  feet,  the  foaming  wavelets  of  the  sea. 


Hera  (Juno)  is  chrysotlironos,  leukolenos,  ettkoinos, 
and  Kalypsos  is  only  eitkouios ;  neither  is  fair. 

Achilles,  however,  is  xantJios  like  Rhaclamanthus; 
but  xantJios  means  not  only  fair,  but  also  chestnut, 
brown,  and  bees  are  xanthai. 

It  results  from  this  analysis  that  in  Homer  none 
of  the  divinities  arc  fair  in  the  ethnographic  sense 
of  the  word;  only  Achilles  and  Rhadamanthus 
might  be  considered  fair  if  we  accept  the  word 
xantJios  in  its  later  sense.  No  other  hero  is  described 
as  fair. 

In  regard  to  the  Homeric  expressions  in  heroic 
narratives  relating  to  the  men  of  a  previous  age 
confronted  with  contemporaries,1  no  one  can  fail 
to  recognise  that  it  is  always  usual  to  magnify  past 
times  and  celebrated  heroes. 

The  Romans  had  also  their  Flavi,  which  indicates 
that  fair  persons  were  uncommon,  and  required  a 
special  name,  but  does  not  indicate  that  the  Ger- 
manic type  was  considered  aristocratic  or  dominant. 

I  could  bring  forward  a  wealth  of  facts  to  show 
that  what  I  have  just  stated  regarding  the  anthro- 
pological characters  of  the  Homeric  gods  and  heroes 
may  also  be  said,  and  with  more  reason,  of  the  types 
of  Greek  and  Rornan  statuary  which,  though  in  the 
case  of  divinities  they  may  be  conventionalised,  do 
not  in  the  slightest  degree  recall  the  features  of  a 
northern  race;*  in  the  delicacy  of  the  cranial  and 
facial  forms,  in  smoothness  of  surface,  in  the  absence 
of  exaggerated  frontal  bosses  and  supra-orbital  arches, 
in  the  harmony  of  the  curves,  in  the  facial  oval,  in 
the  rather  low  foreheads,  they  recall  the  beautiful  and 
harmonious  heads  of  the  brown  Mediterranean  race. 

1  Iliad,  v.  304,  xii.  583,  xx.  287. 

'  BLTS    OK    LITHUANIANS?  21 

\Yinkclmami  noted  the  correspondence  between  the 
types  of  Italian  art  and  the  population,  and  wrote 
that  in  the  finest  districts  of  Italy  one  met  few  of 
tlu'-c  roughly  outlined  faces  of  uncertain  or  defective 
expression  such  as  are  met  so  often  on  the  other  side 
of  the  Alps;  on  the  contrary,  the  features  are  distinct 
and  vivacious,  and  the  forms  of  the  face  large  and 
full,  with  all  the  features  in  harmony.1 

Thus  we  are  not  able  to  see  any  sound  evidence 
in  the  Greek  and  Latin  peoples  to  indicate  that  a 
northern  race  dominated  the  two  peninsulas  in  primi- 
tive times;  the  idea  is  an  illusion  of  Indo-Germanism. 

Celts  or  Lithuanians  ? — As  a  variant  of  Indo-Gcr- 
manism  we  are  confronted  by  Ccltism,  maintained 
chiefly  by  the  French,  as  a  reaction  against  the 
theory  of  the  superiority  and  supremacy  of  the  blond 
Germanic  type.  Mortillct,  Ujfalvy,  and  others,  have 
maintained  that  the  bearers  of  European  neolithic 
civilisation  were  the  Celtic  brachyccphals,  not  the 
German  dolichoccphals ;  and  Ujfalvy  has  justly  ' 
observed  that  the  superiority  of  a  race  consists 
not  merely  in  physical  energy  and  restlessness,  but 
in  pre-eminence  of  mental  faculty,  showing  itself  in 
artistic  and  intellectual  genius,  as  in  the  Greeks  and 
Latins.  I  would  add  that  a  race  cannot  even  be  said 
to  be  physically  superior  if  it  is  unable  to  resist  the 
mild  climate  of  the  Mediterranean,  but  disappears  as 
required  by  Pcnka's  theory. 

This  opinion  coincides,  in  great  part,  with  that 
of  Taylor,  who  contests  the  right  of  the  blond 
dolichocephalic  Germanic  stock  to  represent  the 
original  Aryan  race  which  bore  language  and  civilisa- 
tion to  other  peoples.  Taylor,  indeed,  contests  that 

1  Ctichichte  tfer  A'misf,  Stuttgart,  1847,  vol.  i.,  Bk.  i.,  p.  33. 


right  also  to  the  Celts,  but  he  concedes  much  to  them 
since  he  regards  brachycephaly  as  a  character  of  great 

He  maintains  that  the  Lithuanians,  whom  he 
f  believes,  not  quite  accurately,  to  be  brachycephalic, 
are  the  authentic  primitive  Aryans,  and  that  from 
them  the  Celto-Latins  received  their  language,  and 
with  it  the  Aryan  civilisation.  His  arguments  are  in 
large  part  linguistic,  but  also  ethnological  and  anthro- 
pological. He  believes  he  has  proved  that  the 
neolithic  population  of  the  pile-dwellings  of  southern 
Germany  and  Switzerland  and  northern  Italy  may 
be  identified  with  the  brachycephalic  ancestors  of 
the  race  he  calls  Celto-Latin. 

To  maintain  this  position  it  was  necessary  to 
create  an  anthropological  theory,  and  this  Canon 
Taylor  has  done.  He  assumes  that  the  Ligurians 
are  brachycephalic,  as  indeed  is  still  erroneously 
believed  by  German  and  French  anthropologists; 
Romans  and  Umbrians,  most  of  the  Italic  popula- 
tion, together  with  the  Hellenic  stock,  are  declared 
to  be  brachycephalic.  According  to  Taylor,  the 
brachycephals  are  the  superior  race  ;  thus  he  writes  : 
— "  Virchow,  Broca,  and  Calori  agree  that  the  brachy- 
cephalic or  '  Turanian '  skull  is  a  higher  form  than 
the  dolichocephalic.  The  most  degraded  of  existing 
races,  such  as  the  Australians,  Tasmanians,  Papuas, 
Veddahs,  Negroes,  Hottentots,  and  Bosjemen,  as  well 
as  the  aboriginal  forest  tribes  of  India,  are  typically 
dolichocephalic ;  while  the  Burmese,  the  Chinese, 
the  Japanese,  and  the  natives  of  Central  Europe 
are  typically  brachycephalic.  The  fact  that  the 

1  Isaac  Taylor,   The  Origin  of  the  Aryans,  Contemporary  Science 
/     Series,  London,  1889. 


Accadians,  who  belonged  to  the  Turanian  race,  had, 
some  7000  years  ago,  attained  a  high  stage  of 
culture,  from  which  the  civilisation  of  the  Semites 
was  derived,  is  a  fact  which  makes  it  more  probable 
that  the  language  and  civilisation  of  Europe  was 
derived  from  the  brachycephalic  rather  than  from 
the  dolichocephalic  race"1  Now,  all  this  is  fanciful, 
and  it  is  not  necessary  to  confute  it ;  moreover,  the 
Latins  and  other  Italic  peoples,  the  Greeks  and 
the  Egyptians,  are  for  the  most  part  dolichocephalic. 
I  remember  that  shortly  after  the  publication  of  his 
book,  Canon  Taylor  visited  me  at  the  Gabinetto  di 
Antropologia  ;  I  had  not  yet  overcome  the  surprise 
produced  by  a  book  in  which — however  valuable  it  may 
be  in  other  respects — the  facts  were  on  this  point  so 
changed,  and  I  led  him  into  the  Museum  and  showed 
him  the  ancient  Roman  and  Etruscan  heads,  for  the 
most  part  dolichocephalic,  and  then  conducted  him 
to  the  Prehistoric  Museum  to  point  out  that  in  the 
Ligurian  skeletons  of  Finalmarina  the  heads  are 
elongated  and  not  brachycephalic.  He  was  surprised, 
but  I  do  not  know  if  he  was  convinced,  for  those  who 
are  not  accustomed  to  the  direct  observation  of  facts 
arc  more  impressed  by  ideas,  especially  when  on 
these  ideas  they  have  erected  an  elaborate  edifice. 
In  this  respect  Taylor  has  surpassed  Posche  and 

The  Western  Asiatic  Origin.  —  Archaeologists,  it 
seems  to  me,  reveal  a  defect  in  their  methods  for 
investigating  the  origins  and  diffusion  of  a  civilisation 
when  they  take  little  or  no  account  of  the  physical 
characters  of  the  peoples  among  whom  the  civilisation 
is  found ;  historians  maintain  the  same  defect,  and 

1  Origin  of  the  Aryans,  p.  241. 


both  alike  arc  content  with  ethnic  names  and  pass 
over  the  physical  characters  of  nations,  or  else  trust 
to  language,  most  often  a  deceptive  method  of  recog- 
nising a  race  or  a  people.  The  difficulties  surrounding 
the  question  of  the  origin  and  diffusion  of  the  ALgean 
or  Mycenaean  civilisation  becomes  greater  when  we 
are  ignorant  of  the  race  that  produced  it,  its  exten- 
sion, origin,  and  dispersion.  To  believe  that  two 
peoples  belong  to  two  different  stocks  because  they 
have  different  languages  and  unlike  civilisations  is 
often  a  mistake ;  and  to  believe  that  two  peoples  are 
of  the  same  stock  because  their  languages  and  civilisa- 
tions are  similar  or  related  may  also  be  a  mistake. 
The  Mediterranean  is  a  sphinx  with  various  faces, 
and  to  solve  its  enigma  we  need  to  know  the  stock  or 
stocks  that  have  peopled  it. 

I  shall  attempt  the  anthropological  solution  of  this 
enigma  in  the  following  pages.  It  may  first,  however, 
be  well  to  refer  to  a  recent  dogmatic  attempt  to  solve 
this  problem  which  shows  how  necessary  it  is  that  all 
the  scientific  methods,  ethnographical,  archaeological, 
anthropological,  linguistic,  as  well  as  geographical, 
should  converge  in  the  solution  of  the  problem  of  the 
origin  and  diffusion  of  Mediterranean  civilisation.  I 
refer  to  the  attempt,  of  Padre  Cesare  de  Cara  in  his 
work  on  the  Hethei-Felasgi.1  The  chief  object  of 
this  investigation  is  to  show  that  a  very  ancient 
people,  neither  of  Aryan  nor  Semitic  origin,  from  time 
immemorial  occupied  Syria  and  Asia  Minor,  and 
thence  in  various  successive  migrations  peopled 
Greece  and  Italy,  bearing  with  them  their  own  native 
civilisation  as  it  existed  in  Asia  and  afterwards  in 

1  Gli  Ilelhii-rdasgi:  Ricenhe  di  Sloria  e  di  Archcologia  Orientah, 
Greca  ed  Italiaiia,  Rome,  1894. 


the  yEgean.  This  is  the  Pelasgic  people  of  ancient 
history  and  Greco-Italian  tradition,  in  Asia  Minor 
and  Syria,  Eteo,  Hctheo,  or  Hittite,  as  it  is  variously 
written;  thus  the  Hetheo-Pelasgic  people  would  be  a 
single  stock  with  two  names,  one  Asiatic  and  primi- 
tive, Khatti,  Khcti,  Hcthei,  as  it  was  known  to  the 
Assyro-Babylonians,  the  Egyptians,  and  the  Hebrews, 
corresponding  to  its  national  name  in  its  own  tongue; 
the  other  name  derived  and  in  a  Greek  form,  signify- 
ing wandering  or  colonial  Hethei.  Early  Greek  and  1 
Italian  civilisation  would  thus  be  born  in  Western  , 
Asia  and  exported  by  the  primitive  Hethei  in  their  ' 
migration.  This  people,  or  rather  confederation  of 
peoples  in  this  author's  opinion,  possessing  a  vast 
dominion  not  only  in  Asia  Minor  up  to  the  Euphrates, 
but  in  Colchis,  the  Euxine,  in  Scythia,  would  be 
neither  Aryan  nor  Semitic,  but  Hamitic,  having  a  / 
common  origin  with  the  Egyptians  and  Babylonians, 
both  of  Hamitic  origin  according  to  this  author,  like 
many  African  peoples.  They  would  have  possessed 
neither  Semitic  language  nor  civilisation,  and  would 
have  alike  preceded  the  Semites  in  Phoenicia,  thus 
being  pre- Phoenician,  and  the  Hellenes  in  Greece. 
Accepting  this  centre  of  diffusion,  the  author  stops  at 
the  Italian  peninsula,  when  he  finds  the  Pelasgians, 
and  goes  no  further  westward  to  the  Iberian 
peninsula.  Pelasgic  traditions  stop  there  also,  and 
other  racial  names  are  found,  Ligurian  and  Iberian, 
as  in  northern  Africa  the  Libyans,  a  people  belong- 
ing, as  we  shall  sec,  to  the  primitive  Mediterranean 
stock.  Thus  De  Cara's  study  docs  not  suffice  to 
give  any  explanation  of  the  civilisation  which  \\x 
find  in  primitive  days  to  the  west  of  Italy  and  in 
northern  Africa,  nor  of  the  origin  of  the  people  in 


these  regions,  where  the  author  does  not  appear  to 
find  the  Hethei-Pelasgi.  He  reaches  his  conclusions 
by  the  study  of  the  recent  discoveries  in  the  Asiatic 
/  East  and  in  Egypt,  as  well  as  of  the  recent  discovery, 
in  Troy,  Cyprus,  and  Crete,  of  pre-Hellenic  Greece 
and  prehistoric  Italy;  he  places  all  this  wealth  of 
archaeological  knowledge  in  relationship  with  the 
historical  traditions  and  the  mythologies  of  the 
ancient  Greek  and  Latin  writers  and  with  the  in- 
scriptions on  the  Egyptian  monuments,  recording  the 
peoples  with  whom  the  Egyptians  came  in  contact. 
In  all  this  De  Cara  shows  wonderful  intellectual 
ability,  unusual  courage  in  the  interpretation  of 
Hittite  monuments,  and,  above  all,  a  method  which, 
I  believe,  will  be  of  great  use  in  the  future  in  the 
interpretation  of  the  Hittite  language — that  is  to  say, 
the  comparison  of  what  is  believed  to  be  the  Hittite 
language  with  ancient  Egyptian  as  two  branches  of 
the  same  stock,  which  he  calls  Hamitic.  Thus  he 
attempts  to  explain  all  the  names  of  towns,  rivers, 
districts  in  Asia  Minor,  now  Grecianised,  not  by  com- 
parison with  Aryan  or  Semitic  languages,  but  with 
Egyptian.  Frequently  the  explanation  seems  suc- 
cessful, in  other  cases  forced  ;  although  it  is  probable 
that  he  has  often  abused  etymological  resem- 
blance, it  seems  to  me  that  he  has  opened  the  right 
road,  and  that  he  has  revealed  the  method  of  de- 
ciphering the  mysteries  of  Mediterranean  ethnography. 
Indo-Germanism,  however,  receives  a  heavy  blow,  in 
my  opinion,  in  so  far  as  it  is  the  theory  hitherto 
adopted  to  interpret  the  most  ancient  civilisation  of 
the  Mediterranean  basin. 

But  among  the  great  difficulties  which  De  Cara  has 
to  overcome  in  maintaining  that  the   Hittitcs  have 


appeared  from  the  cast,  bearing  their  original  civilisa- 
tion towards  the  west,  is  that  of  explaining  how  it  is 
that  in  the  west,  including  Greece  and  Italy,  no  indi- 
cation can  be  discovered  of  Hittite  writing  and  art ;  / 
hitherto,  in  fact,  it  has  been  impossible  to  find  that 
either  the  mysterious  and  indecipherable  Hittite  in- 
scriptions, or  the  bas-reliefs  on  the  rocks,  as  in  Asia 
Minor  and  Syria,  in  the  slightest  degree  suggest  any 
common  origin  for  ^Egean  and  Hittite  civilisations.1 
De  Cara  thus  has  to  reject  any  influence  of  Assyro- 
Babylonian  art  on  that  of  the  Hittites,  making  it  an 
independent  art,  which  seems  impossible  ;  it  appears 
to  me  that  there  is  more  Mesopotamian  art  among  the 
Hittites  than  Hittite  art  in  the  Mediterranean.  If 
Cyprus  contains  elements  of  Hittite  civilisation,  and 
many  elements  of  Mesopotamian  origin,2  this  is  not 
surprising  on  account  of  its  geographical  position. 
But  of  this  I  shall  have  to  speak  later. 

I  cannot  agree,  therefore,  with  this  distinguished 
writer  concerning  the  Asiatic  origin  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean peoples,  but  I  recognise  that  he  has  brought 
about  a  new  phase  of  the  problem  of  Mediterranean 
civilisation  and  its  creators,  and  that  his  opinions 
have  many  points  of  contact  with  the  inductions  I 
shall  here  have  to  bring  forward. 

1  Kcinach  has  already  brought  forward  (his  objection. 
*  De  Cara,  "Cipro,"   Civi/til  Catlolica,  Nos.   1070  e  1072,  Rome, 
1895;  OhnefaUch-Richtcr,  Aj'fros,  die  Dilxl  unJ  Homer,  Berlin,  1893. 



The  Problems — The  Mediterranean  Basin — The  Racial  Names 
oj  the  Mediterranean  Family — Method  of  the  Investigation. 

The  Problems. — Among  the  problems  which  agitate 
archaeologists  and  ethnologists  there  are  two  that 
are  intimately  related  to  each  other :  the  origin  of 
Mediterranean  civilisation,  and  the  origin  of  bronze 
in  Europe  together  with  its  importation  into  the 
regions  where  that  civilisation  is  most  developed. 
These  two  problems,  complex  and  important  in 
themselves,  are  connected  with  many  secondary 
problems,  or  problems  which  seem  to  be  secondary, 
and  these  help  to  solve  the  first  when  they  can  them- 
selves be  solved  with  full  assurance.  If  the  East 
exerts  any  influence  over  Mediterranean  civilisation, 
how  far  does  that  influence  extend  ?  Has  there  been 
any  Egyptian  influence  in  the  ^Egean  Sea?  Who 
were  the  Etruscans  ?  Did  they  arrive  by  Alpine 
routes,  or  are  they  a  maritime  colony  of  eastern 
origin  ?  Who  were  the  Pelasgians  ?  Were  they  an 
imaginary  people,  or  a  people  possessing  real  exist- 
ence and  importance  among  the  populations  of  the 
Mediterranean  ? 

Many  have  believed  that  these  and  similar  prob- 
lems may  be  solved  by  archaeology  and  philology 
alone,  or  by  means  of  tradition.  They  have  more 


or  less  completely  ignored  the  assistance  which  can 
be  given  by  ethnographic  anthropology  and  the  study 
of  the  physical  characters  of  the  races  among  which 
the  civilisations  are  found,  following  the  migrations 
of  the  races  in  various  regions,  their  power  and 
their  decadence  in  the  struggle  with  peoples  of  other 
stock.  The  race  or  the  stock  which  is  diffused  by 
emigration  bears  with  it  also  a  civilisation  which  like- 
wise undergoes  modifications  but  always  preserves  its 
original  characters.  A  stock  which  always  preserves 
its  physical  characters,  in  spite  of  the  infiltration  of 
foreign  racial  elements,  and  which  predominantly 
retains  its  own  primitive  racial  composition,  must  be 
sufficiently  strong  and  resistant  to  impress  the  char-/ 
acters  of  its  own  civilisation  also  on  the  elements 
which  it  meets  and  becomes  mixed  with.  A  stock 
which  in  its  savage  or  half-savage  state  is  so 
numerous  and  so  strong  that  it  can  people  a  vast 
portion  of  the  globe,  and  when  civilised  can  conquer 
and  dominate  by  arms  an  immense  territory,  may 
also  create  a  civilisation  and  propagate  that  Such 
considerations  may  enable  us  to  see  that  physical 
anthropology  is  an  indispensable  aid  in  the  solution 
of  these  problems. 

Until  recent  years  the  Greeks  and  the  Romans 
were  regarded  as  Aryan,  and  then  as  Aryanised, 
peoples;  the  great  discoveries  in  the  Mediterranean 
have  overturned  all  these  views.  To-day,  although 
a  few  belated  supporters  of  Aryanism  still  remain, 
it  is  becoming  clear  that  the  most  ancient  civilisation 
of  the  Mediterranean  is  not  of  Aryan  origin  but  the 
product  of  a  stock  composed  of  many  consanguine- 
ous peoples,  which  occupied  the  Mediterranean  from 
a  common  centre  of  diffusion,  through  bearing 


different  racial  names.  This  stock,  which  I  term 
Mediterranean,  has  formed  the  subject  of  my  studies 
for  many  years,  in  the  hop3  that  I  may  be  able  to 
contribute  to  the  solution  of  the  problems  I  have 

The  Mediterranean  Basin. — The  basin  of  the  Medi- 
terranean is  not  merely  European ;  Asia  and  Africa 
also  form  part  of  it,  and  it  may  be  said  that  its  waters 
formed  a  point  of  contact  for  three-quarters  of  the 
ancient  world.  In  this  contact  arose  and  developed 
the  civilisation  which  has  chiefly  influenced  modern 
peoples,  and  which  continues  its  influence;  the  other 
civilisations  perished  completely  or  belonged  to  a 
world  less  in  touch  with  the  social  life  of  humanity, 
though  they  may  have  constituted  grandiose  states 
like  Babylonia  and  Assyria.  Of  these  we  possess 
to-day  the  historical  records,  which  have  an  artistic 
and  monumental  value,  but  their  social  order,  which 
is  so  large  a  part  of  a  nation's  civilisation,  has  left  no 
influence  on  modern  life,  while  Latin  civilisation 
still  lives,  more  or  less  transformed,  in  modern  social 
life.  The  peoples  nearest  to  Asia,  and  which  most 
strongly  felt  Asiatic  influence  in  their  development, 
have  sunk  like  the  Asiatic  peoples,  some  having 
disappeared  even  from  history;  to-day  we  have  to 
disinter  them  from  among  the  remains  of  their 
monuments  and  their  indecipherable  language. 

The  Mediterranean  has  presented  the  most  favour- 
able conditions  for  the  development  of  a  civilisation 
more  cosmopolitan  than  those  born  in  the  valleys  of 
great  rivers  like  the  Euphrates,  the  Tigris,  the  Nile, 
or  the  five  great  rivers  of  India.  The  Mediterranean, 
with  its  large  and  small  peninsulas,  its  numerous 
islands,  its  water-ways  to  other  seas,  and  to  the 


interior  of  the  surrounding  land,  has  furnished  points 
of  contact  and  struggle  between  many  nations, 
arousing  the  internal  and  external  activity  of  each, 
in  the  direction  most  useful  to  its  existence  and 

To  these  may  be  added  other  natural  conditions 
which  have  made  the  basin  of  the  Mediterranean  one 
of  the  happiest  habitable  regions  of  the  globe:  its 
temperate  climate,  the  fertility  of  its  soil,  the  abun- 
dance of  its  produce  in  every  kind.  Hardly  do  we 
leave  this  happy  basin  than  we  enter  deserts  in 
Libya,  Syria,  and  Arabia,  or  regions  considered  in- 
hospitable in  ancient  times,  like  Scythia  and  Central 
Europe;  the  Black  Sea  was  by  the  Romans  con- 
sidered an  inhospittible  region  in  comparison  with 
Italy,  in  which  the  centre  of  development  of  civilisa- 
tion, was  not  the  valley  of  the  Po,  but  the  central  and 
southern  regions;  just  as  in  Greece  it  was  not  in 
Macedonia  that  art  and  philosophy  flourished. 

Into  this  basin  from  time  immemorial  has  been 
poured  a  human  stock  divided  into  many  peoples,  of 
which  the  origin  and  point  of  departure  has  hitherto 
been  unknown  in  spite  of  the  numerous  and  varied 
conjectures  of  historians,  archreologists,  and  ethnolo- 
gists, some  finding  the  place  of  origin  in  the  Asiatic 
Orient,  some  in  the  North,  others  believing  that  some 
race  or  people,  without  name  or  culture,  remained  as 
a  foundation  of  the  population  but  was  dominated 
by  powerful  and  civilised  invaders.  I  hope  to  show, 
however,  that  there  was  really  a  centre  of  dispersion 
of  the  Mediterranean  stock,  which  in  far  remote 
times,  probably  Quaternary,  anterior  to  all  tradition, 
occupied  the  regions  which  surround  this  great  basin, 
and  that  the  various  peoples  derived  from  this  stock 


have  possessed  the  most  ancient  native  civilisation  in 
the  countries,  islands,  and  peninsulas  they  occupied. 
I  believe,  further,  that  we  must  not  make  an  absolute 
separation,  such  as  is  commonly  made,  between  the 
various  regions  of  this  basin;  the  invaders  or  im- 
migrants in  the  Mediterranean  spread  both  to  east 
and  west,  to  south  and  to  north,  of  the  sea;  that 
is  to  say,  they  inhabited  Asia  Minor,  Syria,  Egypt, 
Libya  and  the  rest  of  Northern  Africa,  Greece,- Italy, 
and  the  Iberian  peninsula. 

Thus  this  geographical  region  is  an  anthropological 
unit;  it  is  not  Asia  nor  Africa  nor  Europe  which  has 
become  the  centre  of  civilisation  and  of  dispersion,  it 
is  the  whole  basin  of  the  Mediterranean.  This  stock, 
with  its  various  ethnic  names,  constitutes  a  family 
of  peoples  which  I  have  long  denominated  "  Mediter- 
ranean "  on  account  of  their  geographical  position  and 
anthropological  stability.  The  family  is  not  confined 
to  this  basin,  but  has  become  diffused  towards  the 
west,  the  north,  and  the  east,  invading  the  Canary 
Islands,  Western  and  Central  Europe,  Great  Britain, 
France,  Switzerland,  and  Southern  Russia. 

The  Racial  Names  of  tlie  Mediterranean  Family. — 
The  racia!  names  of  the  primitive  peoples  of  the 
Mediterranean  may  be  reduced  to  four,  each  of  them 
comprising  more  or  less  numerous  divisions  and  sub- 
divisions, owing  to  migrations  as  well  as  the  influence 
of  chiefs  or  geographical  position.  These  four  names 
correspond  to  the  four  great  branches  of  the  family 
which  in  various  ways  and  through  long  ages  have 
remixed,  fought  as  enemies,  immigrated  or  emigrated 
at  different  periods  and  by  new  roads  or  old  roads, 
to  escape  destruction  or  to  seek  better  means  of 
existence.  By  separating,  the  various  branches  and 


their  divisions  acquired  special  characters,  as  happens 
by  segregation  in  the  animal  and  vegetable  kingdoms 
generally,  becoming  variations  of  the  primitive  stock 
in  language,  customs,  and  civilisation,  only  preserving 
the  chief  common  characters,  and  among  these  the 
physical  characters  of  the  family  invariably  persist 
for  ages. 

These  four  primitive  racial  names  live  in  history 
and  as  geographical  names,  though  the  peoples  and 
their  civilisation  have  changed ;  by  this  means  alone 
we  can  find  the  traces  of  the  invaders  and  immigrants 
in  the  Mediteiranean  and  their  various  primitive 
seats;  this  fact  is  at  the  same  time  an  indication  that 
the  branches  of  the  Mediterranean  family  were  not 
exiles  or  small  tribes,  and  only  for  a  brief  period  the 
conquerors  of  the  great  basin,  for  they  must  have 
been  numerous  and  powerful  to  survive  all  the 
changes  and  struggles  of  these  peoples  through  long 

The  Iberians  gave  its  name  to  the  great  peninsula 
of  the  south-west  of  Europe,  Spain  with  Portugal; 
the  Ligurians  under  various  names  occupied  various 
parts  of  Italy,  joining  the  Iberians  through  southern 
France;  the  PeJasgians  occupied  the  peninsula  and 
islands  of  Greece,  passed  into  Italy  at  different 
periods,  and  were  diffused  through  Asia  Minor  under 
the  obscure  names  of  Khatti,  Hethei,  Chittim,  Hit- 
;  finally,  the  Libyans  occupied  northern  Africa 
under  various  names,  of  which  the  most  glorious  was 
that  of  Egyptians. 

In  the  vicissitudes  of  ages,  rc-minglings  and 
struggles,  invasions  and  dominations,  caused  some 
peoples  and  regions  to  change  their  names  while  others 
remained  unchanged  :  Greece  was  old  Pelasgia,  the 



land  of  the  Khatti  became  Phoenicia,  Italy  assumed 
the  historical  name  which  it  has  borne  unchanged  for 
many  thousand  years,  Africa  was  sub-divided  among 
various  nations.  The  stock  became  more  mixed, 
without  doubt,  but  unchanged  in  the  main  in  racial 
composition  ;  new  and  foreign  elements  were  indeed 
added,  but  these  never  disturbed,  nor  do  they  now 
disturb,  the  primitive  character  of  the  Mediterranean 
race  which  constitutes  a  distinct  stock  in  itself  with  its 
own  very  marked  characters,  not  to  be  confounded 
with  those  of  any  other  European  or  Asiatic  stock  ; 
it  is  morphologically  the  finest  brunet  race  which 
has  appeared  in  Europe,  is  derived  neither  from  the 
black  nor  white  peoples,  but  constitutes  an  autonomous 
stock  in  the  human  family. 

Method  of  the  Investigation. — Before  seeking  the 
origin  of  the  various  branches  of  the  Mediterranean 
family,  and  their  centre  of  movement  and  diffusion, 
I  propose  to  pass  them  in  brief  review.  Our  investi- 
gation will  have  an  anthropological  character  which 
may  even  seem  exclusive,  since  we  shall  not  take 
account  of  the  various  civilisations  and  their  different 
epochs  among  Mediterranean  peoples.  It  is  not  so, 
however;  without  the  aid  of  the  history  of  civilisation, 
of  traditions,  of  geography,  without  the  aid  of  the 
marvellous  discoveries  of  ancient  monuments  in  the 
Mediterranean  basin,  and  without  the  wealth  of 
objects  disinterred  in  Egypt,  Mycenae,  Tiryns,  Troy, 
Crete,  Cyprus,  Sardinia,  Sicily,  Spain,  there  would 
be  much  greater  obscurity  in  Mediterranean  anthro- 
pology; it  would  be  impossible  to  find  a  solution  of 
the  problem,  still  less  a  synthetic  reconstruction  such 
as  I  am  about  to  attempt.  Thus  we  need  to  study 
the  primitive  civilisation  of  the  Mediterranean  in 


order  to  re-compose  the  great  human  nucleus  which 
appeared  there  at  an  unknown  distance  of  time  and 
still  remains  unchanged,  for  the  greater  part,  in  its 
composition,  in  spite  of  new  foreign  elements  which 
have  penetrated  from  many  sides  and  in  different 

A  doubt  may,  however,  assail  us  when  we  attempt 
an  anthropological  solution  of  this  intricate  problem, 
and  that  is  lest  the  learned,  archaeologists  or 
historians,  should  feel  no  faith  in  any  attempt  of 
anthropology  to  resolve  the  problems  of  history 
or  of  past  races.  The  lack  of  results  which  has  led 
to  this  scepticism  docs  not,  however,  lie  in  anthro- 
pology, but  in  a  bad  method  ;  .with  a  rational  and 
natural  method  we  cannot  fail  of  result  A  method 
which  is  only  in  appearance  a  method  inevitably 
leads  to  errors  and  can  produce  no  results ;  if  the 
archaeologists  have  had  no  faith  in  anthropology  they 
have  been  justified. 

A  celebrated  anthropologist,  when  measuring  the 
heads  of  the  mummies  of  the  Pharaohs,  preserved  in 
the  Pyramids,  wrote  that  the  Egyptians  belonged  to 
the  white  race.  His  statement  meant  nothing ;  we 
could  construct  a  syllogism  showing  that  the  Egyptians 
are  Germans,  since  the  latter  also  are  fair.  De 
Quatrefages  classified  the  Abyssinians  among  the 
white  races  ;  but  if  they  are  black,  how  can  they  be 
white?  If  I  had  followed  the  old  and  irrational 
method  hitherto  followed  by  anthropologists,  I  could 
not  have  ascertained  the  affinities  among  the  various 
Mediterranean  peoples  which  have  enabled  me  to 
attempt  a  reconstruction  which  is  the  result  of  a 
systematic  analysis  in  every  direction. 

Ever  since  I  have  been  able  to  show  that  anthro- 


pological  method  should  not  be  different  from 
zoological  method,  I  have  chiefly  turned  my  atten- 
tion to  the  morphology  of  the  skull  as  revealing  those 
internal  physical  characters  of  human  stocks  which 
remain  constant  through  long  ages  and  at  far  remote 
spots.  As  a  zoologist  can  recognise  the  character  of 
an  animal  species  or  variety  belonging  to  any  region 
of  the  globe  or  any  period  of  time,  so  also  should  an 
anthropologist  if  he  follows  the  same  method  of 
investigating  the  morphological  characters  of  the 
skull.  This  method  has  guided  me  in  my  investi- 
gations into  the  present  problem,  and  has  given 
me  unexpected  results  which  were  often  afterwards 
confirmed  by  archaeology  or  history.  It  may  there- 
fore be  easily  understood  how  much  help  anthro- 
pology may  bring  to  the  other  investigations  con- 
cerning the  origin  and  paths  of  civilisation,  and  I 
trust  that  it  will  gain  a  confidence  which  it  has 
not  always  possessed  hitherto. 

I  have  followed  the  various  peoples  with  their 
racial  names  in  ancient  and  modern  history ;  I  have 
examined  when  possible  the  ancient  and  modern 
skulls  belonging  to  each  branch  of  the  races  .in 
question,  and  I  have  met  with  a  fact  that  is  at  once 
surprising  and  curious,  and  that  is  that  there  exist 
about  a  dozen  cranial  forms,  by  me  termed  varieties, 
common  alike  to  all  the  peoples  called  Iberian, 
Ligurian,  the  central  Italic  as  well  as  the  southern 
and  insular  Italic  region,  the  Greek  peoples,  Asia 
Minor,  ancient  Egypt,  and  all  northern  Africa  now 
occupied  by  the  Berbers  and  Kabyles.  Other  cranial 
varieties  with  less  numerous  characters  are  also  found 
in  these  regions  mixed  with  the  first-mentioned 
varieties ;  they  appear  to  be  foreign  racial  elements 


that  have  mingled  with  the  other  throughout  the 
Mediterranean  basin. 

I  have  been  able  to  follow  and  compare  these 
cranial  forms  from  the  Iberian  peninsula  of  neolithic 
times  to  prehistoric  Liguria,  from  Etruria  to  Latium 
and  neolithic  Sicily,  from  Greece  to  the  Troad  and 
Hissarlik,  in  graves  of  the  Mycenaean  period  in  Crete; 
I  have  compared  these  with  ancient  series  from  Egypt 
and  Tunis,  and  I  have  found  the  same  forms  and 
varieties  with  their  subordinate  forms  still  pre- 
dominant This  analysis,  cariicd  out  by  a  uniform 
method,  has  revealed  another  important  point,  and 
that  is  that  the  ancient  cranial  forms  invariably  re- 
semble the  modern  forms  of  the  same  regions,  except 
that  some  foreign  element  has  become  intermingled. 
Persistence  of  physical  characters  through  long  ages 
and  vicissitudes  is  thus  proved  ;  without  such  con- 
stancy science  would  be  helpless.  The  same  fact 
leads  to  a  result  which  may  seem  unexpected,  and 
that  is  that  from  its  origin  the  Mediterranean  stock 
has  not  changed;  in  spite  of  foreign  invasions  the 
racial  composition  remains  the  same ;  the  new 
elements  have  not  been  able  to  disintegrate  it  nor 
to  alter  its  general  physiognomy. 

The  cranial  morphology  of  the  Mediterranean 
family  in  its  four  chief  branches — Iberians,  Ligurians, 
Pelasgians,  Libyans  —  and  their  minor  disjoined 
branches,  possesses  special  characters,  clearly  dis- 
tinct from  that  of  the  peoples  of  the  centre  and 
east  of  Europe ;  my  analyses  and  the  nomenclature 
I  have  adopted  for  cranial  forms  enable  us  to  recog- 
nise them  in  whatever  part  of  the  world  we  may  meet 
them,  so  special  and  easily  distinguishable  arc  their 
characters.  Among  these  forms  the  pentagonoid,  the 


ovoid,  and  the  ellipsoid  come  first,  while  others,  such 
as  the  platycephalic  and  the  cuneiform,  are  less 
numerous.1  I  am  able  to  affirm  that  these  characters 
are  not  found  among  the  Celtic,  Germanic,  Finnic,  or  / 
other  populations,  and  any  one  who  is  accustomed  to 
such  analysis  may  easily  recognise  any  foreign  or 
adventitious  element  which  may  have  penetrated  into 
the  Mediterranean  from  the  north  or  the  east. 

Another  phenomenon,  however,  is  revealed  by  the 
analysis  of  the  cranial  forms  of  the  various  branches 
of  this  great  family,  and  that  is  that  these  varieties 
are  differently  mingled  in  the  composition  of  a  nation, 
which  thus  receives  a  different  physiognomy,  accord- 
ing as  some  forms  are  more  numerous  and  prominent 
than  others.  There  is  thus  an  appearance  of  diversity 
which  is  almost  or  quite  absent  when  we  consider  the 
whole  family.2 

1  For  a  description  of  these  and  other  cranial  types  sec  Sergi,  Specie 
e  Variet^  Utttatte,  Bocca,  Turin,  1900,  chaps,  iv.  and  v. 

3  Cf.  Sergi,  Africa:  Anti-apologia  della  slirpe  camitica,  Turin,  1897, 
as  regards  the  methods  and  results  referred  to  above ;  also  Arii  e 
Italic  i:  At  lor  no  all'  Italia  preistorica,  Turin,  1898,  for  many  related 



The  Cradle  of  the  Mediterranean  Stock— The  Hamiies. 

The  Cradle  of  the  Mediterranean  Stock. —  I  owe  it 
chiefly  to  my  craniological  method  that  I  have  been 
able  to  see  the  characteristic  resemblances  and  differ- 
ences among  this  chaos  of  peoples,  formed  from  the 
most  ancient  times,  and  re-mingled  with  each  other 
and  with  foreign  elements.  No  pre-conception  has  in- 
fluenced me  in  attempting  to  re-unite  in  one  synthesis 
the  analytic  elements  of  my  researches;  it  has  come 
naturally  as  the  result  of  previously  established  facts 
which  were  themselves  a  revelation,  as  I  studied  in 
succession  the  peoples  of  the  Mediterranean  and  their 
physical  characters,  especially  the  forms  of  the  skull 
and  face.  The  ancient  skulls  of  continental  and  in- 
sular Italy,  and  the  persistence  of  their  forms  in  the 
modern  population,  wherever  it  has  been  preserved, 
the  skulls  of  the  Iberian  peninsula,  of  Greece,  of 
ancient  Egypt,  then  those  of  the  rest  of  northern 
Africa  and  of  the  Canary  Islands,  all  revealed  by 
their  constant  uniformity,  and  the  uninterrupted  suc- 
cession of  the  same  forms,  that  they  must  necessarily 
belong  to  a  single  original  stock. 

But  that  original  stock  could  not  have  its  cradle  in 
the  basin  of  the  Mediterranean,  a  basin  more  fitted 


for  the  confluence  of  peoples  and  for  their  active 
development ;  the  cradle  whence  they  dispersed  in 
many  directions  was  more  probably  in  Africa.  The 
study  of  the  fauna  and  flora  of  the  Mediterranean 
exhibits  the  same  phenomenon  and  becomes  another 
argument  in  favour  of  the  African  origin  of  the 
Mediterranean  peoples. 

To-day,  however,  some  years  after  I  first  reached 
this  conviction,  a  confirmation,  almost  unexpected, 
has  come  from  prehistoric  archaeology  and  related 
studies,  as  I  shall  show  in  the  sequel  when  discussing 
the  primitive  civilisations  of  the  Mediterranean  stock. 
For  the  present,  keeping  within  the  domain  of 
physical  anthropology,  we  shall  find  confirmation 
and  demonstration  in  an  almost  complete  study  of 
certain  African  populations  occupying  an  extended 
area  and  possessing  marked  homogeneity  in  skeletal 
characters,  to  a  less  extent  also  in  external  characters, 
as  well  as  in  the  languages  formerly  and  still  spoken. 
I  refer  to  the  populations  which  pass  under  the  old 
name  of  Hamitic,  chiefly  on  account  of  the  linguistic 
characters  which  have  contributed  to  classify  and 
group  them  in  a  single  stock. 

The  Hamites. — As  I  have  said,  many  of  the  peoples 
called  Hamitic  still  preserve  their  ancient  language 
in  a  more  or  less  altered  form  ;  among  these  may  be 
included  the  inhabitants  of  the  Sahara,  the  Berbers 
of  every  type  and  every  region,  while  many  others 
have  wholly  or  partially  lost  their  language,  like  the 
Egyptians,  the  Wahuma,  the  Masai.  But  they  still 
show  the  physical  character  of  their  stock  in  spite  of 
the  incongruous  and  hybrid  forms  which  have  re- 
sulted. These  physical  characters — I  mean  the 
fundamental  skeletal,  and  especially  cranial  and 

THE   HAM1I  41 

facial  characters — are  common  to  the  populations  of 
the  Mediterranean  ;  so  that  it  may  be  said  that  the 
area  of  the  so-called  llamitic  stock  extends  from  IO° 
north  latitude  towards  the  west,-  and  from  8"  south 
latitude  towards  the  east,  throughout  the  Mediter- 
ranean. We  shall  sec,  however,  that  it  is  not  con- 
fined to  this  basis,  but  has  extended  into  Europe  at 
the  north. 

I  divide  the  Hamites  of  Africa  into  two  great 
branches,  an  eastern  branch  in  the  north-east  of  the 
continent,  and  a  northern  one  in  the  north-west 

/.  Eastern  Branch: — 

1.  Ancient    and    modern    Egyptians    (Copts, 

Fellaheen),  excluding  the  Arabs. 

2.  Nubians,  Bejas. 

3.  Abyssinians. 

4.  Gallas,  Danakil,  Somali's. 

5.  Masai. 

6.  Wahuma  or  Watusi. 

//.  Northern  Branch: — 

1.  Berbers   of   Mediterranean,    Atlantic,    and 


2.  Tcbus  or  Tubus. 

3.  Fulahs  or  Fulbe's. 

4.  Guanchcs  of  the  Canaries.1 

Of  these  populations  the  Egyptians  are  still  Mediter- 
ranean, and  the  Berbers  Mediterranean  and  in  part 
Atlantic  ;  the  name  "  Berber,"  which  is  recent,  corre- 
sponds, in  great  part  at  least,  to  the  ancient  "  Libyan," 
and  is  the  name  which  I  shall  here  adopt. 

Now  the  convergence  of  physical  characters  in  all 

1  See  Scrgi,  A/rita,  .'.. 


these  populations,  while  it  leads  us  to  regard  them  as 
forming  a  single  human  stock,  also  suggests  that  their 
origin  must  be  found  in  Africa.  In  the  Italian 
edition  of  this  work  I  had  placed  the  centre  of  origin 
and  diffusion  of  this  stock  in  East  Africa  in  the 
region  of  the  great  lakes,  near  the  sources  of  the 
Nile,  and  including  Somaliland.  Many  arguments 
led  me  to  that  conclusion,  especially  the  very  ancient 
existence  of  a  population  which  in  the  Egyptian 
monuments  is  recorded  as  giving  origin  to  their  race, 
the  Punti,  and  whose  physical  characters  resemble 
and  are  often  identical  with  those  of  the  Egyptians  ; 
also  the  discovery  of  flint  implements  resembling 
those  of  palaeolithic  age  in  Europe,  and  the  existence 
of  unexplored  tumuli  in  the  territories  of  the  Dinkas 
and  the  Somali's. 

The  flint  implements  of  palaeolithic  type  have  been 
found  by  Revoil,  Jousseanne,  Scton-Karr,1  and  others. 
Seton-Karr  believes  that  the  stone  implements  of 
Somaliland  arc  scattered  over  the  whole  region, 
but  probably  mostly  beneath  the  present  surface,  in  a 
region  bounded  approximately  by  the  Red  Sea  and 
lat  9°  30'  N.,  and  between  long.  44"  and  45°  E.  The 
same  explorer  gives  some  indication  as  to  the  relation 
that  these  implements  bear  to  the  soil  and  the  geo- 
logical features  of  the  country. 

Little  is  yet  known  of  the  tumuli  of  which  RcVoil 
has  given  various  drawings.  Bottago  also  saw  some 
of  these,  and  was  told  that  they  were  the  work  of 
Galla  tribes,  to  which  statement  he  objects  that  no 

1  Cf.  Sergi,  Africa,  pp.  175,  193,  197;  Seton-Karr,  "Discovery  of 
Evidences  of  the  Paleolithic  Stone  Age  in  Somaliland,"  Jour.  Anth. 
Insl.t  1896,  p.  271;  and  for  criticisms  on  some  points  by  Dr.  II.  O. 
Forbes,  see  Nature,  igth  April  1900. 


such  constructions  arc  seen   in   the   country  of  the 

In  North  Africa  and  Sahara  also  very  numerous 
flint  arrow-heads  and  fragments  of  worked  flint  have 
been  found,  a  certain  proof  of  the  existence  of  a  large 
population.1  The  idea  has  thus  arisen  that  Sahara 
rather  than  Eastern  Africa  was  the  original  home  of 
the  populations  which  have  occupied  the  Mediter- 
ranean basin  and  Hamitic  Africa,  or  Africa  north  of 
the  Sudan.2 

It  appears  to  me  now,  however,  that  to  establish 
absolutely  the  place  of  origin  of  a  human  stock  is 
neither  an  easy  nor  safe  task  ;  we  can  only  indicate 
approximately,  in  the  present  case,  the  most  probable 
region  of  Africa.  If  it  seems  to  me  most  reasonable 
to  look  to  the  region  of  the  great  lakes,  it  is  because 
that  region  is  most  favourable  to  human  existence, 
and  if  similar  conditions  were  also  to  be  found  in  the 
Sahara  at  the  Quaternary  epoch,  I  will  not  deny  to  . 
that  district  also  the  possibility  of  being  the  cradle  / 
of  the  human  species  which  has  had  so  large  a  part 
in  the  destinies  of  the  world. 

At  this  point  I  must  defend  my  opinion  against  an 
inaccurate  interpretation  of  it  by  the  eminent  French 
anthropologist,  Zaborowski,  who    has    attributed    to 
me  the  statement  that  the    Egyptians  are  diffused 
through    Asia    Minor,  Southern    Russia,    and    else-  \\ 
where.3    My  statement  is  that  a  human  stock,  neither  \ 
Egyptian  nor  Iberian,  nor  Pclasgic,  nor  Ligurian,  has  j 

1  Tissot,  Gfographie  Comparer  de  la  province  romaine  d\4friqne, 
1'aris,  Tome  I.,  1884,  p.  398 ;  Bourde,  La  frame  an  Sudan,  p.  399. 

-,  Man  Past  and  Tie  sent,  Cambridge,  1899,  pp.  450  el  sty. 

1  "  Du  Dnicstre  4  la  Caspicnnc,"  /•'/<//.  Sec.  tTAnth.  dt  Paris,  1896, 
pp.  8 1  et  sf,/. 


shown  itself  in  successive  emigrations  and  in  various 
directions,  and  has  formed  the  four  peoples  at  a  later 
date  designated  by  the  names  Egyptian,  Libyan, 
Iberian,  Pelasgic,  and  Ligurian,  with  their  successive 
later  sub-divisions  bearing  new  racial  names.  I  could 
not  imagine  that  the  Egyptians  of  history,  so  rich  in 
civilisation,  had  carried  a  prehistoric  civilisation  into 
southern  Russia,  as  Zaborowski  makes  me  say,  since, 
as  he  himself  now  admits,  I  supposed  that  it  was  the 
ancestors  of  the  Libyans,  Iberians,  Egyptians,  and 
Pelasgians  who  had  peopled  the  various  regions  of 
the  Mediterranean,  including  Asia  Minor,  and  then 
also  southern  Russia 

But  I  also  supposed — and  the  supposition  has  now 
been  confirmed  by  discoveries  in  Egypt — that  the 
Egyptians  were  a  branch  of  the  Libyans,  and  thus  I 
extended  the  name  of  Libyan  to  all  the  African 
populations  of  northern  Africa,  from  Egypt  to 
Morocco,  including  those  of  the  Sahara.  The 
Egyptians  would  thus  be  a  detached  branch  of  the 
primitive  Libyans,  an  opinion  very  far  removed  from 
the  belief,  attributed  to  me,  that  the  Egyptians  went 
to  Russia.  Concerning  the  anthropological  evidence 
for  the  wide  diffusion  of  the  African  stock  there  will 
be  more  to  say  when  I  deal  in  turn  with  each  people, 
or  fraction  of  a  people,  possessing  recognisable 
physical  characters.1 

1  For  an  exact  interpretation  of  my  opinions  see  A.  J.  Evans,  "  The 
Eastern  Question  in  Anthropology,"  Presidential  Address  in  Anthro- 
pological Section,  British  Assocb^ion,  Liverpool,  1896  {Nature,  1st 
Oct.  1896). 



Ubyans  on  Egyptian  Monuments — The  Evidence  of  Herodotus 
and  other  Classic  Writers — The  Berbers — Oiigin  oj  the 
IJpyans — The  Myth  of  Atlantis — The  African  Blonds — 
Physical  Characters  of  the  Libyans. 

Libyans  on  Egyptian  Monuments. — On  the*  Egyptian 
monuments  we  find  a  few  vague  references  to  the 
Libyans,  fewer  and  more  indefinite  than  those  regard- 
ing the  Hamitic  and  other  peoples  in  the  south  of 
Egypt.  Brugsch,  in  the  ethnographic  lists  of  ancient 
Egypt,  found  the  Psylli  in  the  Pit  with  light  red- 
coloured  skin  and  black  hair  falling  in  tresses,  the 
beard  also  being  black;  and  the  Asbyta;  in  the  Sopet 
at  the  west  of  the  modern  oasis  of  Farafrah  with 
light  red-coloured  skin  and  red  beard  and  hair.1 
Asbytae  and  Psylli  should  be  regarded  as  two  portions 
of  the  Libyan  family,  as  may  be  concluded  from  later 
information  derived  from  other  sources ;  the  names 
of  Lebu  and  Tchenu  or  Tamahu  are  recorded  more 
often  on  the  monuments,  and  seem  to  represent  the 
Libyans  of  geographers  and  historians.  On  the  maps, 
however,  the  Tehenu  and  the  Lebu  appear  as  two 
peoples,  the  first  near  Egypt,  the  second  more  to  the 

It  is  important  to  observe  the  pictorial  representa- 

1  Dit  Alta&ftisehe  Volkertaftl,  p.  74. 


tion  from  which  it  has  been  concluded  that  the  Lcbu 
and  the  Tchenu  were  a  white  race  with  blue  eyes 
and  fair  hair  like  the  Germans.  It  is  true  that  on 
Egyptian  monuments  the  Tchenu  are  painted  with 
skin  of  a  bright  red,  and  red  or  yellow  beard  and 
blue  eyes  ;  but  we  also  find  that  many  personages  are 
depicted  with  red  as  well  as  green  eyes,  though  there 
is  no  reason  to  suspect  that  the  races  to  which  they 
belonged  possessed  an  iris  of  either  colour.1  Rosellini, 
in  his  Plate  CLVIII.,  shows  us  a  group  of  persons 
with  yellow  skin,  black  hair  and  beards,  and 
green  eyes,  and  another  with  pale  rose  skin,  black 
hair,  and  red  eyes;  in  Plate  CLIX.  a  group  with 
yellow  skin,  yellowish  beard  and  blue  eyes,  and  again 
a  group  of  three  individuals  of  whom  the  middle 
individual  shows  a  brick-red,  Egyptian  complexion, 
and  blue  eyes.  It  is  unnecessary  to  prove  that  these 
combinations  do  not  indicate  racial  varieties. 

Miiller  observes,  with  reference  to  the  Tehenu, 
that  they  bear  -a  name  which  is  commonly  inter- 
preted as  meaning  light-coloured,  but  that  there 
can  be  no  doubt  that  the  root  Thn  only  signifies 
"brilliant"  and  not  white.2  We  must  not  forget 
that  the  Asbytae  and  Psylli,  already  referred  to,  are 
represented  with  a  fair  skin  and  black  beard  and 
hair.  It  is  certainly  an  important  question  as 
regards  the  origin  of  the  Libyan  populations,  the 
more  so  as  to-day  we  find  a  blond  element  among 
the  Berbers  of  the  north  coast  and  Morocco,  and  it 
is  claimed  that  they  furnish  the  primitive  type  of 
the  Libyans  represented  in  Egyptian  pictures. 

The    Evidence    of   Herodotus    and    other    Classic 

1  See  Sergi,  Africa,  cap.  ii. 
*  Asien  und  Eurofa,  p.  14. 


Writers. — The  most  ancient  ethnographic  observa- 
tions, after  the  Egyptian,  arc  those  furnished  by 
Herodotus,  who  by  Libya  generally  meant  Africa 
outside  Egypt,  which  he  regarded  as  the  natural 
frontier  between  Asia  and  Libya,  making  it  as  it 
were  a  distinct  continent  by  itself,1  notwithstanding  the 
opinion  of  Vivien  de  Saint-Martin,  who  believed  that 
Herodotus  placed  the  borders  of  Libya  at  Mount 
Casius,  near  the  isthmus  of  Suez,2  where  he  simply 
placed  the  eastern  border  of  Egypt3  Herodotus 
also  gives  a  more  restricted  meaning  to  Libya,  dis- 
tinguishing it  from  Ethiopia,  as  may  be  gathered 
from  various  passages  and  from  his  ethnographic 
division  of  the  populations.  His  clearest  indications, 
which  he  obtained  in  Egypt  itself  on  the  occasion  of 
his  visit,  as  well  as  from  other  travellers  and  navi- 
gators to  the  Libyan  coasts,  are  those  concerning  the 
tribes  of  the  sea-board ;  but  he  also  knew  something 
of  the  tribes  of  the  interior,  beginning  with  the  oasis 
of  Ammon.  I  need  not  discuss  the  accuracy  or  in- 
accuracy of  the  itineraries  described  by  Herodotus, 
nor  the  geographical  position  of  the  places  mentioned ; 
I  have  only  to  occupy  myself  with  the  ethnography.4 

Herodotus  knew  the  desert  of  Libya  and  many  of 
its  oases,  and  he  speaks  in  various  places  of  that  of 
Ammon  and  its  inhabitants,  whom  he  believes  to  be 
a  mixed  people  of  Egyptian  and  Ethiopian  origin, 
with  a  language  that  partakes  of  those  of  both  races; 
he  knows  also  Augila,  a  date-bearing  country  where 
the  Nasamoncs  go  to  gather  dates. 

1  Book  IT.,  cap.  xvii. 
1  Lt  Nord  de  T Afrique,  pp.  29-  30. 
»  Book  II.,  158. 

4  Cf.  Vivien  de  Saint-Martin,  0/.  <•//.,  for  a  discussion  of  various 
geographical  questions  in  Herodotus. 


Herodotus  also  enumerates  the  tribes  he  found  on 
the  western  borders  of  Egypt  The  first  of  these  are 
the  Adyrmachidse,  who  have  the  same  customs  as  the 
Egyptians,  except  that  they  dress  like  other  Libyans; 
then  come  the  Giligammae,  who  inhabit  the  country 
to  the  west  as  far  as  the  island  of  Aphrodisais;  then 
the  Asbytae,  who  dwell  above  Cyrene,  in  the  interior. 
The  Auschisae  come  next  to  the  Asbytae  on  the  west, 
above  Barce,  and  extend  as  far  as  the  Hesperides. 
In  the  same  region  are  found  the  Cabales,  a  people 
small  in  number,  who  extend  along  the  sea-coast 
towards  Tauchira,  in  the  district  of  Barce.  The 
Nasamones,  a  large  tribe,  are  to  the  west  of  the 
Auschisae,  and  leave  their  flocks  in  summer  to  gather 

The  Psylli  are  neighbours  of  the  Nasamones,  but 
having  perished  on  account  of  the  extraordinary 
barrenness  of  the  country,  the  latter  have  occupied 
their  territory.  To  the  south,  beyond  the  Nasamones 
and  the  Psylli,'  in  a  district  where  wild  beasts  are 
found,  live  the  Garamantes,  who  avoid  intercourse 
with  other  peoples ;  they  have  no  weapons,  and 
cannot  defend  themselves.  Vivien  de  Saint-Martin 
remarks,  concerning  the  Garamantes,  that  Herodotus 
elsewhere  says  of  this  people  that  they  are  ten  days' 
journey  distant  from  Augila,  and  that  they  fight 
against  the  Ethiopians,  using  chariots  with  four 
horses.  They  would  thus  be  two  different  peoples. 
The  neighbours  of  the  Garamantes  on  the  sea  towards 
the  west  were  the  Macae,  then  the  Gindanes,  and  to 
the  south  of  these  the  Lotophagi,  who,  along  the  sea, 
border  on  the  Machlyes,  closely  resembling  them  in 
customs  and  extending  to  the  river  Triton,  which  falls 
into  the  Lake  Tritonis.  The  Ausenses,  on  the  opposite 


side  of  the  river,  also  dwell  on  Lake  Tritonis;  to  the 
north  arc  the  Maxyes,  the  Zavcccs,  and  the  Gizantes 
or  Zygantcs. 

Beyond  this  region  Herodotus  knows  little  or 
nothing  definite;  he  has  heard  that  ten  days'  journey 
beyond  the  Garamantes,  in  the  interior  of  Libya, 
thcic  is  a  mountain  of  salt  and  a  spring  where  the 
inhabitants  are  called  Atarantes;  and  that  ten  days' 
journey  beyond  this  begin  the  Atlas  Mountains,  which 
extend  as- far  as  the  Pillars  of  Hercules;  the  people 
dwelling  there  he  calls  Atlantes.1 

At  this  point  Herodotus  ends  his  enumeration  of 
Libyan  tribes,  among  which  he  further  distinguishes 
between  those  that  are  nomadic  and  those  that  are 
sedentary  and  agricultural.  "  From  Egypt  as  far  as 
Lake  Tritonis  the  Libyans  lead  a  pastoral  life,  living 
on  flesh  and  milk.  The  Libyans  to  the  west  of  Lake 
Tritonis  are  not  shepherds."2  This  is  only  true  in  a 
relative  sense,  remarks  Saint-Martin.  It  is  certain 
that  between  Egypt  and  the  Syrtes  the  naturally 
bare  and  arid  soil  is  more  adapted  to  a  pastoral  and 
nomad  life,  while  between  the  Syrtes  and  the  Pillars 
of  Hercules  it  is  more  suited  to  cultivation ;  but 
Herodotus  was  wrong  in  believing  that  to  the  west 
of  Tritonis,  in  a  land  considered  by  Greeks  and 
Romans  as  above  all  a  country  of  nomads  and  shep- 
herds, no  nomads  were  to  be  found.3 

The  Petiplus  of  Scilax  only  records  four  Libyan 
populations :  the  Marmarides,  from  Egypt  to  the 
1 1  -peridcs ;  the  Nasamoncs,  from  that  spot  to  the 
great  Syrtes ;  the  Macae,  on  the  coast  of  the  same 

»  IV.,  184. 

-   ILnnlotus,  IV.,  caps.  186-187. 

J  Of.  (it.,  pp.  60-6 1. 


gulf  towards  the  west;  and  the  Lotophagi,  as  far  as 
the  lesser  Syrtes.1  Diodorus  Siculus  speaks,  in  refer- 
ence to  the  expedition  of  Agathoclcs,  of  three  Libyan 
tribes,  the  Micatani  and  Zufoni,  who  are  nomads, 
and  the  Asfodelodi,  who  by  the  colour  of  their  skin 
resemble  the  Ethiopians.2 

The  Roman  wars  in  Africa  extended  the  know- 
ledge of  Libyan  tribes,  and  gave  to  various  popula- 
tions their  racial  names.  The  Afri  appeared  in  the 
district  of  Carthage,  called  Africa;  the  Numidi,  which 
is  apparently  a  translation  of  the  Greek  Nomades; 
the  Mauri,  who  gave  their  name  to  Mauritania, 
called  also  Manrusi  by  the  Greeks.3  The  expedition 
of  Suetonius  Paulinus  to  the  south  of  the  Atlas 
enables  us  to  know  the  Getuli;4  that  of  Cornelius 
Balbus  to  Fezzan5  and  the  expeditions  of  Septimius 
Flaccus  and  of  Julius  Maternus  to  the  south  of  Fezzan, 
as  far  as  the  country  of  Agisimba,  carry  us  to  the 
centre  of  Africa.0 

To  identify  regions  and  the  populations  inhabiting 
them  from  the  data  of  ancient  writers  and  those  of 
modern  explorers  is  not  easy,  nor  always  fruitful; 
because  the  notices  of  Greek  and  Latin  writers  have 
reached  us  in  a  fragmentary  and  imperfect  form,  or 
in  brief  summaries  like  those  of  Pliny,  and  because 
racial  and  geographic  names  have  undergone  com- 
plete transformation,  especially  as  a  consequence  of 
the  Arab  invasions.7 

1  Scilax,  reriplns,  108-110. 

2  XX.,  38,  57;  XX VI.,  27. 

3  Mela,    i.    4;   Sallust,  Jug.    xix.  ;    Pliny,    Nat.    Hist.,    v.    I,    2; 
Slrabo,  xvii.,  iii.  2.  *  Pliny,  v.  I.  °  Pliny,  v.  5. 

B  Ptolemy,  Gtogr.,  Prolog,  viii. 

7  Full  and  valuable  notes  and  elucidations  niayln:  found  in  Vivien  de 
Saint- Martin,  o/>.  (it. ;  also  in  Carette,  "  Kecherchcs  stir  1'origine  el  les 


In  speaking  of  the  extreme  limits  reached  by  the 
Romans  in  Africa,  we  must  discuss  the  expedition  of 
Septimius  Flaccus  and  Julius  Maternus  to  the  south 
of  Fezzan.  The  record  of  this  expedition  is  furnished 
by  Marinus  as  quoted  by  Ptolemy:  "Septimius 
Flaccus,  moving  with  an  army  from  Libya  against 
the  Ethiopians,  arrived  in  three  months,  after  leaving 
the  Garamantcs  towards  the  south."  "Julius  Mater- 
nus, having  left  Leptis  Magna  and  Garama,  and 
joined  with  the  king  of  the  Garamantes,  marched 
towards  the  south  against  the  Ethiopians,  and  after 
four  months  arrived  at  Agisimba  of  the  Ethiopians, 
where  rhinoceroses  are  found." 1  I  will  not  repeat  the 
details  of  journeys  and  distances  given  by  Ptolemy  and 
other  writers,  but  I  think  we  may  accept  the  opinion 
of  Saint-Martin,  who  places  Agisimba  towards  16° 
and  1 8°  N.L.  in  the  oasis  of  Asben.2  Nor  must  I  omit 
to  mention  that  in  the  oasis  of  Atarantes,  of  which 
Herodotus  speaks,  Barth  believes  that  we  may  recog- 
nise one  of  the  oases  of  Asben ;  he  connects  the  name 
Atarantes  with  Atara,  in  the  Haussa  language,  which 
means  reunite  and  signifies  population  ( Volksge- 
meinde}.  It  is  true,  he  adds,  that  no  mine  is  to  be 
found  in  the  mountain  of  Asben,  but  we  find  instead 
the  salt  deposits  of  Bilma,  with  an  antiquity  of  some 
two  thousand  three  hundred  years,  which  must  have 
been  utilised  in  these  regions.3 

Both  references  show  that  the   interior  of  Africa 

migrations  clcs  principales  tribus  tie  1'Afriquc  septcntrionalc,'*  Ex- 
ploration scitnlifique  i/e  rAltfrie,  Paris,  1853,  tome  iii. ;  and  Tissot, 
"  ( leographie  comparce  dc  la  province  romaine  d'Afrique,"  Ex/>lor, 

:!ijtijtie  de  la  7'unisit,  Paris,  1884,  tome  i. 
1  I'li'U-my,  (,'fop:,  lot.  tit. 
*  Of.  (it.,  p|>    215 -22\. 

(.'tntralafrikanixher  VotaMarien,  Parl  I.,  p.  cii. 


was  by  no  means  unknown  either  to  the  Egyptians, 
who  carried  on  commerce  there  with  caravans,  or  to 
the  Romans  who  penetrated  thither  with  their  armies. 
Unfortunately,  concerning  the  Roman  expedition  into 
Central  Africa  we  possess  no  definite  knowledge;  it 
would  have  furnished  us  with  information  of  great 
historical  value  as  to  the  populations  of  these  regions. 
Herodotus,  while  affirming  that  the  Libyans  are 
numerous  and  of  various  stocks,1  concludes,  after 
enumerating  the  tribes  and  population  of  the  coast 
and  interior,  by  saying  that  the  races  (ethnea)  in  all 
Libya  may  be  reduced  to  four,  two  of  these  being 
i  indigenous  and  two  foreign.  The  Ethiopians  and 
the  Libyans  are  the  indigenous  races,  the  first  dwell- 
ing to  the  south,  the  second  to  the  north;  the  Phoe- 
nicians and  Greeks  are  the  foreign  races.2  The  word 
ethnos  is  used  by  Herodotus  in  two  senses,  the  one 
general,  the  other  more  restricted,  just  as  we  use  the 
word  "  race  "  in  an  ambiguous  manner.  Thus  Libya 
has  a  generic  significance  for  the  whole  African  con- 
tinent, and  a  particular  significance  for  the  region 
inhabited  by  the  Libyans  proper;  the  Ethiopians 
are  the  black  stock.  What  physical  characters  the 
Libyans  possessed  we  are  not  told  by  the  Greek 
historian.  Scilax,  among  the  ancients,  mentions  fair 
Libyans,  and  at  a  later  date  Procopius  speaks  of  a 
population  with  white  skin  and  fair  hair.  It  seems 
that  Callimachus  also  noted  the  fair  Libyan  women 
among  the  inhabitants  of  Cyrenaica.  In  the  interior 
of  Libya,  besides  the  Garamantes  and  the  Getuli, 
there  were  also,  according  to  Ptolemy,  the  Melano- 
Getuli  or  black  Getuli;  this  is  another  vague  expres- 
sion concerning  a  physical  character  of  the  Libyan 
1  IV.,  167.  2  IV.,  197. 


population.  It  must  be  inferred,  as  a  negative  con- 
clusion, that  the  Libyan  populations  of  the  coast  and 
many  of  the  interior  were  fair  in  the  generic  sense 
of  the  word,  since  we  do  not  find  any  special  indica- 
tion of  this  character,  as  we  do  by  accident  for  the 
fair  element,  and  more  definitely  for  the  black  com- 
plexion of  the  more  southern  Getuli. 

The  language  of  these  Libyan  peoples  was  "  pro- 
foundly distinct  from  the  Semitic  languages,  though 
having  traits  of  resemblance  to  them." l  They  also 
possessed  a  method  of  writing  which  constituted  what 
was  called  the  Libyan  alphabet.  It  may  be  recognised 
in  the  Berber  hills  of  the  Ahaggar,  and  with  a  few 
slight  modifications  it  is  the  same  as  that  still  used 
by  the  Tuaregs.  It  may  be  reconstituted  from  know- 
ledge of  the  Targu  alphabet  in  the  bilingual  in- 
scriptions of  Thugga.*  The  Berber  alphabet  is 
substantially  identical  with  the  Libyan.' 

The  geographical  and  racial  names  of  Libya 
changed  ;  Libya  became  Africa;  the  coast  popula- 
tion lost  the  names  by  which  they  were  known  to 
Herodotus  and  the  geographers  who  followed  him; 
the  names  of  Cyrenaica  and  Africa  appeared  for 
Carthaginian  territory,  of  Numidia,  of  Mauritania,  and 
hence  the  Afri,  the  Numidi,  the  Mauri.  Nor  did 
the  changes  cease  at  this  point ;  to  the  general  name 
of  Libyans  succeeded  that  of  Berbers,  which  to-day  is 
being  lost,  to  give  place  to  other  names,  such,  for 
instance,  as  Schellachs  or  the  Shluh.  Geographers 
and  ethnographers  have  disputed  concerning  the 

1  Kenan,  'La  Socie'tc'  Bcrbcrc,"  Rtvue  Jet  Deux  Maudes,  1873. 
1  Tissot,  Gtograpkie  cottiparfe,  etc.,  p.  517. 

*  Tissot,  (>/>.  fit.,  pp.   518  el  scq.\  cf.  the  following  chapter  on  the 


origins  of  these  various  successive  names  which  have 
designated  the  regions  and  inhabitants  of  Africa. 
Libya,  it  is  said,  came  from  the  name  of  a  tribe, 
Luba  or  Lovvata,  pronounced  Levata  or  Lebata,  and 
changed  by  the  Greek  colonists  of  Cyrene  in  their 
own  language  into  Libyes  or  Libya}  Hence  the 
generalisation  of  the  name  Libya  to  the  region  known 
to  the  Greeks,  and  to  the  populations  distinct  from 
the  Ethiopians. 

The  name  of  Africa  was  restricted  to  the  territory 
of  Carthage ;  the  Romans  eventually  used  it  to  de- 
signate all  the  Libyan  regions,  and  to-day  it  serves 
to  indicate  the  whole  of  the  vast  continent.  Con- 
cerning the  origin  of  the  word  Africa  many  opinions 
have  been  expressed,  and  it  is  possible  that,  like 
Libya,  it  may  also  be  derived  from  the  name  of  a 

The  Berbers. — Berber  is  the  name  still  used  to-day 
to  designate  the  Libyans  of  northern  Africa  and  the 
Sahara,  as  well  as  of  western  Morocco.  The  primi- 
tive and  etymological  significance  of  this  name  is 
disputed.  Berber  may  be  the  same  as  Barbar,  a 
general  designation  for  the  great  region  of  the 
Somalis,  Barbaria,  and  identical  with  Barabra  Nubians, 
and  hence  without  the  evil  significance  wrongly 
attributed  to  the  Greek  and  Roman  names.  It  may 
have  indicated  a  stock  with  fairly  similar  linguistic 
characters.3  Carette  and  Saint-Martin  find  in  the 
names  Barbars,  Sabarbares,  Sabarbures,  the  special 
designation  of  a  number  of  fractions  of  the  indi- 

1  Saint-Martin,  op.  «'/.,  p.  150. 

2  Saint-Martin,  op.  cit.,  pp.   150  el  se<j.\   Carette,  op.  «'/.,  p.  306; 
Tissot,  op.  eft.,  pp.  389  et  stq. 

*  Saint-Martin,  op.  fit.,  passim. 


genous  stock  of  Africa,  and  not  a  Greek  or  Roman 
designation.  The  Romans  confused  the  racial 
names  which  they  found  among  the  natives  with 
their  own  word  Barbari.1  Carette  believes  that  the 
Arab  invaders,  who  experienced  the  first  serious 
resistance  to  their  arms  among  the  Berbers  of  Sus, 
extended  that  name  to  all  the  natives  of  northern 
Africa.  He  considers  it  probable  that  in  antiquity 
the  name  Barbari,  and  that  of  Berber-  of  Okba, 
whence  are  derived  Barbaria  and  Barbary,  were  at 
first  applied  only  to  one  people,  and  that  the  Arabs, 
preoccupied  by  the  resistance  they  experienced  from 
that  savage  and  idolatrous  people,  generalised  the 
term.  "  However  that  may  be,"  he  concludes,  "  the 
name  Berber  was  substituted  for  Libyan  at  the 
Mussulman  conquest,  and  Arab  geographers  term 
Belad-cl-Berber  or  Berberia  the  whole  of  northern 
Africa  comprised  between  Barca  and  the  Atlantic,  that 
is  to  say,  ancient  Libya."2 

Tissot  accepts  Carette's  opinion  for  the  most  part, 
but  it  docs  not  seem  to  him  probable  that  the  Arabs 
gave  as  a  general  name  for  all  the  Libyan  populations 
a  term  which  they  had  found  in  mid  course  of  their 
invasion,  fie  thinks  it  more  likely  that  they  met 
with  the  name  at  the  very  threshold  of  Africa,  that  is 
to  say  in  Egypt.3 

Libyans  or  Berbers,  we  to-day  understand  by  these 
general  names  no  longer  a  tribe  but  a  race,  as  many 
would  describe  it,  a  branch  of  the  Hamitic  stock,  as 
is  indicated  by  the  language  which  remains  un- 
changed after  so  many  changes  and  invasions  by 
Greeks,  Phoenicians,  Romans,  Vandals,  and,  more 

1  Saint- Martin,  op.  «.-//.,  p.  80;  Cart-tie,  of.  (it.,  pp.  13  et  st</. 
1  Of.  tit.,  pp.  16-17.  '  Of.  dt.t  p.  397. 


numerous  than  any,  Arabs.  But  even  the  name 
Berber  has  died  out ;  there  only  remain  various 
divisions  of  the  same  Berber  or  Libyan  family,  with 
national  names,  assumed  for  different  purposes.  It 
seems  that,  in  Morocco  especially,  for  the  name 
Berbers  is  substituted  Scellachs,  distinguished  from 
the  Arab  invaders,  the  Negroes,  and  the  mixed  popu- 
lation inhabiting  the  Libyan  region. 

Origin  of  the  Libyans. — If  we  recall  the  linguistic 
classification  of  Lepsius  we  find  that  the  second 
branch  of  the  Hamitic  tongues  is  the  Libyan, 
variously  subdivided  ;  from  the  linguistic  point  of 
view,  therefore,  the  Libyans  belong  to  the  Hamitic 
stock,  and  it  would  seem  easy  to  infer  that  they  are 
racially  related  to  the  Egyptian  and  other  eastern 
Hamites.  It  cannot  be  supposed  that  they  are  of 
different  origin  from  the  Hamites,  and  learned  their 
language  through  having  been  subjugated  by  them 
at  some  ancient  epoch,  for  there  is  no  reason  to 
suppose  that  the-Egyptians  ever  conquered  that  great 
African  region  which  was  and  is  occupied  by  the 
Libyans.  Egyptian  dominion  over  the  Libyans  of 
the  Mediterranean  was  limited  to  the  most  eastern 
tribes,  and  even  then  seems  to  have  been  only  tempo- 
rary. With  the  tribes  of  the  interior  the  Egyptians 
had  commercial  relationship,  but  no  rule  over  them, 
and  we  know  clearly  the  western  limits  of  the  do- 
minion of  the  Pharaohs.  The  Libyan  tongue,  so 
widely  spoken  from  the  western  borders  of  Egypt  to 
the  Atlantic,  and  from  the  Mediterranean  to  the 
Sahara,  is  the  original  speech  of  that  Hamitic  branch, 
and  not  imported. 

Libyan  writing  is  also  different  from  historical 
Egyptian  writing ;  whatever  may  be  the  origin  of 

ORIGIN   OK  THE  LIBYANS.  57  writing,  it  seems  to  have  nothing  in  common  with 
lhat  adopted  by  the  most  ancient  highly  civilised 
people  of  the  Mediterranean.  This  fact  supports  the 
evidence  in  favour  of  the  language  not  being  imported. 
Though  many  hypotheses  have  been  advanced  as 
to  the  origin  of  the  Libyans,  no  traditions  exist,  if  we 
except  one  transmitted  to  us  by  Sallust,  and  gathered 
from  a  history  by  Hiempsal,  King  of  Numidia. 
"  Originally,"  writes  Sallust,  "  Africa  was  inhabited 
by  the  Getuli  and  the  Libyans,  rough  and  uncivilised 
peoples,  who  lived  on  the  flesh  of  wild  animals  and 
on  grass  like  the  beasts.  They  were  not  ruled  either 
by  custom  or  by  law,  or  by  any  authority;  they  were 
wanderers,  resting  wherever  darkness  surprised  them. 
But  the  Africans  narrate  that  when  Hercules  died  in 
Spain,  his  army,  composed  of  various  peoples,  having 
lost  its  leader  and  many  desiring  the  "command, 
dispersed.  There  were  there  Medes,  Persians,  and 
Armenians,  who,  embarking  in  ships,  occupied  the 
maritime  territory.  The  Persians  went  near  the 
ocean,  and  for  dwellings  made  use  of  their  overturned 
ships,  since  they  could  not  find  materials  in  the  fields, 
nor  were  able  to  buy  or  barter  them  from  Spain  ;  the 
sea  and  ignorance  of  the  language  impeded  com- 
merce. They  mingled  slowly  with  the  Getuli  by 
marriage,  and  since  they  often  changed  their  settle- 
ments, were  called  Numidi."  Hiempsal  proceeded  to 
describe  how  these  invaders  obtained  honour  and  glory 
by  subjugating  the  native  Libyans.1  Much  has  been 
written  concerning  this  passage  in  Sallust,  but  it 
seems  to  me  to  teach  us  nothing  but  the  national 
vanity  of  the  Numidian  writer  Hiempsal,  who  desires 
us  to  accept  the  lofty  origin  of  his  Numidian  fcllow- 

1  Jujurtha,  xvii.,  xviii. 


countrymen.  The  problem  as  to  the  origin  of  the 
Libyans  and  the  Getuli  remains  unsolved,  and  we  only 
know  that  they  were  the  first  indigenous  populations. 
The  story  of  the  Medes,  Persians,  and  Armenians  in 
Spain  with  Hercules  remains  merely  a  legend. 

The  Myth  of  Atlantis. — Not  less  legendary,  it  seems 
to  me,  is  the  myth  of  the  Atlantides,  that  great  island 
in  the  Atlantic,  now  vanished,  from  which  the  first 
inhabitants  of  North  Africa  are  said  to  have  come. 
If  the  existence  of  Atlantis  is  not  contradicted  by 
geology,  even  if  it  has  been  considered  necessary,  in 
order  to  explain  certain  geological  features  of  Spain 
and  of  the  west  and  north  coasts  of  Africa,  its  exist- 
ence must  still  be  placed  anterior  to  the  quaternary 
epoch,  when  at  earliest  we  could  fix  the  origin  of  the 
African  population.1 

D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  who  believes  that  tradition 
shows  Iberian  influence  from  Great  Britain  to  Egypt, 
and  who  finds  Iberians  everywhere — in  Italy,  on  the 
Rhine,  in  North  Africa — seeks  the  origin  of  the  Iberians 
in  this  same  submerged  Atlantis.2  I  do  not  under- 
stand why  it  is  necessary  to  search  for  the  origin  of 
the  Libyans  in  a  vanished  island  when  there  are 
ample  proofs  of  the  relationship  of  the  Libyans  to 
the  other  Hamites;  apart  from  other  evidence,  their 
language  also  in  its  fundamental  elements  is  in 
common.  From  the  west,  beyond  the  Pillars  of 
Hercules,  to  the  east  of  Africa,  the  evidence  is  in 
favour  of  the  African  origin ;  in  the  east  the  living 
historical  elements  arc  preserved,  and  we  find  wide 

1  Cf.  the  arguments  for  the  existence  of  Atlantis  in  the  Appendix  to 
Tissot,  La  Province  Romaine  (TAfriijtu,  pp.  665  et  seq. 

3  Les  Premiers  Habitatiis  a'Eiuo/e,  Paris,  2nd  ed.,  1889,  pp  24 --'5  - 
and  see  Hartmnnn,  Die  Nigrifier,  pp.  274  el  seq. 

Till-    AFRICAN    BLONDS.  59 

diffusion  in  every  direction;  in  the  west  we  only  find 
an  expanse  of  ocean  and  the  Fortunate  Islands,  the 
possible  relic  of  a  continent  submerged  long  before  any 
human  stock  could  people  it.  The  Canary  Islands 
even  reveal  their  African  origin  in  their  plants  and 
their  animals  as  well  as  in  their  human  population. 

Tlu  African  Blonds. — The  problem  of  the  origin  of 
the  Libyans  is  intimately  related  with  the  existence 
of  the  blond  element  found  in  Tunis,  Algeria,  and 
Morocco,  and  with  the  great  series  of  megalithic 
monuments  scattered  over  northern  and  western 
Africa  wherever  the  Berber  population  exists.  On 
the  ground  of  climate,  it  has  been  thought  impossible 
that  the  blond  racial  elements  could  be  of  African 
origin  ;  the  land  of  the  blonds  is  the  north,  never  the 
south — such  seemed  to  be  the  most  acceptable  opinion. 
The  megalithic  monuments,  found  not  only  in  Tunis 
and  Algeria,  but  in  Morocco  and  other  parts  of 
Northern  Africa,  are  of  the  same  character  as  those 
found  in  Europe — Spain  and  Portugal,  the  west  of 
France  especially,  Great  Britain,  Denmark — as  well 
as  in  many  islands  of  the  Mediterranean. 

These  two  facts,  thus  indicating  a  convergence  of 
African  and  European  origins,  have  led  to  the  sug- 
gestion that  we  must  seek  the  origin  of  the  Libyans 
and  their  civilisation,  at  all  events  as  regards  the 
megalithic  monuments,  in  Europe  rather  than  in 
Africa.  According  to  an  ancient  opinion,  perhaps 
the  earliest,  the  blonds  of  the  Atlantic  region  were 
due  to  the  invasion  of  the  Vandals,  afterwards  con- 
quered by  Belisarius.1 

1  Bertrand  believes  that  a  dolmen  race  has  made  the  rircuit  of  the 
world,  tussing  through  Kurojx:  and  Africa  and  everywhere  leaving 
behind  it  monuments  that  are  identical  in  form.  (De  la  Distribution 
dei  Dolmens  J  la  surface  de  fa  fratiit,  Paris,  1860.) 


It  certainly  seems  to  be  proved  that  the  existence 
of  the  blonds  in  North  Africa  is  of  very  ancient  date, 
much  anterior  to  the  invasion  of  the  Vandals.  From 
various  monuments  it  appears  that  the  Egyptians 
knew  them,  having  come  into  conflict  with  them. 
For  the  earlier  theory,  therefore,  another  was  sub- 
stituted, according  to  which  a  blond  race,  having 
traversed  Europe,  crossed  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar, 
and  entering  Africa  mingled  with  the  indigenous 
brunet  element,  which,  perhaps  arising  in  the  Sahara, 
had  proceeded  northwards.  French  ethnologists  and 
anthropologists  of  eminence  supported  this  view,  and 
it  may  be  well  to  examine  it. 

General  Faidherbe,  who  in  various  writings  has 
occupied  himself  with  the  ethnology  and  anthropology 
of  Libya,  summarising  his  views  regarding  Algeria, 
writes: — "In  the  region  with  which  we  are  occupied, 
we  find  to-day  beside  the  elements — Arab,  Negro, 
European — whose  origin  we  know,  another  element, 
still  more  numerous,  which  forms  about  three-quarters 
of  the  total  population  (nine  millions  out  of  twelve 
million  souls),  speaking  a  dialect  of  the  same  language 
called  Berber,  or  having  abandoned  that  language  for 
Arabic  within  the  past  thousand  years.  This  fact 
dominates  the  pr6blem:  the  language  which  extends 
from  Egypt  to  the  Atlantic,  including  the  Canaries, 
where  the  ancient  names  of  places  and  populations 
are  Berber,  and  from  the  Mediterranean  to  the  Sahara, 
indicates  one  people,  one  race.  Those  who  speak  the 
language  resemble  physically,  in  general,  the  Egyptian 
natives,  though  less  brown,  as  well  as  certain  popula- 
tions of  the  same  latitudes  in  Arabia  and  neighbouring 
Asiatic  countries;  they  have  a  bilious  tint  and  black 
hair  and  eyes.  We  have  no  historical  data  concern- 


ing  the  origin  of  this  people  identified  with  the 
Berber  language,  just  as  we  have  none  also  for  the 
Egyptians,  but  its  existence  is  indicated  by  the 
Egyptian  annals  of  about  6000  years  ago."  After 
recalling  the  two  names,  Lebu  and  Tamahu,  by 
which  the  Egyptians  knew  the  Libyans,  Faidherbe 
passes  on  to  the  blonds.  "  Between  one  thousand 
and  two  thousand  years  before  the  Christian  era  a 
new  race  appeared  at  the  west  of  Egypt  Already, 
about  1700  B.C,  during  the  XVIIIth  dynasty,  the 
mother  of  Amenhotep  IV.  was  a  blond  with  blue 
eyes  and  rosy  skin,  of  origin  foreign  to  the  Delta; 
but  during  the  XlXth  dynasty,  towards  1400  B.C., 
there  was  a  great  invasion  of  nomads  with  blue  eyes 
and  fair  hair  coming  from  the  west  towards  Egypt. 
During  the  reign  of  Seti  I.  the  Libyans  seriously 
attacked  lower  Egypt  together  with  their  allies  and 
the  Mediterranean  peoples.  Seti's  son,  Ramses  II., 
stayed  their  advance,  but  under  Menoptah,  the  son  of 
Ramses  II.,  the  invasion  became  formidable,  and  the 
most  terrible  of  the  invaders  were  the  blonds,  who 
finally  established  themselves  in  Egypt  and  furnished 
the  king  with  troops.  Blonds  in  Africa,  with  a 
modern  climate  which  is  the  same  as  that  of  historic 
times,  are  an  anomaly.  These  blonds  came  into 
Africa  across  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar  from  the  land 
of  the  blonds,  Northern  Europe,  and  as  evidence  of 
their  migration  we  find  the  dolmens,  which  extend 
in  a  continuous  line  from  the  shores  of  the  Baltic  to 
Tunis.  These  blonds  from  the  north  subjugated  the 
native  Libyans  or  allied  themselves  with  .them  [Faid- 
herbe here  recalls  Sallust's  legend] ;  they  adopted 
their  language  and  were  confused  with  them  by  the 
Egyptians  under  the  name  of  Tamahu;  finally  they 


mingled  with  them  by  crossing.  Traces  of  them 
remain  among  nearly  all  the  populations  which  speak 
or  have  spoken  the  Berber  tongue.  At  certain  points 
blonds  are  disseminated  or  agglomerated.  We  may 
call  Berber  the  population  which  resulted  from  the 
mingling  of  the  native  Libyans  with  the  northern 

Topinard,  who  followed  up  Faidherbe's  observa- 
tions on  Algeria,  especially  occupied  himself  with 
this  blond  element  in  the  Berber  population,  and 
enumerated  five  theories  which  might  account  for 
their  presence.  Thus  they  might  be  (i)  the  residue 
of  the  Vandals,  as  Shaw  thought ;  or  (2)  mercenaries 
brought  into  Africa,  especially  from  Gaul,  by  the 
Romans ;  or  (3)  a  population  from  the  East,  dating 
from  the  expulsion  of  the  Hyksos  from  Egypt ;  or 
(4)  a  fair  race  existing  from  time  immemorial  in 
North  Africa,  whence  they  sent  an  expedition  towards 
Egypt,  and  also  towards  the  north,  where  they  con- 
structed dolmens ;  or,  finally  (5),  they  may  have 
come  from  the  north,  as  Faidherbe  believed. 

A  little  later,  Tissot,  who  resided  in  Morocco,  while 
pointing  out  the  existence  of  the  same  megalithic 
monuments  in  that  region,  occupied  himself  with  the 
blond  elements  of  the  population  and  its  components. 
He  considered  that  the  blonds  formed  more  than  a 
third  part  of  the  population  of  Morocco,  as  Drum- 
mond  Hay  had  stated,  and  that  two-thirds  of  the 
Rif  colony  established  at  Tangier  were  composed  of 
individuals  of  blond  and  chestnut  type,  the  other 
third  of  a  brown  type  resembling  the  European 
population  of  the  south-west  of  France.  The  Berbers 

1  "  Instructions  sur  1'Anthropologie  <1e  1'AlgeVie,"  Bull.  Soc.  Anth. 
Paris,  2ml  series,  viii.,  1873,  PP-  ^°3  <"'  sef- 


of  northern  and  central  Morocco  have  a  European 
physiognomy,  as  also  the  independent  Berbers  of  the 
south  and  the  mountains ;  and  their  customs  and 
habits  approximate  them  to  the  French.  On  the 
heights  of  the  Atlas  chain  the  population  is  blond  ; 
many  have  eyes  that  are  blue,  grey,  or  green  like  a 
cat's.  But  the  population  on  the  southern  slopes  of 
the  Atlas  towards  the  Sahara  are  of  brown  type,  with 
black  eyes,  and  resemble  the  Sicilians  in  physiog- 
nomy. Tissot  also  believed  he  could  discern  a  third 
brown  type,  of  eastern  character.  Influenced,  it 
seems  to  me,  by  racial  names  and  the  opinions  of 
others,  Tissot  believed  he  could  find  the  Libyans 
proper  in  two  races,  blond  and  brown,  corresponding 
to  the  French  :  the  Getuli  in  the  brown  southern 
race,  the  Numidians  in  the  eastern  type,  and  Melano- 
Gctuli  in  the  brown  race  crossed  with  Negro 

A  few  years  later,  when  compiling  an  important 
work  on  the  comparative  geography  of  Roman 
Africa,  Tissot  admitted  the  existence  of  an  autoch- 
thonous race  in  the  Sahara,  demonstrated  by  the 
flint  implements  found  in  the  desert  region,  and  the 
superposition  of  a  race  coming  from  Europe.  These 
two  races  he  supposed  to  have  fused  and  so  formed 
the  Libyan  or  Berber  stock,  the  two  racial  elements 
still  preserving  their  brown  and  blond  physical 

Broca  also  was  of  this  opinion,  which  he  maintained 
against  that  of  Shaw  and  others.3  DC  Quatrcfages,  on 

1  "  Sur  les  Monuments  Mq;ali(l)ii|ucs  ct  les  Populations  blondes  du 
Maroc,"  /'<•.-//<•  if.liithrofotogie,  v  ,  1876. 

*  Gfojraf>hie  <w///«//r>,  pp.  398  el  st<j. 

3  "  I.cs  IVupk-N  M»n<K  i-t  Irs  M.mimun's  Mt'galithiqucs  dans 
l'Afri<|iio  septentrionalf,"  A'fo.  if. -tilth,,  v.,  1876. 


the  other  hand,  believed  that  the  presence  of  the  blond 
element  in  North  Africa  remained  unexplained.1 

Together  with  the  above  opinions  we  find  others, 
especially  those  of  Desor  and  Letourneux  among  the 
older  writers,  which  are  wholly  or  partly  opposed  to 
those  of  Faidherbe  and  Broca.  Desor  remarks  that 
the  modern  inhabitants  of  the  Atlas  do  not  preserve 
the  physiognomy  which  the  Egyptians  have  ascribed 
to  the  Tamahu.  He  finds  that  the  inhabitants  of 
the  oasis  of  Suf  are  hardly  to  be  distinguished  from 
Europeans,  and  to  Martin,  who  accompanied  Desor, 
some  of  the  children  looked  like  scholars  in  some 
Provencal  or  Languedocian  village  school.  These 
blonds  might  be  the  residue  of  the  primitive  Tamahu. 
Desor  asks  if  we  ought  not  to  reverse  our  search  and 
admit  an  immigration  of  the  fair  race  from  northern 
Africa  into  Europe  rather  than  in  the  reverse 

Letourneux,  again,  in  a  letter  to  Desor,2  describes 
and  classifies  the  sepulchral  monuments  of  Eastern 
Algeria,  and  distinguishes  between  those  of  which 
the  Berber  origin  is  certain,  those  called  Celtic,  and 
those  not  yet  classified.  Regarding  the  first  there 
is  no  doubt ;  as  to  the  second  he  remarks  that  the 
accumulation  at  s"ome  spots  shows  that  they  were 
raised  by  a  long  series  of  generations,  and  must 
belong  to  different  epochs;  he  can  find  none  of  the 
Roman  age.  These  monuments  are  varied,  and  some 
have  a  special  character.  He  refuses  to  believe  that 
these  monuments  are  connected  with  the  Celts,  who 
were  not  the  only  people  who  constructed  dolmens. 

1  Hffloire  Ghttrale  des  Races  Humaines,  1889,  p.  486. 

2  "  Sur  les   Monuments  funcraires  de  l'A1g£rie  orientate,"  Archiv 
fur  A nth. ,  vol.  ii. 


As  to  whether  the  Berbers  raised  these  monuments, 
he  replies  that  this  question  brings  us  to  the  origin 
and  establishment  of  the  Berbers  in  Africa,  and  that 
examination  of  the  bones  found  in  these  same  monu- 
ments may  help  us  to  settle  the  question.  A  great 
step  would  be  made  if  we  could  identify  the  Berbers 
with  the  blond  Tamahu  race  recorded  in  Egypt. 
He  himself  believes  that  he  has  found  traces  of  the 
Tamahu  in  place-names,  such  as  the  city  of 
Thamugas  (or  rather  Thamugadi),  of  Thamu,  and 
so  on. 

At  the  meeting  of  the  French  Association  for  the 
Advancement  of  Science,  held  at  Algiers  in  1881,  a 
discussion  took  place  in  the  anthropological  section 

concerning    these    megalith ic mon u men ts.      Martin 

stated  the  following  conclusions: — (i)  The  mcgaliTFuc 
tombs  of  Algeria  and  northern  Africa  generally 
belong  to  the  same  race  which  erected  similar  monu- 
ments in  Gaul  and  Spain.  (2)  The  artistic  inferiority 
of  the  African  monuments  suggests  that  the  African 
cemeteries  were  constructed  at  a  date  anterior  to  the 
great  cemeteries  of  the  Morbihan  and  our  chief 
European  monuments.  The  Celts  would  thus  have 
passed  into  Africa  at  a  very  remote  period,  immedi- 
ately after  the  conque>t  of  Spain,  and  would  not  have 
made  the  same  progress  as  their  fellow-countrymen 
in  Europe.  (3)  Proof  is  wanting  to  show  that  the 
mcgalithic  tombs  of  North  Africa  belong  to  the 
Tamahu,  but  it  is  probable  that  these  were  the 
blond  Libyans  spoken  of  by  some  Greek  geographers, 
and  that  these  blond  Libyans  were  Celts  from  Spain 
who  conquered  the  aborigines  of  North  Africa.1 

1  Pari*.    1882.      Cf.    Borsari,    Gfosrafia   Elnt'ogica  e  Slorica  del.'a 
Tripoli  niiini  t  /'(,  etc.,  N.\|>k-s  iSSS,  |  p.   11  ft  iff. 



Martin's  second  conclusion  is  worthy  of  attention ; 
finding  the  construction  of  the  African  monuments 
inferior  to  those  of  Europe,  he  argues  that  the  Celts 
who  remained  in  Europe  progressed  while  the  colonists 
in  Africa  remained  savage.  Would  not  these  Celts, 
however,  have  erected  some  of  their  crude  monuments 
in  Europe  before  emigration  ?  The  facts  only  become 
more  inexplicable  with  the  aid  of  this  variant  of  the 
opinion  concerning  the  origin  of  the  megalithic  monu- 
ments and  the  blonds 

There  has,  I  believe,  been  no  further  discussion 
concerning  the  blonds  of  Africa;  the  phenomenon 
seemed  so  abnormal  that  every  one  has  sought  an 
explanation  in  accordance  with  his  own  scientific 
tendencies.  Thus  Pruner-Bey  wrote: — "Admitted 
that  there  exist  in  Kabylia  or  elsewhere  individuals 
or  small  groups  of  individuals  of  xanthoid  character, 
are  we  authorised  to  establish  a  whole  system  of 
ethnogenesis  on  this  single  character  ?  Are  we  to 
allow  the  whole  melanic  mass,  with  its  well-marked 
skull  and  physical  type,  to  be  absorbed  by  a  small 
fraction  only  differing  in  the  colour  of  the  hair?  In 
short,  the  African  Berber  compared  to  the  Negro  and 
the  Hottentot  corresponds  to  the  Finn  in  relation  to 
the  other  circurnpolar  tribes  in  the  north ;  he  is  the 
nearest  relation  to  the  Egyptian  in  every  respect,  and 
constitutes  an  intermediate  form  between  the  Semite 
and  the  African  of  the  south."1 

Hartmann  is  unable  to  accept  the  theories  by  which 
French  ethnologists  and  anthropologists  explain  the 
presence  of  the  blond  element  in  North  Africa  and 
the  megalithic  monuments.  With  regard  to  the  first, 

1  Les  Carthaginoh  en  Fiance,  p.  51;  cf.  Hartmann,  Die  Nigiitier, 
p.  ^64. 


he  remarks  that  we  must  consider  the  quantity  and 
quality  of  this  blond  African  clement,  and  he  believes 
that  the  real  blond,  resembling  the  Teuton,  docs  not 
exist  there  at  all,  what  we  find  being  reddish-brown 
or  ash-coloured  individuals  (the  French  cendrf),  as 
also  Pruner-Bey  affirms.1  Topinard,  again,  describing 
the  characters  of  the  Kabylcs,  remarks  that  the  hair, 
and  especially  the  beard,  are  often  chestnut  or 

The  blond  element  docs  not  appear  to  be  large; 
among  400  Turcos  at  Bona  five  were  found  with  fair, 
and  twenty  with  chestnut  hair.3  Bertholon,  among 
344  individuals  in  the  north-west  of  Tunis,  found 
2.03  per  cent  with  blond  and  red  hair,  9.01  per  cent, 
with  intermediate,  perhaps  chestnut  tints,  and  88.95 
dark.4  It  is  true  that  Tissot  states  that  in  Morocco 
about  one-third  of  the  population  is  blond,  but  he 
gives  no  definite  statistics.  It  is  more  important  to 
note  that  he  finds  that  the  greater  number  of  blonds  is 
on  the  heights  of  the  Atlas  mountains,  and  on  their 
northern  rather  than  on  their  southern  slopes.  Both 
as  regards  the  quantity  and  quality  of  the  blond 
element,  Hartmann,  taking  into  consideration  the 
physical  characters  of  the  Berbers,  considers  that  the 
blond  Tamahu  and  the  reddish  Magreb  population 
must  find  their  explanation  within  Africa  itself.5 

It  may  be  as   Hartmann  believes,  and  I  may  add 

1  Hartmann,  op.  cit.,  pp.  263-4. 

•  Amhropologie  de  rAlg/rie,  p.  627. 

'  Hartmann,  he.  tit.,  p.  263. 

4  "  F.xploration  Anthropologique  de  la  Khoumiric,"  fSnll.  Gt0g. 
Hut.  et  Deseript.,  1891,  No.  4;  Colliijnon,  "  Repartition  <le  la  Coulcur 
«K--  Yeux  et  ties  Chevcux  chez  les  Tunisiens  se*<len(aires,"  Kev.  (fAnthi:, 
1 888. 

8  Lot.  tit.,  p.  264. 


certain  considerations  which  tend  to  show  that  the 
Celtic  theory  of  the  African  blonds  cannot  be  main- 

If  we  turn,  as  others  have  done  in  this  connection, 
to  the  Egyptian  monuments,  we  find  that  the  customs 
of  the  Lebu  and  Tamahu  were  entirely  Libyan. 
Their  clothing  and  their  ornaments  were  African,  and 
had  nothing  European  about  them.  Tissot  himself 
states  that  the  same  customs  prevail  among  the 
Amazigh  of  the  Rif,  among  certain  Tripoli  tribes 
and  so  on.1  On  the  other  hand,  the  European  allies 
of  the  Libyans,  such  as  the  Siculi,  Sards,  and  lonians, 
and  also  the  Cypriots  and  Phoenicians,  retained 
customs  showing  another  civilisation,  though  still 
Mediterranean.  Now  if  it  is  true  that  a  European 
race  had  invaded  Africa,  and  had  thrown  itself  against 
Egypt,  showing  itself,  according  to  Faidherbe,  more 
terrible  than  the  natives,  how  is  it  that  it  was  not 
distinguished  by  customs  different  from  those  of  the 
natives?  How  is  it  that  it  was  supplied  with  the 
same  African  ornaments,  such  as  ostrich  feathers? 
Why  do  we  find  the  hair  dressed  in  the  African  and 
not  in  the  European  manner?  Yet  there  must  have 
been  great  differences,  if  the  one  race  came  from  the 
north  of  Europe  and  the  other  from  the  Sahara.  It 
cannot  be  said  that  they  had  become  fused  with  the 
natives  whose  tongue  they  had  adopted,  if  it  is  true 
that  they  attacked  Egypt  a  short  time  after  their 
arrival  in  Africa.  And  if  they  were  such  strong  and 
proud  conquerors,  it  is  unlikely  that  they  would  have 
abandoned  their  own  language  for  that  of  the 
conquered  barbarians.  We  may  also  oppose  the 
Celtic  theory  of  the  blond  element  in  Africa  by  the 

1  Geographic  comfarje,  pp.  473-4- 


results  of  Celtic  anthropology  established  by  Broca 
and  others.  According  to  Broca  and  subsequent 
investigators,  such  as  Hovelacque,  the  Celts  were 
brachyccphalic  brunets,1  not  dolichocephalic  blonds, 
as  many  historians  and  some  anthropologists  have 
supposed.2  The  blonds  of  Africa,  as  appears  from 
various  measurements,  are  dolichocephalic.3  Pruner- 
Bcy  found  conformity  of  type  between  the  Berber 
and  Egyptian  skulls,4  and  from  an  examination  of 
the  skulls  from  the  Roknia  graves  he  deduced  the 
curious  and  important  conclusion  that  they  exhibited 
a  type  resembling  that  of  ancient  Italian  skulls,  and 
he  hence  suspected  that  there  had  been  emigration 
through  Sicily  to  Tunis.5  Without  for  the  moment 
accepting  or  rejecting  this  opinion  of  Pruner-Bcy's 
regarding  the  cranial  type  of  the  ancient  Italians,  we 
may  note  that  he  could  not  see  the  least  indication 
of  Celtic  characters  in  the  skulls  of  the  mcgalithic 

It  might  be  responded  that  the  blonds  were  Teu- 
tonic, and  therefore  dolichocephalic,  perhaps  even  of 
the  Reihengrabcr  type.  No  one,  however,  has  abso- 
lutely asserted  this,  and  if  they  were  regarded  as 
Teutons  we  should  have  to  consider  the  objections 
arising  from  this  supposed  acclimatisation  in  Africa 
of  a  north  European  race.  Moreover,  if  the  Teutonic 
clement  constructed  the  megalithic  monuments  of 

1  Broca,  "La  Race  Celliquc  Ancicnne  el  Modcrnc,"  Kev  ifAnth., 
1873;  I  lovelacquc,  "  Lc  Crane  Savoyard,"  ib  ,  1877;  Scrgi,  Liguri  t 
Celti  tulla  Valtc  del  Po,  Florence,  1883. 

-  His  and  Kiitimeycr,  Crania  Helvetica,  p.  34  ;  Virc,  "  La  Kabylic 
du  Djurjurn,"  />«//.,  (it.,  1893,  iv.  5. 

3  Ikrlholon,  op.  tit. 

4  Hartmann,  op.  tit.,  p.  272. 

•  Bouryuignat,  cited  by  Hartmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  273. 


Africa  and  Europe,  we  ought  to  find  a  much  greater 
number  of  primitive  blonds  in  Spain,  in  the  west  of 
France,  and  in  Great  Britain  before  the  Celtic  inva- 
sions of  the  neolithic  age.  Now  it  is  precisely  this 
element  which  is  rare  in  the  west  of  France  and  in 
Spain,  due  rather  to  recent  than  to  prehistoric  im- 

In  opposition  to  the  theory  of  a  migration  from 
the  north  of  Europe  to  the  west  and  then  to  Africa, 
I  am,  on  the  contrary,  convinced  that  a  migration  of 
the  African  racial  element  took  place  in  primitive 
times  from  the  south  towards  the  north.  The  types 
of  Cro-Magnon,  L'Homme-Mort,  and  other  French 
and  Belgian  localities,  bear  witness  to  the  presence 
of  an  African  stock  in  the  same  region  in  which  we 
find  the  dolmens  and  other  megalithic  monuments 
erroneously  attributed  to  the  Celts.1 

As  regards  rnegajithfc  and  sepulchral  monuments 
in  general,  of  various  forms,  after  studying  their  con- 
struction and  diffusion  throughout  the  Mediterranean, 
on  the  North  African  coast,  including  Egypt,  and  in 
various  parts  of  Europe,  I  am  convinced  that  they 
owe  their  origin  to  a  stock  which  I  have  called 
Mediterranean,  but  which  is  of  African  origin.  The 
term  "Mediterranean,"  as  I  use  it^ lM&""fioF~'the  ex- 
tension given  to  it  by  French  anthropologists,  and  by 
those  who  follow  Muller's  classification.  I  understand 
by  it  all  those  primitive  peoples  who  have  occupied 
Ithe  basin  of  the  Mediterranean,  and  have  such  funda- 
mental physical  characters  in  common  as  to  enable  us  1 
to  assign  to  them  a  single  place  of  origin,  which  must  1 
be  in  east  Africa  and  to  the  north  of  the  Equator. 

1  Cf.  Verneau,  Rapport  sur  tine  Mission  scientifique  dans  r  Archiptl 
Canaricit,  Paris,  1887. 


The  French  give  the  race,  as  they  term  it,  a  more 
restricted  and  partial  sense,  so  as  to  exclude  many  of 
the  populations  which  belong  to  it. 

This  stock,  thus  widely  extended,  must  have  had 
primitive  funeral  customs,  which  it  preserved  until 
they  were  destroyed  by  new  and  stronger  influences, 
after  the  neolithic  epoch  had  partially  modified  them 
in  the  regions  where  that  foreign  influence  was  pre- 
dominant, as  appeared  in  Greece,  Italy,  Great  Britain, 
and  some  parts  of  Central  Europe.  At  first  the  dead  »*>„*. 
were  deposited  in  grottoes  and  caves,  and  the  artistic  ^ 
development  of  the  sepulchral  monuments  in  struc-  '  ^ 
turc  and  form  increased  with  the  growth  of  civilisa- 
tion among  the  various  fractions  scattered  through 
the  great  basin  and  towards  Europe.  Asia  Minor 
possessed  artistic  tombs,  and  it  is  sufficient  to  recall 
the  tomb  of  Alyattes,  described  by  Herodotus;  Greece 
also  possessed  artistic  sepulchral  monuments  in  the 
Mycenaean  age,  as  shown  by  the  tombs  of  the  Atrida;; 
Egypt  developed  in  a  colossal  manner  the  conception 
and  execution  of  the  sepulchral  monument,  which 
consisted  of  a  chambered  tumulus  in  which  the  dead 
man  lay  as  though  he  were  alive  and  inhabiting  his 
own  house. 

Libya,  or  the  southern  and  western  part  of  the 
Mediterranean,  with  its  populations  shows  us  the 
primitive  diffusion  of  the  Mediterranean  stock,  and 
hence  the  scries  of  its  sepulchral  monuments  repre- 
sents civilisation  from  its  most  primitive  to  its  most 
developed  forms  under  the  Numidians  and  other 
Libyan  tribes.  We  find  here,  therefore,  not  only  the 
monuments  improperly  called  Celtic,  but  also  the 
mortuary  grottoes  and  caves  ;  and  we  find  tombs  to 
which  nothing  in  Europe  corresponds,  because  they 


were  constructed  when  the  two  regions  were  separated 
by  the  invasion  of  other  stocks  which  transformed 
the  funeral  customs  of  the  primitive  inhabitants  of 
Europe.  The  Basina,  Sciuscc,  and  Madghasen  are 
monuments  of  purely  Libyan  character ;  the  last  are 
really  architectural  works,  apparently  influenced  from 
Greece,  showing  an  evolution  towards  the  tumulus, 
especially  among  the  Numidians.1  The  Celts  and  the 
Germans  never  reached  Libya,  as  some  believe ;  if 
they  had,  they  would  have  modified  the  funeral  cus- 
toms by  introducing  cremation,  as  they  did  in  Europe 
in  the  neolithic  age. 

In  primitive  times,  therefore,  that  is  to  say  in  those 
times  recorded  by  the  Egyptian  monuments,  we  must 
exclude  the  influence  of  any  stock  not  of  Mediter- 
ranean character ;  the  confederation  of  the  Siculi,  the 
Sards,  and  other  Mediterranean  peoples,  with  the 
Libyans  against  Egypt,  represents  the  alliance  of 
many  peoples  belonging  to  the  same  western  stock 
against  the  oriental  Egyptian  power.  The  European 
stock,  Celtic  or  Teutonic,  had  not  yet  appeared  to  the 
south  and  west  of  Europe  to  hinder  any  further  diffu- 
sion of  the  Mediterranean  stock,  and  to  displace  it  from 
its  latest  seats.  It  seems  to  me  impossible,  therefore, 
to  find  in  the  blonds  of  Africa  a  racial  element  from 
northern  Europe.  If  they  had  come  at  so  early  a 
period  they  would  have  radically  modified  Libyan 
civilisation,  beginning  with  funeral  customs,  as  I  have 
already  said,  and  imposed  their  own  language ;  this 
supposition  is  absolutely  excluded. 

It  cannot  be  argued  that  the  European  element  was 
too  small  to  impose  its  customs  and  language;  if  that 

1  Cf.  Letourneux,  op.  cif.,  fi^.   59;   Tissot,  op.  cit.,   p.   499  el  se<j., 
and  figs.  55,  56. 

Till-     A!  U>  AN    ULONDS.  73 

were  the  case  it  would  quickly  have  disappeared  by 
absorption,  or  selection,  or  the  difficulty  of  adaptation 
to  the  African  climate.  To  have  descendants  down 
to  our  own  times  it  must  have  been  very  large;  and 
in  that  case  it  would  have  created  a  new  civilisation 
and  perpetuated  its  own  tongue. 

Must  we,  therefore,  regard  the  presence  of  blonds 
in  Africa  as  inexplicable? 

In  Livi's  work  on  military  anthropometry1  a  very 
important  fact  is  brought  out  concerning  the  distribu- 
tion of  blonds  in  relation  to  height  above  the  sea- 
level.  He  finds  that  in  Piedmont,  Liguria,  Vcncto, 
Emilia,  Lombardy,  Tuscany,  the  Marches,  Lazio, 
Campania,  Basilicata,  Calabria,  Sicily,  and  Sardinia, 
above  401  metres  over  sea -level  the  blonds  pre- 
dominate over  the  brunets ;  below  400  metres  the 
brunets  predominate.  Umbria  is  an  exception,  for 
here  the  two  elements  arc  nearly  equal,  also  Abruzzi, 
where  the  brunct  element  prevails,  an  exception  which 
Livi  explains  by  the  fact  that  these  two  provinces  are 
hilly  almost  throughout,  so  that  we  could  scarcely 
expect  to  find  any  marked  difference  between  the 
small  plain  regions  and  the  surrounding  hills.  lie 
attributes  the  phenomenon  to  a  special  action  ot 
mountains  on  pigmentation  ;  through  their  height 
they  thus  have  the  same  influence  as  latitude. 

If  we  turn  to  the  region  where  the  blonds  in  Africa 
are  most  numerous — that  is  to  say,  Morocco — we 
observe  at  once  not  only  that,  like  the  whole  of 
Northern  Libya,  it  is  situated  in  the  temperate  zone, 
between  about  36*  and  29°3o'  of  lat.  N.,  but  that  it 
constitutes  the  enormous  nucleus  of  the  Atlas  chain. 

1  .///.'/ .•'fometria   iiiililare,  I'arlc    I.,   Rome,  1896,   pp.   65  et  sty., 
fig.  n. 


The  heights  above  sea-level  vary  between  600  and 
1 2,000  feet.1  There  is  therefore  a  region  of  perpetual 
snow,  and  a  cold  region  constituted  by  valleys  not 
very  unlike  some  Alpine  and  Apennine  valleys.  May 
we  not  conclude  that  the  same  Libyan  stock,  estab- 
lished in  North  Africa  from  time  immemorial  (we 
now  have  evidence  of  an  early  stone  age),  had  under- 
gone the  diverse  influences  of  external  conditions  of 
climate  and  soil  forming  variations  in  external  physical 
characters  ?  We  may  perhaps  see  in  the  eastern 
Hamitic  branch,  exposed  to  different  conditions  of 
latitude  and  soil,  from  Egypt  to  Central  Africa, 
a  series  of  variations  so  characteristic  as  to  form, 
by  pigmentation  alone,  distinct  varieties  of  the 
same  stock.  If  the  fundamental  internal  characters 
of  the  blond  and  brunet  Libyans  are  the  same,  I  am 
disposed  to  believe  that  the  external  differences,  in 
colour  of  hair  skin,  and  eyes,  aie  due  to  the  influence 
of  altitude. 

The  centre  of  formation  of  the  blond  element  in 
North  Africa  would  thus  be  in  the  Atlas  valleys, 
especially  in  Morocco,  and  this  would  explain  the 
fact  that  we  find  the  greater  number  ot  blonds  in  this 
region.  From  this  centre  there  would  have  been,  in 
ancient  and  succeeding  times,  a  certain  diffusion  into 
the  neighbouring  countries  as  far  as  the  sea  in  Algeria 
and  Tunis.  Possibly  in  ancient  times  this  movement 
was  a  rapid  emigration,  and  hence  an  invasion  towards 
the  east  in  union  with  the  brunet  populations ;  and 
the  presence  of  blonds  among  the  brunets  must  have 
caused  great  surprise,  as  among  the  Romans  at  the 
time  of  the  invasion  ot  the  Gauls,  composed  of  brunet 

1  Thomson,   Travels  in  the  Atlas  and  Southern  Morocco,  London, 


Celts  and  blond  Teutons.  Although  we  can  only 
assign  a  relative  value  to  the  pictorial  ethnography  of 
Egypt,  we  must  suppose  that,  in  the  presence  of  this 
new  and  unexpected  blond  type  with  blue  eyes,  the 
Egyptians  represented  the  Libyans  with  these  char- 
acters, not  taking  into  consideration  the  brunets. 

Quedenfeldt,  it  is  true,  would  return  to  the  opinion 
of  those  who  see  the  Vandals  in  the  African  blonds, 
because,  he  states,  in  the  great  Atlas,  to  the  south,  he 
could  not  find  one;  he  attempts  to  give  various  ex- 
planations of  the  presence  of  blonds,  by  referring  it  to 
Spanish  families,  to  European  refugees,  to  the  construc- 
tion of  Fez,  which  furnishes  a  shelter  from  the  dark- 
ening influence  of  the  sun.1  I  do  not  wish  to  deny 
that  on  the  coast  of  Morocco,  as  on  that  of  Algeria 
and  Tunis,  there  are  foreign  elements  from  Europe 
and  elsewhere,  and  I  would  admit  with  Quedenfeldt 
that  many  blonds  have  come  from  Europe  ;  but  it 
seems  to  me  impossible  thus  to  explain  the  blonds  in 
the  valleys  of  the  Atlas  chain. 

Physical  Characters  of  tlie  Libyans. — 1 1  we  seek  to 
ascertain  the  physical  characters  of  the  Libyans  from 
the  evidence  offered  by  the  Egyptian  monuments,  we 
shall  find  ourselves  considerably  perplexed,  in  spite  of 
what  is  affirmed  by  some  as  to  the  truthful  character 
of  the  pictured  and  sculptured  representations  on 
these  monuments.  We  find  three  types  represented 
under  the  names  of  Tamahu  and  Lcbu,  and  all  three 
different  The  most  characteristic  Tamahu  type 
shows  a  slightly  aquiline  nose,  a  well-cut  mouth  with 
thin  lips,  rather  elongated  chin,  little  beard  and  very 
short  moustache ;  the  hair  is  worn  in  little  falling 

1  "Eintheilung  und  Yc%rbrcitung  dcr  Berberbcvulkerung  im  Mar- 
okko,"  Zt.  /.  EthHologie,  xx.,  1888,  pp  115,  189,  190. 


tresses  like  the  people  of  Pun,  with  one  long  tress 
descending  in  front  of  the  car  as  far  as  the  neck,  and 
twisted  into  a  spiral ;  two  large  ostrich  feathers  adorn 
the  head  (Fig.  i).1  The  second  type  (Fig.  2)  differs 
notably  from  the  first;  the  nose  is  strongly  aquiline 
and  the  forehead  receding,  the  lips  thick  and  the 
beard  long,  so  that  as  represented  on  the  monuments 
it  might  be  regarded  as  a  Semitic  type.  A  third 
head,  representing  a  chief  of  the  Lebu,  shows  an 

FIG.   i. — Tamahu  (Rosellini). 

aquiline  nose,  more  elevated  than  the  others,  promi- 
nent lips,  a  long  beard  differently  arranged  from  that 
of  the  second  figure ;  the  forehead  seems  to  show 
exaggerated  prominence  of  the  supra-orbital  arches 

(Fig.  3>2 

What  can  we  conclude  from  these  three  types? 
Which  is  correct  ?  Poole  regards  the  first  as  the  real 
Libyan  mythological  type,  and  thinks  that  all  may 
represent  sub-races;  he  compares  the  third  type  with 
a  Shardana  or  Sard  type  very  slightly  differing  from 

Kosellini,  Plate  clx. 

Kosellini,  1'latc  cxlii  ,  3. 


it.1  He  believes  also,  in  my  opinion  incorrectly,  that 
the  last  two  types  arc  strongly  accentuated  forms  of 
the  first.  I  cannot  sec  this  resemblance;  it  is  enough 
to  note  the  slight  development  of  the  beard  in  the 
first,  and  its  fulness  in  the  other. 

More  noteworthy  is  the  opinion  of  Flower  (ex- 
pressed at  the  same  time  as  Poole's),  who  believed 
that  in  the  third  form  and  in  the  Shardana2  we 
may  recognise  the  Ncandcrthaloid  type.  It  is  quite 
probable,  he  remarked,  that  these  people  from  the 

Fir..  2.—  Tamahu  (Roscllini). 

north  were  the  descendants  of  a  primitive  European 
population  which  crossed  into  Africa  by  the  Straits 
of  Gibraltar.  Poolc  accepts  this  opinion,  which  he 
calls  an  important  discovery,  as  to  an  aquiline  variety 
of  the  Nordic  population  with  prominent  supra-orbital 
arches,  representing  the  primitive  European  type. 
Hut  to  discover  the  Ncandcrthaloid  type  in  Africa, 
a  primitive  European  race  at  the  period  of  the  XlXth 
I  )ynasty,  seems  to  me,  with  all  due  regard  to  Flower's 

1   I'oole,  "The  Egyptian  Classification  of  the  Knees  of  Man,"  Jo::r. 
Antli.  /list.,  xvi.,  iSS;,  pp.  371  el  stq. 
3  Roscllini,  Plate  cxliii. ,  to. 


1  opinion,  a  work  of  the  imagination.  Moreover,  to 
discover  it  with  a  nose  of  the  character  called  Semitic, 

Mand  to  make  it  a  new  variety  of  the  Neanderthaloid 
(type,  seems  to  me  an  altogether  baseless  conception. 
II  cannot  agree  that  the  primitive  European  type  was 
prevalent  in  the  Mediterranean  among  Sards  and 
Libyans,  as  these  two  distinguished  English  authori- 
ties are  prepared  to  do,  on  the  evidence  furnished  by 
two  Egyptian  drawings  which  may  be  merely  con- 

FIG.  3.— Lebu  (Rosellini). 

The  type  most  approaching  truth  must  be  the  first, 
which  in  costume  a\so  bears  the  characters  of  primitive 
civilisation,  as  well  as  th ,  undeveloped  beard  peculiar 
to  the  varieties  ofi(ciie  Hamitic  race.  This  type  is 
repeated  on  t^1 ,  Egyptian  monuments  with  slight 
variations;  r'.o  beard  is  worn  as  by  the  Arabs,  and 
the  arms  are  tattooed.1 

Unfortunately  we  have  no  explicit  notices  concern- 
ing the  physical  characters  of  the  Libyans  from  any 
Greek  or  Roman  source,  notwithstanding  the  intimate 

1  Lepsins,  Denkmaler,  Plate  III. 


relations  between  these  two  nations  of  antiquity  and 
Africa.  They  have  only  handed  on  to  us  geographical 
information  and  racial  names,  which  we  may  in  part 
identify  with  new  names  transformed  from  the  old. 
If  we  wish  to  have  exact  ideas  concerning  the  Libyans 
we  must  therefore  examine  the  modern  Berbers,  who 
arc  still  numerous  in  the  extensive  region  they  have 
inhabited  from  time  immemorial,  remaining  un- 
changed, it  seems,  in  their  customs  and  in  their 
anthropological  characters,  in  spite  of  the  foreign 
domination  they  have  undergone,  especially  in  the 
northern  zone,  at  the  hands  of  Phoenicians,  Greeks, 
and  Romans  in  ancient  times,  of  Vandals,  and  finally 
Arabs  in  more  recent  times.1 

From  such  information  as  we  have,  and  from  the 
neglect  of  the  ancients  to  describe  the  physical 
characters  of  the  Libyans,  we  gain  the  general  idea 
that  in  facial  characters  and  colour  of  hair  and  eyes 
these  people  resembled  the  inhabitants  of  Southern 
Europe.  On  this  account,  perhaps,  in  the  eyes  of 
the  Greeks  and  Romans,  the  northern  Libyans  may 
not  have  seemed  to  call  for  particular  description  ; 
the  attribution  of  Persian,  Armenian,  and  Median 
origin  to  the  Numidians  by  Hiempsal  indicates  that 
the  Libyans  resembled  the  peoples  in  whom  their 
origin  was  then  sought.  At  Rome  an  orator  or 
other  person  ol  Libyan  origin  was  not  distinguished 

1  Boissier  (L'Aftiqtte  Komaint,  1895,  p.  315)  writes  on  this  point:— 
"  Of  all  these  only  Bcrl>ers  remain;  they  have  absorbed  everything.  1 
kn»w  not  if  anthropology,  by  investigating  the  colour  of  their  skin  or 
the  conformation  of  their  bodies,  will  ever  distinguish  among  them  the 
descendants  of  these  various  vanished  peoples  ;  but  in  their  ideas,  their 
customs,  their  Ixrlicfs,  their  manner  of  thinking  and  living,  there  is 
nothing  I'lurnician,  nothing  Roman,  nothing  Vandal;  it  is  the  lierber 
alone  who  cmei: 


from  a  Roman,  and  in  Greece  and  Egypt  no  distinc- 
tion in  physical  traits  was  attributed  to  the  Libyans 
who  sojourned  there.  In  the  long  and  severe  Punic 
wars  the  cavalry,  and  perhaps  the  whole  army  of 
Hannibal  which  passed  into  Italy,  was  composed  of 
Numidians  and  other  Libyans  or  Berbers,  and  their 
figures  and  appearance  attracted  no  attention  as 
unlike  those  of  south  European  peoples.  There 
must  have  been  considerable  if  not  complete  resem- 
blance. The  reports  ot  the  Roman  generals  who 
penetrated  into  the  Fez  district,  as  far  even  as 
Agisimba,  have  not  reached  us ;  but  geographers  like 
Strabo  and  Ptolemy  speak  of  the  Melano-Getuli, 
Leuco-Ethtopi,  and  so  on,  thus  implying  the  existence 
of  mixed  races,  or  those  of  European  form  with  dark 
or  negroid  coloration.  This  is  fully  confirmed  by 
travellers  who,  penetrating  into  the  southern  regions 
of  Libya,  have  found  peoples  of  dark  complexion 
with  hair  and  facial  form  not  unlike  the  northern 
Libyans.  This  is  what  we  might  expect  to  find  in 
the  case  of  a  stock  so  widely  extended  from  north  to 
south,  under  such  varied  and  different  conditions  of 

The  Libyan  stock  is  very  ancient,  as  is  shown  by 
the  worked  stone  .implements  found  in  the  Sahara 
and  to  the  north  of  the  Atlas.  "  The  latest  explora- 
tions in  the  northern  Sahara,"  Tissot  remarks,1  "  lead 
us  to  regard  it  as  one  of  the  most  ancient  known 
habitations  of  the  human  species."  "The  soil  of  the 
Sahara,"  says  Bourdc,  "yields  flint  arrow-heads,  and 
fragments  from  the  working  of  these  arrow-heads  in 
immense  quantity,  an  undeniable  proof  of  the 
existence  of  a  large  population  which  found  a 
1  Op.  fit.,  p  398. 


climate  favourable  to  life  in  a  region  which  to-day 
seems  devoted  to  eternal  sterility."1  "The  work- 
shops are  usually  found  on  the  edge  of  the  daia, 
depressions  in  the  soil  often  found  in  the  chalk 
platform  which  separates  El-Lua  from  the  Sccbka  of 
the  Mzab.  The  more  important  are  situated  to  the 
south  of  the  wells  of  Zebbascia  in  the  valley  of 
Ain-Macin,  near  the  cromlech  of  Sidi-Mcsca-a,  at 
El-Hassi,  on  the  platform  of  Noumar,  and  at  El- 
Golea.  We  may  also  find  them  in  the  great  dunes 
of  Machgarden  ;  they  disappear  at  Hassi-Berkan  to 
reappear  more  numerously  in  the  Wed-Mia,  and 
especially  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Wargla.  A 
certain  number  of  these  Sahara  flints  are  very  worn  ; 
the  angles  are  blunted  and  the  facets  polished  by  the  ' 
action  of  the  sand  borne  by  the  winds ;  flints  trans- 
ported by  torrents  seldom  present  so  worn  an 
appearance.  A  long  period  of  time  must  therefore 
have  elapsed  to  allow  these  effects  to  be  produced,  \ 
and  we  must  attribute  a  great  age  to  these  imple- 
ments. It  is  also  to  be  noted  that  the  flints  worn  by 
the  sand  are  of  coarser  form  than  the  others ;  this 
would  agree  with  their  relative  antiquity.  They  are 
chiefly  met  with  in  the  south  and  near  £l-Golea. 
The  flints  from  the  north,  those-  of  Zebbascia  and 
Wargla,  for  instance,  offer  on  the  contrary  highly 
finished  types.  Dr.  Wcissgcrber  argues  from  these 
differences  that  the  populations  of  the  south  date 
further  back  than  those  of  the  north,  and  that  they 
gradually  emigrated  from  the  south  towards  the  sea- 
coast,  leaving  behind  them  the  desert,  from  which 
they  were  probably  driven  out  The  direct  descend- 
ants of  these  aborigines  of  the  Sahara,"  this  author 

1  Bourde,  IM  Frame  an  SouJait,  quoted  by  Tissot,  op.  «'/.,  p.  399. 



continues,  "seem  to  be  represented  in  the  east  by  the 
Barabra  of  the  Nile  valley,  at  the  centre  by  the 
Garamantic  race  of  the  highlands  of  Fezzan,  the  oases 
of  Nefzana  and  Wed-Suef,  to  the  west  by  the  Rucgha 
or  inhabitants  of  Wed-Righ  and  the  Berbers  of  Sus  in 
Morocco.  Although  of  very  dark  complexion,  these 
peoples  differ  essentially  from  Negroes  in  their  features 
and  hair.  They  call  themselves  Khomri,  bruncts, 
and  consider  it  an  insult  to  be  coupled  with  Negroes."1 

In  this  connection  also  we  may  appeal  to  the 
opinion  of  Carettc,  who  writes  that  "  the  autochthonous 
population  of  Wed-Righ  marks  the  transition  in  com- 
plexion and  features  between  the  white  and  the  black 
race.  The  complexion  is  not  the  more  or  less  bronzed 
tint  of  the  southern  white  population,  but  a  different 
and  special  colour,  nearer  to  black  than  to  white. 
They  Have  neither  the  flattened  nose  nor  the  thick 
lips  of  the  black  race,  though  their  features  are  not 
wholly  those  of  the  white  race.  They  constitute  an 
intermediate  race,  connected  with  both  the  two  foreign 
races  from  which  they  are  separated,  and  which  they 

These  conclusions  are  very  important  as  regards 
the  origin-  of  the  Libyan  populations  in  particular,  and 
the  Hamitcs  in  general.  We  see  an  intimate  con- 
nection with  the  populations  of  the  eastern  branch  of 
the  Hamitic  stock,  which  by  its  great  extension  from 
the  Nile  valley  meets  the  north-western  branch,  both 
melting  into  the  Mediterranean  race,  and  forming  as 
fair-skinned  a  population  as  if  they  were  derived  from 
a  white  race. 

1  Tissot,  op.  cil. ,  pp.  399-400. 

2  Online  et    Migration  des  princfpales    Trifws  de    rAlgJric,   pp. 


As  we  have  seen,  in  antiquity  the  name  Libyan 
was  only  given  to  the  populations  at  the  west  of 
Egypt,  and  at  the  first  glance  it  seems  that  Egypt  has 
nothing  in  common  with  Libya.  This  happens  because 
in  Kgypt  a  new  and  higher  civilisation  developed, 
assuming  a  special  form  distinct  from  Libyan  civili- 
sation. But  the  latest  discoveries  in  Egypt  itself 
have  now  shown,  as  we  shall  sec,  that  the  Egyptians, 
before  they  assumed  new  forms  and  raised  themselves 
above  all  the  other  African  peoples  of  the  same  stock, 
possessed  their  civilisation  in  common  with  the  western 
Libyans.  They  were  thus  a  racial  branch  from  the 
same  stock  which  gave  origin  to  the  Libyans  specially 
so-called,  one  of  the  four  peoples  of  the  Mediter- 



The  African  Origin  of  the  Egyptians— The  Art  of  Writing — 
Physical  Anthropology  of  the  Egyptians, 

A  FEW  years  ago  it  seemed  that  there  was  nothing 
further  to  say  concerning  the  origin  of  the  Egyptians; 
but  recent  discoveries  revealing  the  existence  of  a 
civilisation  anterior  to  that  of  history  have  renewed 
the  discussion,  while  the  problem  has  at  the  same 
time  become  more  complicated.  In  this  discussion 
I  have  taken  part  by  accepting,  and  seeking  to 
support  with  anthropological  arguments,  the  African 
origin  of  the  Egyptians.1 

According  to  a  somewhat  late  tradition  of  the 
Egyptians,  they  came  from  the  land  of  Punt  It  is 
difficult  to  determine  this  region,  and  various  opinions 
have  arisen  regarding  the  interpretation  of  the 
Egyptian  texts.  Egyptologists  only  agree  in  believ- 
ing that  this  land  of  Punt  must  be  placed  to  the 
south  of  Egypt,  either  in  Somaliland  or  in  southern 
Arabia,  or  in  a  region  including  both  lands,  as 
Flinders  Petrje,  Sayce,  and  others  incline  to  think. 

Sayce2  considers  that  the  Egyptians  are  a  branch 
of  the  so-called  Caucasian  race,  like  the  Semites,  but 

1  Africa,  Turin,  1897,  cap.  i. 

2  Races  of  the  Old  Testament,  chap,  v.,  London,  1891  ;  cf.   Flinders 
Petrie,  History  of  Egypt,  vol.  i.,  pp.  11-13,  London,  1894. 


belonging  to  the  Hamitic  stock,  and  that  because 
Mizraim  was  a  descendant  of  Ham.  He  believes  that 
the  ruddy  skin  of  the  Egyptians,  as  represented  on 
their  monuments,  is  due  to  the  action  of  the  sun  ; 
he  believes  that  they  are  of  the  same  race  as  the  men 
of  Punt,  also  represented  of  a  brick-red  colour  on  the 
monuments.  The  people  of  Punt,  according  to 
Sayce,  came  to  Africa  from  Arabia.  He  accepts 
the  ultimate  unity  of  origin  of  the  Semites  and  the 
Hamitcs,  an  opinion  to  which  many  incline  to-day, 
and  this  naturally  leads  to  the  conclusion  that  the 
Egyptians,  33  well  as  all  the  other  Hamitic  peoples, 
came  from  Asia. 

It  may  be  well  to  recall  what  Brugsch  considers 
that  he  has  been  able  to  establish  concerning  Egyp- 
tian geography  and  ethnography  as  presented  on  the 
monuments.1  He  distinguishes  three  groups  among 
the  populations  of  the  south,  ojie  being  tRe  inhabit- 
ants  of  Punt,  and  he  believes  that  the  land  of  Punt  lay 
along  the  whole  African  coast  of  the  Red  Sea  as  far 
as  the  Straits  of  Babelmandeb  ;  a  study  of  the  Harris 
papyrus  leads  him  to  the  conclusion  that  it  makes  no 
reference  to  any  Arabian  region,  but  includes  the 
Troglodytic  coast  from  north  to  south,  beginning 
perhaps  at  Myoshormos,  this  supposition  being  con- 
firmed by  the  great  geographic  list  of  Karnac.  The 
inscription  on  the  temple  in  the  valley  of  Assassif,  to 
the  west  of  Thebes,  in  which  is  described  the  great 
expedition  of  Queen  Hatshepsu  to  the  land  of  Punt, 
reads :  "  We  sailed  on  the  sea,  and  began  a  fair 
voyage  towards  the  divine  land,  that  is  to  say,  the 
west  coast  of  Arabia,  and  the  journey  towards  the 

1  "  Die  Altiigyptische  Volkcrtafeln,"  Fifth  Congress  of  Orientalists, 
Berlin,  iSSi. 



land  of  Punt  was  happily  resumed."1     Here  Arabia  is 
clearly  distinguished  from  the  African  land  of  Punt, 

Fu;.  4.— A  Punt  Chief  (Marietta), 
and  all  doubt  as  to  whether  this  much  discussed  region 

1  Brugsch,  of.  cit.,  pp.  69,  70. 


is  to  be  sought  in  Africa  or  elsewhere  seems  to  be 

The  determination  of  this  question  is  of  some 
interest  to  the  anthropologist  and  ethnologist  of 
Egypt  and  of  the  peoples  to  the  south  of  that  land. 
Naville,  discussing  recent  excavations  at  Deir-el- 
liahari,  expressly  says  when  speaking  of  fragments 
connected  with  the  celebrated  wall  of  Punt:  "Small 
as  these  fragments  often  are,  they  give  us  important 
information  as  to  the  nature  of  the  land  of  Punt.  Its 
African  character  comes  out  more  and  more  clearly. 
Although  the  name  of  Punt  may  have  applied  also 
to  the  coast  of  South  Arabia,  it  is  certain  that  the 
Egyptian  boats  sent  by  Queen  Hatshcpsu  anchored 
on  the  African  shore."1 

Mullcr2  gives  precise  indications  concerning  the 
people  of  Punt  which  serve  to  bring  them  into  con- 
nection with  the  modern  populations  of  the  coast  of 
Somaliland,  and,  like  Brugsch,  he  excludes  the  theory 
that  Punt  also  includes  the  south-west  of  Arabia. 
He  finds  that  the  physical  and  ethnographic  features 
of  the  people  of  Punt  arc  African  of  the  type  com- 
monly called  Caucasian,  and  that  they  belong  to  the 
same  stock  as  the  Egyptians.  The  Prince  of  Punt, 
carved  at  Deir-cl-Bahari,  possesses,  in  common  with 
Egyptian  princes,  the  long  pointed  beard,  and  he 
carries  a  boomerang,  which  was  among  the  weapons 
of  Egypt ;  he  also  wears  a  scries  of  rings  on  the  right 
leg3  (Fig.  4). 

1  Griffith,  Egypt  Exploration  Fund,  Anhaological  Report \  1895, 
P  34- 

•;  ttni  Eurofa  n<uh  Altagyftischtn  Dcnkinnleni,  Leipzig,  1892. 

3  Mariellc  Bey,  V'cya^t  dans  At  Ilaiilt  /:\T/W,  \.>1.  ii  .  p.  (._»  ; 
Af>ica,\>.TJ;   Krall,  "  Das  Land  Punt,"    A  ,;,>  \\',    ,//.//.://, 
NVicn,  iS<x>,  Ud.  cxxi.,  pp.  75-77. 


But  this  all  appears  but  mere  conjecture  concerning 
the  origin  of  the  Egyptians  compared  with  the  new 
facts  revealed  during  the  last  few  years ;  the  tradition 
of  the  land  of  Punt,  though  preserved  on  the  monu- 
ments, is  relatively  recent,  and  too  distant  from  the 
origin  of  the  race,  especially  since  the  historical  indi- 
cations have  been  succeeded  by  prehistoric,  relating 
to  the  ages  termed  palaeolithic,  neolithic,  aeneolithic, 
the  last  being  that  of  copper  united  tothe  most 
beautiful  and  perfect  stone  implements  that  have  ever 
existed.  It  now  seems  that  all  that  has  hitherto  been 
believed  concerning  the  Egyptians  must  be  pro- 
foundly modified,  both  as  regards  the  origin  of  their 
civilisation  and  the  populations  which  at  various 
epochs  have  produced  that  civilisation. 

Putting  aside  Amelineau,  the  two  explorers  who 
have  made  the  greatest  discoveries  are  Flinders 
Petrie  and  De  Morgan,  and  both  of  these  have  set 
forth  the  conclusions  which  they  draw  from  their  own 
discoveries  concerning  the  origins  of  the  Egyptian 
people  and  civilisation.  They  have  resolutely  main- 
tained that  two  races  at  least  have  inhabited  Egypt, 
one  African  and  indigenous,  the  other  immigrating 
from  Asia,  bearing  with  it  the  civilisation  of  the 
Pharaohs,  and  subjugating  the  first  indigenous  and 
savage  population.  The  discoveries  at  Abydos,  Na- 
qada,  and  Ballas  have  aided  in  confirming  these 
opinions,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  two  explorers 
differ  in  their  interpretation  of  the  tombs  at  Naqada 
and  Ballas. 

At  Nag  ad  a  the  fortunate  English  explorer  dis- 
covered an  immense  tomb  revealing  a  civilisation 
unlike  that  of  the  Pharaohs.  It  was  genuine  neolithic 
civilisation  with  some  copper  objects,  the  graves 


la-ing  very  similar  to  those  in  Europe  of  the  same 
epoch,  that  is  to  say  with  shrivelled  corpses  in  a 
crouching  position,  together  with  certain  variations 
of  funeral  custom  difficult  to  explain,  such  as  the 
dismemberment  of  the  body,  the  separation  of  the 
head,  which  was  buried  apart  or  with  a  few  other 
bones,  the  absence  of  some  parts  of  the  bodies,  a 
disordered  re-mingling  in  unviolated  graves  (Fig.  5). 

FIG.  5. — A  Prehistoric  Egyptian  Tomb  (Dc  Morgan). 

It  seemed  to  Flinders  Pctrie  that  the  population 
which  had  left  this  vast  sepulchre  was  a  new  people, 
and  he  called  it  the  "  new  race,"  which  arriving 
between  B.C.  3000  and  3500,  between  the  ancient  and 
middle  Egyptian  empire,  had  destroyed  or  expelled 
the  Egyptian  population  and  entirely  occupied  the 
Thcbaid.  He  argued,  from  the  absence  of  Egyptian 
objects  belonging  to  this  epoch  in  Upper  Egypt,  that 
the  dominion  of  this  "new  race"  lasted  for  three 



centuries.  This  nc\v  people,  thus  attaining  full 
Egyptian  dominion,  were  Libyans.  Pctric  main- 
tained this  opinion  not  only  on  the  ground  of  funeral 
customs  and  products,  that  is  by  the  whole  civilisa- 
tion, but  also  by  examination  of  the  numerous  skulls 
found  in  the  graves. 

These  skulls  have,  in  fact,  been  subjected  to  a 
summary  comparison  in  measurement  with  those  of 
Roknia  studied  by  Faidherbe,  and  it  is  affirmed  that 
they  differ  from  Egyptian  skulls  in  capacity,  more 
especially,  and  by  the  nasal  index,  while  they  are  very 
.similar  to  the  modern  skulls  of  Algiers,  and  to  the 
ancient  skulls  ot  Roknia,  and  that  they  are,  there- 
fore, Libyan.  The  same  author  thus  summarises 
the  characters  of  the  "  new  race "  in  comparison 
with  those  of  the  Egyptians  of  the  times  of  the 
Pharaohs1 : — 



Inscription.  Rude  marks,  not  grouped. 

Sculpture.  Great  incapacity  for  form. 

Chamber  tombs.  Roofed  grave  pits. 

Tombs  in  cliffs.  Graves  in  valleys. 

Coffins.  «  Burial  in  clothing. 

Extruded  burial.  Contracted  burial. 

Mummification.  Cutting  up  the  body. 

Skull  capacity,  1460.  Capacity,  1310. 

Nasal  index,  48.3.  Nasal  index,  53.7. 
Weapons,  bows,  and  arrows.    Forked  flint  lances. 

Copper-edged  stick.  Quadrangular  dagger. 

Amulets  buried.  Ashes  buried. 

Mirrors  of  copper.  Slate  palettes. 

1  A'aijdtla  and  Rallas,  London,  1896,  p.  60. 




Scarabs.  Fine  flint  bracelets. 

Canopic  jars.  Jars  of  fats. 

Pottery,  wheel  made.  Pottery,  hand-made. 

Red  polished. 

Red  and  black. 

White  line  on  red. 



At  first  sight  these  characters  give  the  impression 
that  we  are  dealing  with  a  population  foreign  to 
Egyptian  history,  and  with  a  civilisation  not  only 
different  but  inferior;  Petrie's  opinion  seems  to  be 
justified.  But  an  accurate  study  of  the  civilisation 
of  Naqada  and  an  extended  comparison  with  other 
discoveries,  including  those  at  Abydos,  clearly  shows 
that  Pctric  had  been  dazzled  by  the  unexpected 
novelty  of  the  discovery.  DC  Morgan,  who  continued 
the  excavations  at  Naqada  and  discovered  new 
graves,  including  a  royal  tomb,  presenting  data  of 
great  importance  for  the  primitive  history  of  Egypt, 
interprets  the  facts  differently  from  Petric,  and  con- 
siders that  the  "  new  race  "  should  rather  be  called 
the  "  old  race,"  since  hc^ regards  it  as  representing  the 
aborigines,  the  first  inhabitants  of  Egypt  before  the 
invasion  of  the  true  Egyptians.1 

I  cannot  here  reproduce  all  the  reasons  brought 
forward  by  DC  Morgan  against  the  opinion  of  Petric, 
lmt  they  seem  to  me  for  the  most  part  just,  and  I 
accept  his  conclusion  that  we  arc  here  concerned  with 
a  primitive  population,  not  one  that  arrived  at  a  late 

1  A\ -i henhet  stir  Us  On'gincs  de  T Eiyftf,  I'arU,  1897,  p.  16. 


epoch  of  the  old  Egyptian  empire,  as  also  I  accept  his 
opinion  that  we  find  here  a  civilisation  anterior  to 
that  of  the  Pharaohs  in  its  definite  and  well-known 
forms.  But  I  cannot  follow  De  Morgan  when  he 
attempts  to  show,  even  with  the  aid  of  anthropology, 
that  the  prehistoric  population  was  different  from  the 
Egyptian,  which  he  would  bring  from  Asia.  Many 
arguments  against  his  opinions  may  be  found  in  his 
own  discoveries  at  Naqada  and  elsewhere,  and  in 
the  physical  characters  of  the  skulls  described  by 
Fouquet,  as  well  as  by  Petrie. 

First  of  all  we  may  note  the  method  of  burial 
adopted  in  the  necropolis  of  Naqada  and  elsewhere, 
so  well  investigated  by  Wiedemann,  who,  though 
desiring  to  show  the  Asiatic  origin  of  the  Egyptians, 
really  furnishes  arguments  favourable  to  the  opposite 
opinion  of  an  African  origin.  Excavation  in  a 
necropolis  of  the  Naqada  type  shows  that  the  men  of 
that  period  had  three  methods  of  burial:  "Either  the 
grave  received  the  disseminated  and  incomplete 
bones,  or  the  skeleton  was  placed  in  a  position 
recalling  that  of  the  foitus,  or  the  body  was  burnt  in 
a  monumental  tomb,"  as  seems  to  have  been  the  case 
with  a  royal  tomb  explored  by  De  Morgan,  though 
this  has  been  doubted  and  even  denied  by  others.1 
Wiedemann,  however,  accepts  this  conclusion,  and 
also  agrees  that  these  three  usages  are  unlike  the 
classical  customs  of  the  Egyptians,  but  he  believes  it 
may  be  shown  that  they  are  intimately  united  with 
the  Egyptian  religion  and  with  the  worship  of  Osiris 
and  Horus,  as  learnt  from  the  Book  of  the  Dead 
and  the  ritual  formulae  of  the  Egyptians.  Referring  to 

1  See  DC  Bissing,    "  Les  Origines   cle  1'Egypte,"  I^Anthropologie, 
vol.  ix  ,  p.  415. 


dismemberment,  Wicdemann  states  that  "  the  vestiges 
of  this  very  ancient  custom  have  never  completely 
disappeared,  and  arc  preserved  not  on'y  in  the  texts 
but  also  in  actual  practices.  Up  to  a  very  late  period 
the  lower  part  of  the  foot  of  the  mummy  was  dis- 
located,  and  in  other  cases  the  phallus  of  the  corpse 
was  cut  off  in  order  to  be  embalmed  separately  and 
buried  near  the  mummy."  This  explains,  in  his 
opinion,  the  dismemberment  and  disorder  of  the 
bodies  in  the  graves  discovered  by  Petrie,  and  hence 
a  custom  which  was  symbolically  preserved  down  to 
the  latest  epoch  cf  Egyptian  history.  As  regards  the 
absence  of  portions  of  the  body,  explained  by  Petrie 
as  due  to  a  special  kind  of  anthropophagy,  with  the 
object  of -inheriting  the  virtues  of  the  dead,1  Wiede- 
mann  gives  no  satisfactory  explanation,  but  cannot 
accept  anthropophagy. 

Wiedemann  finds  a  similar  survival  of  the  burning 
of  the  dead  in  Egyptian  customs  and  rites,  and  con- 
cludes by  saying:  '  I  dare  to  hope  that  the  preceding 
pages  have  sufficiently  proved  that  the  record  of  the 
customs  of  the  epoch  of  Naqada,  and  the  religious 
ideas  united  with'  them,  had  not  disappeared  among 
the  Egyptians  of  later  times.  The  immediate  con- 
sequence of  this  continuity  is*that  we  cannot  maintain 
the  widely  diffused  hypothesis  that  the  people  of 
Naqada  belong  to  a  different  race  from  the  historical 
Egyptians."  Then,  however,  he  proceeds  to  alternate 
this  just  conclusion  by  an  opposite  conclusion  of 
sufficiently  strange  character;  "  to  influence  Egyptian 
religion  so  decisively,"  he  remarks,  "  the  race  with 
whom  these  ideas  originated  must  have  had  intimate 
relations  with  that  from  which  the  Egyptians  were 

1  Naqada  an,i  Ballas,  pp.  32,  62. 


derived ;  it  formed  one  of  the  elements  of  which  was 
composed  what  we  are  accustomed  to  call  Egyptian 
civilisation."  And  he  proceeds  to  state  that  we  can- 
not admit  an  evolution  of  the  funeral  customs  of 
Naqada  into  the  custom,  which  became  general 
among  the  Egyptians,  of  embalming  the  corpse;  this 
custom,  he  argues,  must  have  been  imported  by  a 
new  race,  from  elsewhere,  which  conquered  the 
primitive  race  and  made  them  helots.1  It  is  difficult 
to  conceive  how  a  race  in  a  state  of  servitude  could 
have  so  great  an  influence  on  its  conquerors  as  to  cause 
them  to  accept  its  burial  customs,  constituting  the 
patrimony  of  the  religion  of  the  dead.  Pctrie,  it  may 
be  added,  suspects  that  Osiris  was  a  Libyan  divinity.2 
This  transformation  of  burial  customs  has  con- 
vinced me  that  there  has  been  a  real  evolution  up  to 
the  definite  form  of  embalming  which  then  remained 
constant.  Of  this  Fouquet,  in  his  craniological  ex- 
amination, found  evident  traces  in  the  skulls  of  Beit- 
Allam,  of  Guebel-Silsileh,  and  other  places.  There 
exist,  he  states',  in  the  skulls  of  the  rude  stone  epoch 
in  Egypt,  deposits  of  bitumen  mixed  with  cerebral 
substance,  and  this  bitumen  could  not  have  been 
introduced  by  the  nasal  passages,  the  brain  not 
having  been  removed,  'but  only  by  the  occipital 
foramen,  after  the  head  had  been  cut  off;  and  Petrie 
repeatedly  states  that  the  head  was  generally  cut  off 
in  the  graves  he  explored.3  De  Morgan  is  com- 
pelled to  admit  that  the  burial  customs  of  the  early 
Egyptians  were  not  yet  fixed.4  If  this  was  so,  it 

1  Wicdcmann,  in  De  Morgan,  op.  cit.,  1897. 

-  Naqada  and  Ballas^  p.  62. 

3  De  Morgan,  of.  ci(.,  vol.  ii.,  1897,  pp.  346  el  seq. 

*  Op.  «y.,  p.  17. 


cannot  be  affirmed  that  the  historical  Egyptians  were 
not  the  descendants  of  those  who  left  their  graves  at 
Abydos,  Naqada,  and  Dallas  —  that  is  to  say,  the  graves 
of  neolithic  civilisation.  Besides,  the  royal  tomb  at 
Naqada,  regarded  as  the  tomb  of  Menes,  the  founder 
of  the  first  dynasty,  clearly  shows  a  transition  be- 
tween neolithic  civilisation  and  a  new  civilisation 
slowly  acquiring  its  definite  characters. 

The  Art  of  Writing.  —  An  argument  which  seems 
decisive  in  favour  of  the  opinion  that  the  Egyptians 
were  a  new  race  of  immigrants,  conquering  the 
Libyan  race,  regarded  as  that  of  neolithic  civilisation, 
is  found  in  their  writing,  which  had  no  existence 
among  the  Libyans.  Petrie,  as  we  have  seen,  among 
the  distinguishing  characters  of  Egyptians  and 
Libyans,  places  the  inscriptions  on  one  side  and 
on  the  other  "  rude  marks,  not  grouped,"  as  peculiar 
to  the  "  new  race."  Now  it  is  true  that  the  Libyans 
possessed  only  linear  alphabetic  signs,  as  we  may  see 
by  Pctric's  plates  (LI.-LVII.)  and  the  examples  given 
by  De  Morgan  ;  but  it  is  well  to  recall  also  that 
these  signs,  called  by  their  discoverers  "  marks," 
without  having  any  alphabetical  significance  attri- 
buted to  them,  are  really  writing  signs,  many  of 
which  still  remain  in  the  alphabet  of  the  Tuaregs,  as 
Evans  has  shown.1  They  may  be  brought  into  line 
with  the  pre-  Phoenician  writing  of  the  Mediterranean 
and  the  prc-neolithic  of  other  parts  of  Europe,  as  I 
shall  show  later  on.  We  cannot,  therefore,  affirm 
that  the  Libyans  had  no  writing  in  the  general 
significance  of  the  word. 

It  is  a  very  interesting  fact,  however,  that  these 

1  "Further   DiM-nvcrics  of  Cretan  and  .K^can  Script,"  Journal  of 
llelltnic  5/«.//Vf,  vol.  xiii.,  1897. 



alphabet-like  forms  were  not  abandoned  by  the 
population  at  the  epoch  of  Abydos  and  Naqada, 
being  used  contemporaneously  with  writing  of  Egyp- 
tian type — that  is  to  say,  hieroglyphics.  De  Morgan 
gives  examples  of  terra-cotta  vases  with  signs  that 
indicate  the  royal  ensign  and  yet  bear  such  marks. 


FIG.  6. — Marks  on  Pottery  at  Abydos  (De  Morgan). 

Tegnier,  in  other  monuments  like  those  of  Abydos 
(Fig.  6)  excavated  by  Amelineau,  demonstrates  not 
only  the  contemporary  use  of  alphabet-like  signs  with 
hieroglyphic  inscriptions,  but  also  inscriptions  which 
seem  to  be  transcriptions,  because  they  are  either 
linear  or  groups  of  such  signs,  as  in  some  vases  from 

FIG.  7. — Impressions  of  a  Cylinder  and  Designs  on  Pots  for 
the  Tomb  of  King  Den  (De  Morgan). 

Abydos.1  This  implies,  it  seems  to  me,  that  the  use 
of  the  new  writing  was  not  yet  universal,  but  that  at 
the  period  of  the  first  dynasty  at  Naqada,  as  indicated 
by  the  royal  tomb  of  Mencs,  we  find  a  period  of 
transition ;  like  the  burial  and  other  customs,  writing 
was  also  being  transformed  (Fig.  7). 

1  De  Morgan,  of.  ci(>,  vol.  ii.,  p.  236,  figs.  787-795. 


More  surprising  than  all  seem  to  me  to  be  those 
ivory  tablets  found  in  the  royal  tomb  at  Naqada,  on 
which  are  signs,  probably  numerical,  of  the  same  type 
as  those  met  with  on  European  dolmens,  and  having 
nothing  in  common  with  the  Egyptian  ideographic 
characters  (Fig.  8).  These  signs,  also,  are  doubtless 
Libyan,  and  were  employed  together  with  the  writing 
considered  Egyptian. 

Here,  however,  it  is  necessary  that  I  should  refer  to 
a  different  interpretation  furnished  by  Arthur  Evans 
in  the  study  already  mentioned.  He  calls  "  Proto- 
Egyptians"  or  "  Egypto- Libyans "  these  peoples 

Tic..  8. — Ivory  Tablets  showing  Linear  Writing  (De  Morgan). 

whom  Petrie  calls  "  new  race "  or  "  Libyans "  and 
all  other  archaeologists  "  Libyans,"  and  he  likewise 
believes  that  the  people  of  the  times  of  the  Pharaohs 
immigrated  into  Egypt  from  Asia,  bringing  with 
them  the  civilisation  and  writing  properly  called 

"  The  linear  characters  found  on  the  Proto-Egyptian 
pottery  at  Naqada,"  he  recognises,  "  recur  to  a  con- 
siderable extent  on  pottery  found  in  tombs  of  the 
earliest  dynastic  period  at  Abydos,  side  by  side  with 
true  hieroglyphic  forms.  At  Abydos  there  is  per- 



ccptiblc  a  certain  reaction  of  linear  indigenous  signs 
on  the  more  elaborate  and  pictorial  characters  of  the 
Pharaonic  people.  Thus  in  several  cases  the  linear 
forms  here  are  simply  Egyptian  hieroglyphs  very 
rudely  scrawled. 

"This  reduction  of  the  more  elaborate  hieroglyphic 
forms  to  simple  linear  signs,  which  at  Abydos  is  quite 
unmistakable,  finds  a  certain  amount  of  analogy  on 
the  still  earlier  indigenous  vessels  of  Naqada,  and 
suggests  some  curious  questions.  We  now  know 
that  by  the  time  of  Menes  the  highly  developed 
hieroglyphic  script  of  the  dynastic  Egyptians  had 
taken  firm  root  in  the  country.  But  a  large  propor- 
tion of  the  hieroglyphic  signs— the  lotus-sprays  and 
river-craft,  the  water-birds,  fishes,  crocodiles,  and  other 
characteristic  animals,  already  by  the  time  of  the  first 
dynasty  become  conventionistic  types  —  are  of  indi- 
genous Nilotic  origin.  It  follows  then  that  many  of 
the  elements  of  hieroglyphic  writing  had  been  growing 
upon  the  banks  of  the  Nile  long  before  the  time  of 
the  first  historic  dynasty.  If  the  race  that  brought 
these  pictorial  elements  to  maturity  is  to  be  regarded 
as  distinct  from  the  old  inhabitants  of  the  land,  whose 
remains  have  now  been  recognised  at  Naqada  and 
elsewhere,  it  milst  at  least  have  been  brought  into 
very  early  contact  with  them.  Hence  there  is  a 
possibility  that  the  beginning  of  hieroglyphic  script 
reacted  on  the  linear  native  signs  at  a  much  remoter 
date  than  that  of  Mcnes.  And  the  hieroglyphic 
figures  themselves — how  far  may  they  not  simply 
represent  the  coming  to  life  of  still  earlier  linear 

The  arguments  of  this  able  writer  and  his  state- 

1  Op.  fit.,  pp.  3S3-3^4. 


mcnts  concerning  the  two  forms  of  writing  seem  to 
me  to  show  clearly  the  relation  between  both,  and  the 
difficulty  of  separating  them  absolutely:  "Both  at 
Naqada  and  Abydos,"  he  points  out,  "  characters  of 
more  pictographic  aspect — and  in  some  cases  identical 
with  Egyptian  hieroglyphic  forms — are  at  times 
coupled  with  the  linear  signs."  The  same  pheno- 
menon is  repeated  in  the  Mediterranean,  in  Crete, 
and  during  the  /Egean  age.  Evans's  remarks  imply 
a  recognition  on  his  part  that  the  origin  of  Egyptian 
writing  is  to  be  found  among  what  arc  commonly 
called  the  aborigines,  the  Libyans,  or  by  him  / 
Proto  -  Egyptians,  and  imply  doubt  whether  there  / 
is  any  race  here  distinct  from  the  aboriginal 

In  the  same  way  we  may  view  what  Evans  observes 
concerning  a  steatite  cylinder  in  the  Petrie  collection, 
and  another  of  clay  in  the  Gizch  Museum,  which  De 
Morgan  refers  to  the  first  dynasty,  and  regards  as  an 
Asiatic  importation  due  to  the  Egyptian  invasion.1 
Evans,  on  the  contrary,  comparing  it  with  a  prism- 
seal  of  steatite  from  Karnac,  refers  it  to  his  Proto- 
Egyptians,  the  Libyans  of  Wicdcmann  and  others, 
as  a  hybrid  product  due  to  a  partial  survival  of  these 
primitive  inhabitants  in  the  Nile  valley,  an  imitation 
of  the  cylinders  of  Asiatic  and  Egyptian  origin, 
without  being  either  one  or  the  other  ("combined 
with  other  features  which  are  neither  Pharaonic  nor 
Chaldaean  ").  On  the  other  hand,  he  admits  that  the 
entire  civilisation  of  historical  Egypt  was  influenced 
by  this  pre-existing  indigenous  element,  the  assimila- 
tion of  which  was  a  work  of  centuries.  He  rightly 
finds  the  same  art  again  in  the  Mediterranean, 

1  Retktrckts,  etc  ,  p.  257,  fig  857 


especially  at  Crete,  and  in  the  civilisation  of  the 

In  all  this  we  may  see  the  same  phenomenon  that 
we  have  already  seen  in  writing,  and  in  the  method 
of  burial :  an  incipient  form  of  the  new  Egyptian 
civilisation  among  the  so-called  aborigines,  a  Libyan 
population,  slowly  developing  and  leaving  behind  the 
traces  of  its  origin.  For  it  is  difficult  to  be  convinced 
that  such  an  indigenous  element  which,  as  Evans 
himself  points  out,  influenced  the  whole  of  historical 
Egyptian  civilisation,  should  reproduce  these  rude 
cylinders  the  type  of  which  was  taken  from  Egypt 
itself  and  the  Chaldreans ;  as,  on  the  other  hand, 
we  cannot  admit,  on  the  strength  of  the  analogy 
of  a  cylinder,  that  Egyptian  civilisation,  so  unlike  in 
its  forms,  and  so  unique,  was  derived  from  Chaldaea. 

If  we  turn  to  consider  the  Egyptian  language,  I 
believe  that  everything  favours  an  African  origin. 
It  may  be,  as  Maspcro,  Sayce,  and  others  affirm,  that 
Egyptian  is  intimately  related  with  the  Semitic 
tongues,  and  that  Hamitic  and  Semitic  are  two 
branches  of  the  same  trunk;  but  they  each  have  their 
own  definite  forms,  with  many  characters  that  are 
common  and  many  that  are  divergent  While  also 
in  Arabia,  where  th,e  source  of  the  Egyptian  stock  is 
sought,  there  is  not  the  slightest  indication  of  any 
Hamitic  language  or  dialect,  in  Africa  not  only  is 
ancient  Egyptian  Hamitic  but  so  are  a  whole  series  of 
languages  spoken  by  numerous  populations  to  the 
south  of  Europe  and  the  west,  through  the  Sahara  to 
the  Mediterranean  and  the  Atlantic,  as  I  have  shown 
when  dealing  with  the  Hamitic  stock  in  Africa.2  We 

1  "Further  Discoveries,"  etc.,  pp.  362-369 
*  Africa,  pp    I IO  et  seq. 


may  be  permitted  to  wonder,  therefore,  when  we  see 
the  Egyptian  language  invoked  as  an  argument  in 
favour  of  an  Asiatic  Semitic,  and  more  especially 
Arabian,  origin,  for  it  is  not  easy  to  understand  how  a 
stock  so  extended  and  so  numerous  in  Africa,  sub- 
divided into  many  populations,  should  come  from  a 
region  where  it  has  not  left  the  slightest  trace  of 

I  will  not  enter  into  other  details,  as  regards,  for 
instance,  the  products,  such  as  the  vases  and  their 
typical  forms  and  decorations ;  others,  possessing 
greater  competence,  have  occupied  themselves  with 
this  matter  and  shown  the  continuity,  evolution,  and 
natural  transformation  ot  the  different  types  at 
various  Egyptian  epochs,  from  the  stone  age  to  the 
historical  age,  as  also  they  have  shown  the  errors  of 
De  Morgan  and  his  lack  of  intuition  in  interpreting 
the  monuments  he  has  discovered.1  Others  also, 
arguing  against  the  Asiatic  origin,  have  shown  that 
both  the  animals  and  the  plants  known  to  the 
Egyptians  were  of  African  origin.2  We  shall  here 
be  occupied  with  the  anthropological  characters  of 
the  ancient  prehistorical  and  historical  Egyptians, 
since,  as  Petrie,  De  Morgan,  Schweinfurth,  and  many 
others  believe,  anthropology  may  be  called  in  to  con- 
firm the  theory  of  an  Asiatic  origin. 

Physical  Anthropology  of  the  Egyptians. — If  we 
examine  the  criteria  which  have  been  applied  to  the 
skulls  excavated  at  Naqada  by  Pctric,  and  at  El- 
Amrah,  Heit-Allam,  Naqada,  Gucbel-Silsilch,  and 
elsewhere  by  De  Morgan,  we  shall  not  be  surprised  at 

1  See  De  Bissing,  op.  (it. 

*  De  Mortillet.  Zal»>r<>\vski,  Pk'lrement,  "  \A  Pierre  et  les  Mclaux 
en  Knyptc,"  Hull.  Soc.  cTAnth.,  1896. 


the  conclusions  which  have  been  drawn  concerning 
their  racial  origin.  No  wonder,  therefore,  that  a 
German  writer  has  been  able  to  write  concerning  the 
incapacity  of  craniology  to  distinguish  human  races;1 
if  I  had  no  other  criterion  I  would  renounce  it  as 
useless,  since  it  leads  to  such  conclusions  as  those 
reached  by  Petrie  and  De  Morgan  as  the  outcome  of 
their  archaeological  work.  Use  has  here,  in  fact,  been 
made  of  the  old  and  discredited  method  of  the  cephalic 
index  which  only  indicates  artificial  and  conventional 
distinctions,  those  which  have  served  to  divide  the 
prehistoric  skulls  of  Egypt  into  two  diverse  races. 

The  Naqada  skulls,  brought  to  Europe  by  Petrie, 
were  studied  by  Thomson  and  Thane,  whose  con- 
clusions were  that  "  we  have  to  deal  with  a  race  with 
a  small  skull,  indicating  a  hot  climate  at  their  source 
with  a  very  long  head  but  very  upright  profile.  •  That 
they  have  no  connection  with  the  Guanche,  but  agree 
closely  with  the  Algerian,  both  ancient  and  modern 
The  nose  was  short  and  prominently  aquiline,  but 
not  wide."  These  skulls  are  Libyan,  not  Egyptian,  to 
which  latter  are  attributed  greater  capacity  and  higher 
index.2  If,  however,  we  consider  the  plate  in  which 
the  measurements  are  graphically  represented,  we  find 
that  the  cranial  capacity  varies  from  between  about 
noo  c.c.  to  1500  c.c.,  while  the  indices  vary  from  65 
to  80,  the  greater  number  being  between  70  and  75; 
thus  the  average  of  74.1  fails  to  express  the  truth,  for 
the  skulls  fall  into  two  groups,  one  with  an  index  of 
71,  the  other  of  74,  a  fact,  however,  which  seems  to 
have  no  significance. 

Petric's   skulls    .verc   only  studied   in  a  summary 

1  Kretschmer  in  De  Bissing,  o/>.  at.,  p.  257. 
'2  Naqada  and  Bellas,  pp.  51-54,  PI    LXXIV. 


manner;  DC  Morgan's,  on  the  contrary,  were  investi- 
gated in  detail  by  Dr.  Fouquct.  There  arc  eleven  in 
tlu-  first  scries,  that  of  EI-Amrah,  and  Fouquet  found 
that  ten  of  these  were  dolichocephalic  to  a  more  or 
less  exaggerated  extent,  while  one  was  mcsaticcphalic 
(75-55)  J  that  alone  could  be  Egyptian,  because  the 
average  index  attributed  by  Broca  to  the  ancient 
Egyptians  was  mcsaticcphalic  !  Fouquct  forgot  that 
the  average  index  is  not  the  individual  index,  and 
that  Broca's  series  with  an  average  index  of  75.58 
might  be  composed  of  skulls  with  indices  between 
70  and  80.  On  the  other  hand,  the  difference 
between  a  skull  with  an  index  of  75.55  and  one  with 
an  index  of  74.73  is  less  than  unity,  and  furnishes  an 
absurdly  inadequate  basis  for  the  supposition  of  a 
difference  of  race.  This  time  Fouquet  reaches  no 
absolute  conclusion,1  but  in  his  study  of  the  other 
scries  he  reaches  conclusions  which  arc  certainly 
strange,-  and  are  very  far.  from  confirming,  as  he 
imagines,  the  Asiatic  origin  of  the  Egyptians,  all  the 
less  since  he  now  overturns  the  criterion  he  had  before 
accepted,  and  admits  that  skulls  with  an  average 
index  of  70.6  were  those  of  the  Asiatics  who  came  to 
occupy  Egypt  and  introduce  the  new  civilisation. 
Zaborowski,  it  seems  to  me,  was  right  when  he 
severely  criticised  Fouquct's  methods;  in  spite  of  the 
numerical  differences  he  found  uniformity  in  the 
skulls  excavated  from  these  graves,  and  I  regret  that 
he  changed  his  opinion  in  consequence  of  Vcrneau's 
objections.3  Schweinfurth  also  believes  that  there  is 

1   DC  Morgan,  of.  ft.,  vol.  i  ,  Appendix,  p.  241. 
8  (>/.  tit.,  vol.  ii..  pp.  377  379 

3  /alx>ruw>ki,    "  IA--   K.KV-  |  ichistoriqucs  tie  I'ancicnnc  Egypte." 
Bull.  Sot.  Antk  ,  Paris,  1898. 


a  great  difference  of  race  in  the  skulls  found  by  De 
Morgan  and  Petrie,  and  thus  seeks  to  confirm  a 
legend  of  his  own  concerning  the  immigration  of  an 
Egyptian  people,  the  Ha  mites,  from  Arabia,  and  of 
another,  coming  from  the  valleys  of  the  Euphrates 
and  the  Tigris,  which  carried  with  it  the  great 
Egyptian  civilisation  and  the  art  of  writing.1 

From  the  first  time  that  I  saw  the  cranial  forms  in 
Fouquet's  studies  of  the  Egyptians  my  only  surprise 
was  at  the  closeness  of  their  resemblance  to  other 
Egyptian  skulls  of  the  Pharaonic  epochs,  and  at 
the  same  time  to  other  skulls  which  I  have  attributed 
to  the  Mediterranean  stock,  and,  in  the  widest  sense, 
to  the  Eurafrican  species.  I  perceived  that  an 
attempt  had  been  made  to  distinguish  two  or  three 
different  races  among  these  skulls  solely  on  the 
ground  of  differences  in  average  cephalic  index,  and 
I  could  not  wonder  that  archaeologists  and  others 
have  little  faith  in  results  obtained  by  such  methods. 

It  is  true,  as  Verneau  has  stated  in  replying  to 
Zaborowski's  observations,  that  there  are  variations 
in  these  skulls,  both  as  regards  the  cephalic  indices 
and  the  absolute  measurements ;  but  such  variations 
do  not  give  us  the  right  to  construct  numerous,  or 
even  two,  races.  According  to  my  method  of  cranial 
forms,  it  is  the  forms  alone  that  we  have  to  take  into 
consideration,  and  I  have  shown  that  the  same  cranial 
form  may  vary  in  measurements  and  in  index  without 
losing  its  characters;  this  is  a  natural  method,  such 
as  is  employed  in  .zoology.  How  many  species  of 
lark  we  should  have  if  we  calculated  by  measurement 
their  indices  of  length  and  breadth  !  I  have  been 

i"Uel>cr    den    Ursprung   clef   ^Egypter,"     Vcrhandhingen   Benin 
Gesellschafl  f.  Ant/i.,  igth  June,  1897. 


able  to  show  that  the  parts  composing  the  face  are 
more  subject  to  variation  than  any  others,1  and  in  the 
prehistoric  Egyptian  skulls  we  may  sec  this,  just  as 
\ve  may  see  that  they  present  the  same  variations  of 
form— ellipsoid,  ovoid,  pcntagonoid — as  any  other 
series  of  the  species  to  which  they  belong.  And  the 
same  may  be  said  concerning  the  cranial  capacity,  in 
respect  to  which  I  have  often  shown  that  there  are 
large  capacities  and  small  capacities,  which  may  be 
considered  as  similar  variations,  when  they  arc  well 

Although  we  only  possess  the  averages  and  not  the  separate 
measurements  of  the  skulls  found  by  Petrie  at  Naqada,  we  have 
the  measurements  of  those  studied  by  Fouquet,  though  I  regret 
that  in  his  figures  of  the  skulls  he  has  not  presented  the  tionnti 
•vtrficalis,  or  view  from  above,  the  most  important  of  all.  Now 
if  we  compare  the  absolute  length  of  the  skulls  examined  by 
him  with  the  length  of  the  skulls  from  the  Canaries  studied  by 
Verneau,1  we  shall  have  an  opposed  result  in  regard  to  size, 
not  having  the  measurements  of  capacity,  to  those  given  of  the 
relations  of  the  Naqada  skulls,  concerning  which  it  is  said  that 
the  capacity  is  very  much  less  than  that  of  European,  Mongol, 
or  Egyptian,  and  distinctly  different  from  the  Guanche.4 




Per  Cent 

Per  Cent. 





















1  C>ani  African!  e  Ciani  A  merit  am,  Florence,  1892. 

*  Cf.  Sftcie  e  Variela  nmane,  Turin,  1900. 

*  L'ne  Mitsion  scitiiti/it/ue  >/ans  CAnkiptl  Caaarfeii,  I'.iris,  1887. 

*  NaqaJa  ami  Ballot,  p.  52. 






Per  Cent.  Per  Cent. 

2.13 i                160  3 7.90 

36.17 17                      170  20 52.63 

55-32 26                180  15 3947 

6.36 3               190  o o.o 

Both  Series  together. 

0.80 F  160  3 3.75 

17-74 22  170  27 33.75 

55-64 69  180  34 42.50 

21.77 27  190  15 18.75 

4.03  5                200  i 1.25 

TOTAL  100 124 

The  result  is  that  the  majority  of  the  skulls  have  a  length  ol 
over  180  mm.  in  the  two  series  united,  male  with  female;  in  the 
separate  series  the  prehistoric  Egyptian  male  skulls  show  a 
greater  number  at  180  and.  at  200,  and  a  less  number  at  190, 
than  those  from  the  Canaries.  In  the  female  skulls  the  greater 
length  is  in  favour  of  the  prehistoric  Egyptians;  and  thus  the 
two  series  compensate  each  other,  and  we  cannot  say  that  on 
the  average  any  great  difference  exists  between  them.  Whether 
Petrie's  Naqada  skulls  are  different  from  the  other  prehistoric 
Egyptian  skulls  is  n^erely  a  matter  of  computation,  and  we  see 
that  Petrie's  skulls  have  on  the  average  a  length  of  180.5, 
Morgan's  and  Fouquet's  i8t,  while  those  from  the  Canaries 
have  an  average  length  of  178,  that  is,  male  and  female 
together.  This  is  enough  to  show  that  no  great  difference 
exists  between  the  skulls  from  the  Canaries  and  the  pre- 
historic skulls  of  the  Libyan  or  "  new  race."  We  could  also 
show  by  measurements  that  no  difference  exists  between 
Egyptian  skulls  and  European  skulls  of  the  same  type  as  those 
of  the  "new  race  "  and  the  prehistoric  Egyptians. 

This  criticism  is  necessary  in  order  to  prove  that  craniometry 
is  a  kind  of  kabbala  and  will  prove  anything  and  everything 


one  wishes  ;  what  strange  things  it  will  demonstrate  5s  shown 
l>y  FoiK|iict,  who  brings  in  Indians,  Hottentots,  Kaffirs,  Bush- 
men, and  so  on,  in  order  to  interpret  prehistoric  Egyptian 
skulls.  It  is  the  sense  of  reality  which  is  lost  in  such  cranio- 
metric  clucubrations.  In  saying  this,  however,  I  have  no  wish 
to  justify  Rcinach,  who  is  more  fantastic  even  than  the  others. 

Leaving  out  of  consideration  what  has  been  said 
concerning  fine  and  coarse  Egyptian  types  by  Pruner- 
Bey  first,  and  afterwards  by  Schmidt,1  and  coming  to 
the  capacity  of  the  Egyptian  skull,  we  find  that  the 
average  capacity  ot  pure  Egyptian  skulls  is  1,394  c-c-» 
with  a  maximum  of  1,725  and  a  minimum  of  1,155, 
while  Petric  for  his  "new  race"  skulls  gives  two 
averages  of  1 ,298  and  1,315  c.c.,  according  as  we  include 
or  exclude  a  series  of  small  feminine  skulls.  But,  as 
we  have  seen,  the  series  oscillates  between  capacities 
of  i,iooand  1,500.  The  difference  between  the  two 
groups  is  not  great,  and  hence  the  introduction  of  a 
small  series  of  skulls  of  extreme  capacity  is  enough 
to  raise  or  lower  it. 

In  my  own  study  of  a  scries  of  87  Egyptian  skulls 
I  found  the  high  average  of  1,445  c-c->  w'tn  oscillations 
between  1,220  and  1,740.  I  must  observe,  however, 
that  I  only  measured  18  of  these — i.e.,  those  which  I 
regarded  as  typical  in  my  own  classification,  so  that 
this  average  is  only  founded  on  18  skulls,  of  which 
two  were  1,710  and  1,740,  thus  suddenly  raising  the 
result.  De  Blasio,2  however,  who  has  measured  all  of 
these  skulls  that  were  measurable  (71)  gives  a  total 
average  of  1,314.5,  which  is  precisely  that  of  Petrie's 
"  new  race."  If,  therefore,  Petric  seeks  anthropological 
proof  of  the  distinction  between  the  historical  Egyp- 

1  Cf.  Af>i<at  cap.  i. 

*  Lt  I'ar/f.'i)  uniane  netf  EgilSo  Anlifo,  Naples,  1893. 


tians  and  the  Libyan  population  in  cranial  capacity, 
no  such  proofs  exists.  The  only  proof,  and  an  un- 
answerable one,  is  to  be  found  in  the  comparison  of 
forms  between  the  skulls  of  the  historical  Egyptians 
— that  is  to  say,  the  mummies — and  the  prehistoric 
race,  whether  we  call  the  latter  "  new  "  with  Petrie  or 
"  old  "  with  De  Morgan. 

The  skulls  studied  by  Dr.  Fouquet  in  De  Morgan's 

FIG.  9. — Skull  from  Hierakonpolis, 
Beloides  Libycus  (Macalister). 

two  volumes  are  viewed  from  the  side  .and  in  front, 
not  from  above  (nonna  vertical is\  which,  by  the 
method  which  I  have  adopted  for  many  years,  would 
have  served  to  determine  the  variety  under  which 
they  should  be  classed,  and  enable  a  comparison  to 
be  made  with  Egyptian  skulls  of  the  historical  epochs. 
Notwithstanding  this,  from  the  descriptions  given  by 
Fouquet  and  the  views  he  presents,  I  can  see  in  these 


skulls  the  common  forms,  ellipsoid,  pentagonoid,  and 
ovoid,  with  variations  corresponding  to  sub-variety, 

FIG.   10. — Skull  from  Hicrakonpulis, 
Ovoides  (Macalister). 

Fin.   II.  — Skull  from  Ilicrakonpolis, 
rcntagonoide*  afutus  (Macalister). 

such  as  I  have  found  in  series  in  which  the  evidence 
was  definitely  presented.     I  can  say  the  same  of  the 


skulls  represented  by  Flinders  Pctrie  in  his  book  on 
Naqada  and  Ballas.  Being  unwilling,  however,  to 
remain  content  with  the  information  thus  obtained,  I 
have  endeavoured  to  procure  photographs  ot  the 
skulls  excavated  by  Petrie,  in  the  norma  verticals. 
By  the  courtesy  of  Professor  Macalister  (in  whose 
hands  some  of  the  skulls  had  been  placed)  I  have 

Fie'.    12.  —  Ancient  Egyptian  Skull,  Be'.oidcs 
s  (Sergi). 

been  able  to  obtain  six,  for  which  I  here  desire  to 
thank  Professor  Macalister.  Although  the  number 
is  small,  these  six  photographs  present  one  of  beloid 
shape  (already  known  as  Splienoides  jEgyptiacus),  two 
moid,  and  three  pentagonotd  ;  craniometrically  they  are 
dolichocephalic  or  mesoccphalic.  Beloid  is  a  new 
name,1  and  corresponds  to  Sphcnoides  oblongus  in 

1  See  my  Specie  e  Varieti)  itmatit. 


scries  I  have  previously  examined  ;'  I  now  term  it 
Sn'/oif/t's  LibycHSt  because  found  among  the  skulls  of 
Roknia  (see  Chap.  VI).  The  ovoid  and  pcntagonoid 
are  not  new  among  the  forms  found  in  the  Mediter- 
ranean and  in  historical  Egypt  I  here  present  the 
three  characteristic  forms  of  prehistoric  and  historic 
Egyptian  skulls  (Figs.  9-11). 

Fie.   13.  — Ancient  Egyptian  Skull,  Pcnla^onoidts 
afuttis  (Sergi). 

In  six  skulls  it  is  impossible  to  find  all  the  forms 
found  in  my  scries  and  in  other  large  scries  of 
historical  Egyptian  skulls.  The  only  characteristi- 
cally Mediterranean  form,  however,  which  is  lacking  is 
the  ellipsoidal,  which  is  common  in  the  race  and  was 

1  Afiiia,  cap.  5. 



numerously  represented  among  the  86  skulls  I  have 
examined  elsewhere.  Many  ellipsoidal  skulls  arc  also 
to  be  found  in  Fouquet's  series  (Figs.  12-14). 

Not  only  in  this  comparison  of  prehistoric  skulls 
with  those  of  the  dynasties  do  we  find  that  both  show 
the  same  forms  and  therefore  belong  to  the  same 

FIG.   14. — Ancient  Egyptian  Skull,  xxi.  Dynasty, 
Ovoidcs  (Sergi). 

stock,  but  also  by  an  examination  of  the  royal 
mummies  of  Deir-el-Bahari,  which,  as  I  have  found, 
yield  ellipsoidal  and  pentagonal  forms  as  well  as  one 

On  these  grounds  the  conviction  has  grown  in  my 
mind  that  there  is  no  difference  of  race  between  the 
historical  Egyptians  and  the  men  who  preceded  them, 


the  so-called  I'roto-Egyptians  of  Evans,  and  Morgan's 
"old  race."  Both  alike  belong  to  the  Mediterranean 
stock,  and  arc  of  African  origin.1 

1  I  must  here  state  that  Professor  Pctrie  has,  some  time  since, 
modified  his  opinion  regarding  the  "new  race.''  Speaking  of  objects 
finiiul  in  the  toml>s  of  this,  population,  he  writes: — "These  were  at 
first  temporarily  assigned  to  a  new  race,  as  we  knew  nothing  more 
alxuit  them;  hut  further  research  had  shown  that  they  could  now  l>e 
safely  assigned  to  the  pro-dynastic  stock  alx>ut  5000  B.C.,  and  even 
earlier."  And  he  goes  on  to  express  an  opinion  which  may  here  be 
noted,  s:nce  it  coincides  with  my  own: — "In  the  graves  of  this 
aboriginal  race  there  were  found  certain  Iwwls  of  black  clay  with 
patterns  imprinted  upon  them.  These  were  of  much  importance  in 
discussing  the  relation  of  their  civilisation  to  that  of  others  in  the 
Mediterranean  area.'1  At  the  same  time,  Professor  Petrie  maintains 
hi*  opinion  that  this  |  opulation,  now  termed  by  him  pre-dynastic, 
differs  in  tyjx;  from  that  of  historical  limes.  —Jour.  Anlh. 
1899,  p.  202. 



Craniology  of  the  Ancient  Berbers  — The  Physical  Characters  of 
the  Modern  Population. 

Craniology  of  the  Ancient  Berbers. — I  have  elsewhere 
classified  the  Libyans  who  now  bear  the  general  name 
of  Berbers  with  various  sub-divisions,  into  those  of 
the  Mediterranean,  the  Sahara,,  and  the  Atlas.1  We 
need  not  here  consider  to  what  extent  the  Berbers 
have  become  mixed  with  the  Arab  invaders,  for  the 
mingling  with  Semitic  elements  has  taken  place  in 
comparatively  recent  times ;  -and  if  during  antiquity 
invaders,  who  might  more  or  less  have  altered  the 
racial  composition,  entered  Mediterranean  Libya,  it 
seems  that  little  or  no  change  actually  occurred,  for 
the  Punic,  Roman,  and  other  introduced  elements 
were  eliminated  and  disappeared,  it  may  be  said,  by 
natural  selection;  in  a  territory  not  propitious  for 
colonisation  ;  even  to-day  it  seems  that  French  mor- 
tality in  Algeria  is  greater  than  native  mortality. 
Nor  does  it  appear  that  the  natives  easily  mingle 
with  their  conquerors;2  the  Arabs,  now  so  numerous 
in  Algeria,  Tunis,  and  Tripoli,  have  but  partly 
changed  the  primitive  population,  either  as  regards 
physical  characters  or  language.  If  foreign  elements 

1  Africa,  Parte  II. 

*  Boissier,  L'Afriquc  Komaine,  1896,  pp.  303-308. 


have  not  disappeared  they  have  assumed  the  racial 
physiognomy  of  the  region,  the  Punic,  Roman,  and 
Greek  elements  taking  on  physical  characters  of 
the  Libyan  type,  so  that  to-day  it  is  impossible  to 
distinguish  them  from  true  native  Libyans.  This 
conclusion  is  on  the  whole  accepted  by  Faidhcrbe,1 
and  the  skulls  of  the  new  and  old  Libyans  bear 
witness  to  it 

FIG.   15.— Skull  from  Roknia,  BehiJes 
Libyan  (Faidherbe). 

Those  Libyans  who  are  to  the  west  of  Egypt  and 
the  Libyan  desert  I  group  under  the  name  of  Western 
Libyans,  in  order  to  distinguish  them  from  the 
Egyptians  whom  I  regard  as  also  Libyans.  General 
Faidherbe's  ancient  skulls  belonging  to  this  group 
appear  in  his  study  without  any  extensive  apparatus 
of  measurements  and  theories.  The  numerous  figures 

1  "  Recherchcs  anthropologiques  sur  les  tnral>caux  mlgnlithiqucs  <!c 
Roknia,"  /?*//.  Acadimie  a't/iffone,  iS6t>. 


he  gives,  however,  and  his  excellent  descriptions, 
render  it  an  easy  task  to  interpret  the  cranial  forms 
of  the  twenty  heads  he  studied. 

According  to  my  method  these  heads  are  of  four  varieties, 
with  certain  sub-varieties : — 

I.  BELOID:  a,  libycus  (Fig.  15).  II.  ELLIPSOID  (Fig.  16): 
<7,  Corythocephalus  ;  £,  Isocampylos.  III.  OoiD :  a,  Latus; 
fi,  subtilis.  IV.  PENTAGONOID  :  a,  Acutus  (Fig.  17);  b,  subtilis 
(Fig.  18);  c,  asper;  dt  planus;  e,  convexus. 

Fia.   16. — Skull  from  Roknia, 
Ellipsoidcs  (Faidherbe). 

All  these  forms  are  common  to  the  peoples  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean, including,  as  we  have  seen,  the  prehistoric  and  historic 
Egyptians.  The  Beloid  are  five  in  number,  and  are  dis- 
tinguished from  the  Egyptian  and  those  of  the  Siculi  by  being 
long  and  slender,  yet  preserving  the  type.  On  account  of  this 
difference  I  call  this  form  Beloides  Libycus;  we  have  already 
found  an  example  of  this  type  among  the  prehistoric  Egyptians. 
As  taken  from  Faidherbe  the  type  is  here  shown.  The  Ellip- 
soid are  four,  all  fine  in  form ;  one  of  these  is  the  Corytho- 


ccphalus,  also  found  in  Egypt,  the  helmet-shaped  skull ;  the 
others  arc  the  very  common  Isoaimftylos.  Of  ovoid  shapes, 
J.ti/us  and  Subliit's  arc  found-  The  pcntagonoids  are  numerous, 
but  varying  greatly. 

If  we  consider  these  twenty  skulls  from  the  stand- 
point of  craniometry,  we  find  that  eighteen  arc 
dolichocephalic  and  mcsoccphalic,  and  two  brachy- 
cephalic  ;  of  the  latter  one  has  an  index  of  80. 1,  the 
other  of  84.3.  But  when  we  consider  that  these  two 

FlC.   17. — Skull  from  Roknin,  Pentagonoulet 
cunt  us  (Faiilherbc). 

indices  belong  to  pentagonoid  skulls  which  have  a 
large  breadth  only  on  account  of  excessive  develop- 
ment of  the  parietal  bosses,  we  shall  find  no  cause  for 
surprise.1  The  pentagonoid  is  very  broad,  since  it  is 
low  and  flattened.  Hence  it  can  scarcely  be  said  that 
these  two  skulls  are  foreign  to  the  Libyan  scries. 

1  Sec  Scr^i,  "  Lc  furmc  del  cranio  uniaim  nello  svcluppo  fetalc  in 
relazione  allc  forme  adultu"  (A'iz:  di  Biobgia,  ii.  67,  1900),  for  the 
justification  of  this  view. 


The  Physical  Characters  of  tJie  Modern  Population. 
— Examining  the  modern  populations,  we  should  ex- 
pect to  find  amid  the  primitive  elements  other  elements 
foreign  to  the  stock,  since  from  most  ancient  times  the 
Mediterranean  has  been  slowly  penetrated  by  large 
emigrations  of  many  Asiatic  racial  elements,  a  fact  of 
which  we  can  find  very  clear  evidence.  The  Arabs 
have,  above  all,  attempted  to  change  the  anthropologi- 
cal physiognomy  of  Libyan  Africa ;  the  population  of 

FlG.   18. — Skull  from  Roknia,  Pentagonoides 
sitbtilis  (Faidherbe). 

Arab  origin  in  Morocco,  Algeria,  Tunis,  and  Tripoli, 
according  to  Carette,  amounts  to  4,800,000,  while  the 
Libyan  Berbers  are  about  7,500,000  in  number.1  As 
I  have  already  remarked,  however,  in  spite  of  this 
enormous  number  of  Arabs,  the  primitive  population 
has  preserved  its  own  characters.  In  addition  to  this 
population,  moreover,  others  have  entered,  especially 

1  Carette,  Originc  et  Migrations  dcs  frincifales  tribus 
pp.  440  441. 


in  the  pure  Mediterranean  zone,  above  all  from 
Kurope,  such  as  Italians,  Spaniards,  French,  and 
other  racial  elements,  variously  mixed. 

French  anthropologists  have  chiefly  investigated 
some  of  the  modern  populations  of  Mediterranean 
Africa,  and,  it  seems  to  me,  they  have  shown,  in 
harmony  with  what  I  have  said  above,  that  it  is  not 
original  and  primitive,  as  we  might  be  inclined  to 
believe,  but  the  result  of  immigration  during  various 

Topinard  endeavoured  to  determine  Arab  types 
and  Berber  types,  and  also  mixed  types,  Arabiscd 
Berbers  ;l  but  his  considerations  seem  to  me  very 
vague  and  uncertain,  and  incapable  of  yielding  any 
positive  result. 

Collignon  carried  on  an  investigation,  with  reference 
to  colour  of  hair  and  eyes,  of  the  sedentary  Tunis 
population;  this  was  also  important  from  the  large 
number  of  individuals  (2,030)  examined.  Of  light 
eyes  he  found  3.5  per  cent.,  of  light  hair,  04  per  cent. ; 
while  of  dark  eyes  there  were  76  per  cent,  and  of 
dark  hair  92.9  per  cent.2 

Another  study  by  Collignon  deals  with  the  general 
ethnography  of  Tunis,  and  contains  observations  on 
stature,  as  well  as  on  the  cephalic,  nasal,  and  facial 
indices.3  We  must,  however,  confine  ourselves  to  the 
cephalic  index,  because  this  has  been  used  to  support 
various  theoretical  views  which  overturn  the  natural 
order  of  anthropological  facts  in  the  Mediterranean, 

1  Anthrofvhgie  tie  r.-ti'^'n'e,  p.  616;  "  Klutle  cranionu'lrique  dc 
Biskra,"  .•/>«.  fntntahf  /<>///•  /'.;.-.//;.>•.  t/ts  ffi.,  lOlh  scss.,  Algiers,  lS8l. 

8  "  Repartition  <lc  la  coulctir  <lcs  ycn\  et  <lcs  chcveux  chez  Ics 
TuniMcns  siMcntain-N."  AV,-7/<-  </'.//;.' hiofologie,  iSSS. 

3  "  Etude  sur  1'Kthnographic  gent-rale  <le  la  Tunisic,"  /?«//.  de 
Gtografhfe  kisloriifiie  et  dtscn'ftii'f,  Paris,  1887. 


and  especially  in  Africa.  The  number  of  brachy- 
cephals,  according  to  this  author,  is  132  out  of  1,133 
subjects  examined,  and  they  have  an  index  of  from 
80  to  8 1,  a  very  low  one,  because  the  author  includes 
several  subjects  with  a  mesocephalic  index  of  79;  this 
would  be  about  12  per  cent,  if  all  the  132  were  true 
brachycephals.  From  my  examination,  however,  it 
appears  that  the  true  brachycephals  may  be  reduced 
to  a  very  small  number,  which  we  may  call  sporadic, 
the  infiltration  of  a  foreign  element  Thus  I  cannot 
follow  Collignon,  when,  in  accordance  with  the  mis- 
taken notion  of  French  anthropologists  that  the 
Ligurians  are  brachycephalic,  he  regards  these 
brachycephals  as  constituting  a  Ligurian  element. 

Bertholon,  completing  the  observations  of  Collignon 
on  Tunis,1  also  finds  a  brachycephalic  element,  so 
small,  however,  that  it  has  no  effect  on  the  general 
average  of  the  population  whose  cephalic  index 
oscillates  between  70  and  76.11,  nor  on  that  of  36 
skulls  whose  average  is  72.97.  In  a  further  study 
Bertholon,  like  Collignon,  finds  a  Ligurian  brachy- 
cephalic element  in  Africa.2  Exploring  the  island  of 
Gerba,  he  found  among  330  subjects  examined  an 
index  of  79.84,  with  an  oscillation  between  71  and  87. 
If  we  include  among  the  brachycephalic  the  indices 
of  80  and  upwards,  we  find  that  they  amount  to  33 
per  cent.,  while  the  dolichocephalic  and  mesocephalic 
are  66  per  cent.  Brachycephaly  is  therefore  more 
marked  here  than  Bertholon  found  it  to  be  in  Tunis 
and  Khumiria. 

-  "Exploration     anthropologique     de     la    Khoumirie,"     Bull,    cie 
Geographic ;  1891. 

5  "  Exploration  anthropologique  de  1'isle  de  Gcrki,"  L\-lnt/iroJ>o.'ogiet 
viii.,  1897. 

(  1IAK.\<  TKKS   OF   MODERN    BKRHKRS.  121 

If  we  compare  the  results  obtained  from  the  skulls 
of  Roknia  with  Collignon's  and  Bertholon's  observa- 
tions among  the  modern  populations,  we  find,  as  we 
might  expect,  that  while  among  the  former  there  arc 
no  brachycephalic  skulls  of  foreign  type  (since,  as  I 
have  already  remarked,  the  two  pentagonoids  are  of 
Mediterranean  type),  among  the  cranial  forms  of  the 
modern  populations  we  discover  brachycephalic  heads 
of  Asiatic  type,  such  as  we  meet  more  or  less 
numerously  or  sporadically  in  Europe.  That  was 
to  be  expected,  because  Northern  Africa  has  received 
Asiatic  and  European  colonies  which  naturally  were 
not  composed  of  racial  elements  formed  from  one 
type  only.  The  same  fact  may  be  observed  in  other 
parts  of  the  Mediterranean,  as  in  Sicily1  and  in  Spain, 
where  the  brachycephalic  Asiatic  has  penetrated  from 
prehistoric  ages. 

I  may  here  remark  that  my  own  observations, 
carried  on  in  accordance  with  the  method  already 
referred  to,  prove  that  the  old  Libyan  shapes  are 
perpetuated  among  the  modern  Berbers,  mingled 
with  a  foreign  element  which  has  penetrated  during 
the  course  of  ages.  In  the  Anthropological  Museum 
at  Rome  there  are  twenty  Tunis  skulls  which  I  have 
studied  and  classified,  and  I  have  ascertained  that 
they  repeat  the  well-known  forms  found  in  Egypt 
and  elsewhere  in  Africa. 

I.  EI.LIPSOIDKS:  I,  Ell.  biconcavus;  2,  Ell.  brevifrons;  3, 
Parallelcpipedoides  africus.  II.  OvoiDKS:  I,  Ov.  latus;  2,  Ov. 
subtilis;  3,  Ov.  platymetopus.  III.  PENTAC.oitoiDES:  i,  Pent. 
plnnus;  2,  Pent,  declivis;  3,  Pent,  subtilis;  4,  Acmonoides 
siculus;  5,  I'tiu.  a.  utus.  IV.  HKI.OIDKS  /KciYl'TIACUs.  V.  Tk\- 
PKZOIDKS:  I,  Trap.  lonijisMimis;  2,  Pyrgoides  rom.nniv 

1  Sec   Scr^i,    "  Crani   prci.sloiici  tldla  Sicilia,"   Atli  Six.    nun.   di 
Antrof.,  Roma,  4900. 


I.  Ellipsoidal.— 'There  are   only  two  skulls   of  this   variety, 
with  differences  in  their  special  characters;  they  belong  to  two 
sub-varieties:  Ell.  biconcavus  and  Ell.  brevifrons.    The  first  is 
from  Sfax ;    it   is   old,  of  medium   capacity,   and  not  easy  to 
measure, being  rather  rotten;  the  character  that  makes  it  bicon- 
cave is  the  fact  that  the  two  temporo-parietal  sides,  instead  of 
being  flat  or  protuberant,  as  usually  happens,  are  concave,  so 
that  the  ellipse  approximates  the  figure  8.     This  singular  form 
might  seem  pathological,  and  would  have  seemed  so  to  me  if  I. 
had  not  been  warned  by  previous  observation  of  other  skulls  of 
similar  form  in  the  modern  Roman  collection,  and  also  among 
very  ancient  skulls. 

No.  1387,  male,  cephalic  index  69.2,  facial  index  45,  nasal 
index  62.  It  will  be  seen  that  this  is  a  very  narrow  skull,  with 
a  short  face,  platyrhine  but  not  prognathous. 

The  Ell.  brevifrons  form  was  described  by  me  among  the 
old  Roman  skulls,1  and  need  not  be  described  again  ;  this 
African  skull  is  of  the  same  type,  and  comes  from  Begia. 

No.  1376,  male,  capacity  1420,  cephalic  index  71.3,  facial 
index  50,  nasal  index  48.2. 

3.  Parallelepipedoides  afiicaiius,  described  by  me  elsewhere 
as  a  skull  of  fine  proportions,  superior  to  the  Sardiniensis,  and 
found  in  Abyssinia.2 

No.  1379,  of  Gabes,  masculine,  capacity  1230,  cephalic  index 
72.7,  facial  index  53,  nasal  index  42.3. 

I 1.  Ovoid. —  i.  Of  the  Ov.  latus,  on  various  occasions  described 
among  skulls  of  the  Mediterranean  and  East  Africa,  two  were 
found:  No.  1377,  of  Biserta,  masculine,  capacity  1449,  cephalic 
index  80.7,  facial  index   528,  nasal  index  45.1;   No.  1391,  of 
Tabarca,  masculine,  capacity  1280,  cephalic  index  77.3,  facial 
index  54,  nasal  index  52.8.     2.  Of  the  Ov.  subtilis,  also  common 
in  the  Mediterranean  and  East  Africa,  were  three  examples: 
No.   1392,  of  Bab-Gurgiani,  masculine,  capacity  1444,  cephalic 
index  73.5,  facial  index  56,  nasal  index  45.3;  No.  1385,  of  Mon- 
astir,  feminine,  capacity  1300,  cephalic  index  72.8,  facial  index 
52,  nasal  index  45.1;  No.  1393  of  Bab-Oliva,  infantile,  capacity 
1270,  cephalic   index   762,  facial   index  55,  nasal   index   53.7. 
This  last  had  not  attained  definite  shape,  and  showed,  especially 

1  "  Studi  di  antropologia  lazialc,"  Accad.  Medica  di  Jtoma,  1895. 

2  In  A/I  icat  loc.  cit. 



in  the  parietal  bosses,  an  angularity  which  is  not  characteristic 
of  ovoid  skulls.  3.  Ov.  pla/yinctofius,  so  called  because  the 
frontal  bone  is  flattened  and  slopes  forward  ;  it  has  much 
resemblance  with  the  Ell.  platymclopus  of  Egypt  and  Abys- 
sinia; No.  1388,  of  Susa,  feminine,  capacity  1290,  cephalic 
index  76.2,  facial  index  53  4,  nasal  index  39  2,  and  characteristic 
as  a  type  of  this  sub-variety;  No.  1382,  rather  youthful  and  not 
yet  definitely  formed,  but  belonging  to  this  type;  capacity  1415, 
cephalic  index  78.6,  facial  index  74.9,  nasal  index  43.8.  HI. 
Pcntagonoids. — This  category  always  contains  many  sub-forms, 

F»G.   19. — Skull  from  Ain-Draham, 
Penta^onoides  subtilis  (Sergi). 

and  it  is  not  surprising  that  the  five  skulls  of  the  group  belong 
to  five  different  classes,  i.  Pent,  plarnts,  No.  1379,  of  Jeriann, 
is  infantile  but  typical,  with  cephalic  index  of  75.4,  nasal  index 
47.4.  2.  Pent,  decliris,  so  called  because  the  curve  of  separation 
between  the  frontal  and  cerebral  regions  up  to  beyond  the 
brcgtAa  for  at  least  five  or  six  centimetres  backwards,  forms  an 
inclined  plane  with  almost  parallel  sides.  The  parietal  bones 
are  sharp,  and  much  directed  backwards,  and  the  anterior  sides 
of  the  pentagon  are  very  long  compared  to  the  posterior  sides. 



It  is  a  singular  shape,  but  resembles  some  ovoid  skulls  found  in 
Sicily.1  No.  1381,  of  Kerwan,  male,  capacity  1440,  cephalic 
index  73.3,  facial  index  51,  nasal  index  46.3.  3.  The  rent, 
subtilis  was  described  by  me  among  the  skulls  of  Abyssinia  as 
found  among  the  Bogos;  this  from  Tunis  is  very  similar  (see 
Fig.  19).  No.  1375,  from  Ain-Draham,  female,  capacity  1070, 
cephalic  index  70,  facial  index  50,  nasal  index  45.3.  4.  Acmo- 
iioides. — This  form  really  has  five  sides,  but  the  two  posterior 
are  shortened,  and  the  angle  formed  by  the  occipital  is  smaller 

FlG.  2O. — Skull  from  Tunis,  Pentagonoidcs 
«      acutus  (Sergi). 

than  that  of  the  acute  pentagonoid.  No.  1394,  of  Zaquan,  male, 
capacity  1335,  cephalic  index  72.8,  facial  index  50,  nasal  index 
45.5.  5.  Pent,  acutus  (see  Fig.  20).  No.  737,  capacity  1350, 
cephalic  index  73.4,  facial  index  51,  nasal  index  50.  IV.  Beloid. 
— There  was  only  one  skull  of  this  class — already  described  in 
dealing  with  Egyptian  skulls  and  the  Libyans  of  Roknia — and 
that  was  infantile,  And  not  well  defined  in  type.  No.  1390,  from 
Tabarca,  infantile,  probably  female,  cephalic  index  74.7,  facial 

1  See  Moschen,    "  Quattro  decadi  di  crani  modern!  dalla  Sicilia," 
Alti  Soc.  Veneto-Trtntina,  Padua,  1893,  fig.  16. 


index  56  7,  nasal  index  50.  V.  Trafiezoids. —  Trapezoides 
it'tigi'ssi'mus. — This  new  form  of  trapczoid  was  exhibited  in  two 
skulls,  one  male,  the  other  female,  but  perfectly  alike  except  in 
sexual  characters.  They  arc  very  long  and  low,  while  typical 
trapezoids  are  short  and  rather  high  in  relation  to  length. 
.They  have  receding  frontals,  and  the  occipital  is  protuberant 
behind;  they  arc  prognathous.  It  is  the  first  time  I  have  seen 
such  a  shape,  and  I  cannot  express  any  opinion  about  it  until 
further  observations  are  possible.  No.  1384,  from  Megcz-cl- 
Rab,  male,  capacity  1435,  cephalic  index  69.5,  facial  index  56, 
nasal  index  51.8.  No.  1380,  from  Gerba,  female,  capacity  1330, 
cephalic  index  70.8,  facial  index  59,  nasal  index  46.  2  Trap. 
pyr£oidtS)  or  tower-like.  No.  1383,  from  Megez-el-IJab,  male, 
capacity  1320,  cephalic  index  82.1,  facial  index  55.2,  nasal  index 
45.3.  No.  1389,  from  Tamezart  (Gabes),  male,  capacity  1325, 
cephalic  index  76.8,  facial  index  53.6,  nasal  index  47.1. 

In  comparing  the  skulls  from  Roknia  \\ith  mine 
from  Tunis  it  is  at  once  seen  that  (except  the  trape- 
zoids) all  belong  to  the  same  varieties,  the  differences 
being  found  only  in  the  sub-varieties,  as  is  natural  in 
such  small  scries  as  these.  If  we  make  a  wider  com- 
parison, between  Egyptian  skulls  and  those  of  other 
Mediterranean  populations,  we  shall  find  that  the 
sub-varieties  are  common  to  every  population  in  the 
Mediterranean.  In  regard  to  the  cephalic  index  I 
must  say  that  only  two  brachycephalic  skulls  are 
found  in  the  Tunis  scries,  but  one  is  a  broad  ovoid 
(cephalic  index  80.7)  and  therefore  of  Mediterranean 
type;  the  other  (the  pyrgoid)  alone  is  foreign.  It  is 
necessary  to  call  attention  to  this  fact,  since  Kcanc,  in 
his  recent  work,  Man  Past  and  Present,  considers 
that  the  brachycephalic  element  found  amidst  the 
Ktiropcan  dolichoccphals  is  partly  of  African  origin 
and  partly  of  Asiatic  origin.  Now  we  have  seen  that 
it  is  only  in  modern  times  that  brachyccphals  have 
been  found  in  North  Africa  in  any  considerable 


number,  and  then  only  as  a  subordinate  type;  in 
antiquity  they  were  exceptional  and  sporadic,  not 
only  in  Africa  but  throughout  the  Mediterranean. 
If  we  examine  the  skulls  of  East  Africa,  of  Abyssinia, 
of  Somaliiand,  ot  the  Gallas,  a  brachycephalic  skull  is 
always  very  exceptional.1 

In  the  Sahara,  again,  and  in  the  west  towards  the 
Atlantic — that  is,  in  the  region  including  Libyans  or 
Berbers — all  the  information  that  reaches  us  only 
confirm  the  results  already  reached  regarding  the 
Mediterranean  Libyans.  Unfortunately  I  have  no 
personal  observations  to  present  regarding  the  forms 
ot  the  skull  in  these  regions,  except  only  as  regards 
three  skulls  from  the  island  of  Arguin  on  the 
Atlantic  coast  ot  Africa,  and  sufficiently  near  the 
mainland  to  be  considered  as  an  appendage  of  the 
Sahara  and  of  Magreb,  which  under  some  aspects 
may  be  considered  an  extension  of  Morocco.  I 
know  that  three  skulls  are  too  few,  but  with  my 
zoological  method  they  express  something  and  furnish 
an  important  indication.  They  belong  to  two  of  the 
commonest  Mediterranean  varieties. 

One  is  Ell.  depressus,  capacity  1515,  cephalic  index  72.2, 
height  index  66.3,  facial  indices  58.1  and  96  8,  nasal  index  43.1. 
The  other  two  are  t>voids  :  Ov.  dLgypliacus,  capacity  1450, 
cephalic  index  72.5,  height  index  72,  facial  indices  56  and  93, 
nasal  index  45.2  ;  Ov.  lophoides,  on  account  of  a  protuberance 
on  the  cranial  roof,  capacity  1385,  cephalic  index  77.6,  height 
index  76.8,  facial  indices  54  and  88.7,  nasal  index  54.3.  This 
last  skull,  however,  is  h>brid  since  the  face  is  negroid. 

But  to  compensate  fey-  the  absence  of  skulls  we  have 
observations  on  the  living  face.  These  reveal  the 
presence  of  the  varieties  of  the  Eurafrican  species 

1  a.  Africa. 


found  in  Hamitic  Africa  and  throughout  the  Mediter- 
ranean— that  is  to  say,  the  forms  of  the  face  I  describe 
as  ellipsoid,  ovoid,  pentagonal,  and  resembling  a 
parallelogram,  while  the  face  of  the  Ovoides  •/£".£f/- 
tiacus  of.  Arguin  is  dolicho-cllipsoid,  and  the  nasal 
index  is  leptorhinc  in  two  skulls  and  meso-lcptorhinc 
in  the  living.1 

1  For  details,  sec  Africa,  Parle  1 1. 



The  Origins  of  the  Cana>y  Population— Physical  Charactcts 
of  the  Population. 

T/ie  Origins  of  the  Canary  Population. —  It  seems 
unnecessary  to  refer  to  the  opinions  of  ancient 
historians  concerning  the  origin  of  the  population  of 
the  Canary  Islands,  for  they  are  merely  conjectural  and 
often  fantastic,  being  sometimes  united  with  ill-founded 
traditions.  Investigations  worthy  of  attention  only 
begin  with  the  naturalists  wlro  in  modern  times  have 
studied  the  islands  and  their  products  and  inhabitants 
with  scientific  methods.  We  owe  to  the  researches 
of  Berthelot,  Broca,  Faidherbe,  and  Chil,  in  the  first 
place,  and  afterwards  to  the  more  special  investiga- 
tions of  Vcrneau  and  more  recently  of  Meyer  and 
Luschan,  whatever  light  has  been  thrown  on  the 
populations  who  have  inhabited  the  Canary  Islands.1 

1  Berlhelot,  Anliquitfs  Canaricnnes,  Paris,  1839 ;  Baker  Webb  and 
S.  Berthelot,  Histoire  iiatttrelle  des  f'es  Canaries,  Paris,  1839;  Bioca, 
Revue  d'Anthiopologic,  iv.,  1874;  Faidherbe,  Quelques  mots  sur 
rethnologie  de  VArchipel  Canarien,  Paris,  1875 ;  Chil  y  Naranjo, 
Rstudios  Hisloricos,  cliniatol6^icos  y  palol6gicos  de  las  Is/as  Canarias, 
Las  Palnias,  1876-89  ;  Verneau,  Kappo>t  sur  une  Mission  scientijiqiie 
dans  FArchipcl  Canarien,  Paris,  1887;  ib.,  Cinq  annees  de  sejour  aux 
ties  Canaries,  Paris,  1891  ;  ib.,  "  De  la  pluralitc  des  races  humaincs 
de  1'Archipel  Canarien"  (Bull.  Sot.  Anthrop.,  1878);  ib.,  "  Habita- 
tions et  sepultures  des  ancicns  habitants  des  lies  Canaries  "  (A'evtie 
tfA nlhrop. ),  1879  ;  ib.,  "  Les  Semites  aux  ties  Canaries'"  (Bull ,  fit., 


The  primary  problem  has  been  that  of  the  origins 
of  the  Canary  population.  Bcrthclot.  founding  his 
opinion  chiefly  on  language,  believed  that  it  was 
derived  from  tribes  of  the  western  Atlas,  Brpca  that 
it  came  from  North  Africa,  and  Faidherbe  that  it  is 
a  mixture  of  Wolofs,  Libyans,  blond  Europeans,  and 
even  Canaanites.  Verncau  attempted  to  prove  that 
the  Canarians  belong  to  the  Cro-Magnon  race  and 
emigrated  from  the  north.  It  is  useless  to  refer  to 
the  opinions  of  those  who  believe  that  the  race  is  of 
American  origin  or  constitutes  a  residuum  of  the 
population  of  the  poetic  Atlantis,  for  the  origins  of 
a  people  can  only  be  learnt  by  the  study  of  their 
physical  and  ethnographic  characters.  The  method 
that  has  guided  us  so  far  is  that  of  following  the 
distribution  of  such  characters,  especially  the  physical 
traits,  in  the  various  regions,  and  noting  the  resem- 
blances or  dissimilarities  which  unite  or  separate  a 
population  in  relation  to  a  stock  with  well-established 
characters.  If  a  population  is  studied  by  itself, 
without  relation  to  others,  it  cannot  be  classified, 
and  we  cannot  learn  its  origins.  Let  us  therefore 
ask  what  are  the  physical  characters  of  the  Canary 

Physical  Characters  of  tlie  Population. — Dr  Chil 
measured  169  ancient  skulls  from  Grand  Canary, 
Teneriflc,  Gomcra,  and  Ferro,  finding  among  them 

1881);  ib  ,  "  Sur  les  anciens  habitants  de  la  Islctn  "  ;  Meyer,  Die 
Intel  Tent'ife,  Leipzig,  1896  ;  "  Ueber  die  Urbewohner  der  Canar- 
ischcn  Inseln,"  in  Adolf  Baslian  Festschrift,  1'crlin,  1896 ;  Von 
Luschnu,  "  Anhang  Uber  cine  Schadclsammlung  von  den  Canarischen 
Inseln,"  Meyer's  />/>  fusel  Tenetife  :  "  Drci  trepanirle  Schadel  von 
Tencrif-.-"  (I'trkantilnn^en  der  Bet  liner  anlhrop.  Geseltschaft,  1896); 
Virchow,  "  Schadvt  mit  Carionecrosis  der  Sagiltaigegcnd  " 


only  8  that  were  brachycephalic,  the  average  index 
for  the  whole  number  being  76.3.  It  varied  a 
little  in  the  different  islands — in  Grand  Canary 
76.7,  in  Teneriffe  78,  in  Gomera  77.2,  in  Ferro 
73.2.  He  concludes  that  the  race  which  peopled 
the  Canaries  was  dolichocephalic  ;  and  he  believes 
that  it  was  related  to  the  troglodytes  of  the 
Homme-Mort  Cavern,  of  Cro-Magnon,  of  Vezere, 
as  well  as  to  the  Spanish  Basques,  the  Berbers, 
the  Egyptians,  and  the  Corsicans ;  also  that  the 
race  was  the  same  throughout  the  Archipelago, 
the  variations  being  due  to  mixture  among  the 
invaders.  He  also  believes  that  Grand  Canary 
possessed  the  real  type  of  the  pure  aboriginal  race, 
while  the  Teneriffe  skulls  belonged  to  a  coarser  type 
He  attaches  no  importance  to  the  blond  element 
found  in  the  Archipelago,  since  such  an  element  is 
found  also  in  Egypt  and  among  the  ancient  Libyans.1 
Very  different  from  Dr.  Chil's  conclusions  are  those 
of  Dr.  Verneau,  who  has  written  an  important  work  on 
a  large  number  of  skulls  and  long  bones  belonging  to 
the  ancient  inhabitants  of  the  islands  in  order  to 
reach  decisive  conclusions.  As  is  known,  the  ancient 
colonists  of  the  Archipelago  of  the  Canaries  were 
called  Guanches,  and  Verneau  proposes  to  determine 
whether  or  not  other  races  were  mingled  with  the 
Guanches.  Stature  in  the  first  place  and  then  cranial 
form  have  indicated  to  Verneau  that  the  Guanches 
were  mixed  with  other  racial  elements.  It  was  in 
Teneriffe  that  the  Guanche  element  predominated 
in  a  least  mixed  shape ;  Gomera,  Grand  Canary,  and 
Ferro,  he  believes,  contained  a  population  that  was 
mingled  in  various  proportions.  At  Teneriffe  a  high 

1  Op.  til. ,  vol.  ii. ,  p.  305  and  plates  ;  also  pp.  273  et  seq. 


stature  prevails  among  the  men,  45.8  per  cent,  being 
between  m.  1.70  and  m.  1.86,  and  47.8  per  cent, 
between  m.  1.65  and  m.  1.70;  the  general  male 
average  is  1.70,  while  in  the  female  sex  it  is  only 
about  1.53.  At  Gomera  a  low  stature  predominates, 
67.69  per  cent,  being  m.  1.60  and  less.  At  Grand 
Canary  the  proportion  varies  according  to  locality, 
at  Isleta  58.90  being  of  high  stature  and  5.90  of  low, 
while  at  Santa  Lucia,  at  Aguimcs,  and  at  San 
Bartolomo  the  proportion  varies  between  28.65  ar|d 
42  per  cent.  Taken  altogether,  the  island  shows  an 
average  stature,  as  at  Teneriffe,  of  m.  1.70  with  a 
maximum  of  m.  1.81  and  a  minimum  of  m.  1.58.  In 
the  island  of  Ferro  the  proportion  descends  ;  from 
1.65  to  1.75  it  is  from  23.33  to  45.10  per  cent, 
while  the  low  stature  oscillates  between  28  and  51 
per  cent 

From  these  data  Verneau  argues  the  presence  of 
many  different  races  of  great  and  small  stature. 
Since  he  attributes  the  high  stature  to  the  Guanches, 
it  follows  that  Teneriffe  had  a  more  homogeneous 
population  of  Guanche  stock  with  few  foreign 
elements,  while  Grand  Canary  had  a  very  varied 
population ;  this  he  attempts  to  prove  also  by 
examination  of  the  skulls. 

If  we  consider  cranial  capacity,  the  male  skulls  of 
Teneriffe  are  large,  with  an  average  of  1,672  cc.,  with 
a  maximum  of  1,900  and  a  minimum  of  1,410;  the 
female  skulls  have  an  average  of  1432  c.c,  with  a 
maximum  of  1,600  and  a  minimum  of  1,3 1 5.  Not  less 
high  is  the  capacity  of  the  Gomera  skulls,  with  an 
average  of  1,607  (maximum  1,627,  minimum  1,440) 
for  the  males,  and  an  average  of  1,349  (maximum 
1,375,  minimum  1,255)  for  the  females.  At  Grand 


Canary  the  total  average  was  1,513  with  wide  varia- 
tions. Ferro  has  also  yielded  masculine  skulls  with 
capacity  varying  widely  between  1,280  and  1,625,  and 
feminine  skulls  between  1,260  and  1,685;  in  Palma 
the  masculine  range  is  between  1,335  and  1>735- 

As  I  have  elsewhere  often  stated  (in  my  Varietb 
Umani),  I  believe  that  wide  oscillations  in  cranial 
capacity  cannot  be  regarded  as  due  to  individual 
variation,  and  therefore,  with  Verneau,  I  accept  the 
presence  in  the  Canaries  of  many  different  racial 
elements.  This  would  confirm  the  indication  already 
supplied  by  the  differences  in  stature.  I  would  only 
observe  that  there  is  a  divergence  between  the  data 
of  stature  and  those  of  cranial  capacity  as  regards 
Gomera,  where  the  capacity  equals  that  found  at 
Teneriffe,  and  at  Grand  Canary  also  the  cranial 
capacity,  like  the  stature,  is  relatively  high,  though 
the  variations  are  greater  than  at  Teneriffe. 

We  may  turn  to  the  data  furnished  by  the  islands  as  regards 
cephalic  index,  following  Verneau.  (I  reduce  the  quinary 
division  of  the  French  to  the  simpler  ternary  division  of  the 
Germans.)  At  Teneriffe  Verneau  found:  — 

Male  Skulls. 

Per  Cent. 

Dolichocephalic 37.00 

Mesocephalic 40.70 

Brachycephalic 22.30 

Female  Skulls. 

Dolichocephalic    .....  16.67 

Mesocephalic 5^-33 

Brachycephalic     .        .        ,        .        .  25.00 

At  Gomera: 

Male  Skulls. 

Dolichocephalic 15.39 

Mesocephalic 45- '5 

Brachycephalic 38.46 

Female  Skulls. 

Per  Cent. 

Mesoccphalic 25.00 

Brachycephalic 75-OO 

At  Grand  Canary  are  found,  according  to  locality: 

Dolichocephalic   .  .       from  25.00  to  50.00 

Mesocephalic       .  .           „    17.00  „  75.00 

Brachycephalic    .  .          „      5.88  „  12.50 
At  Ferrot 

Dolichocephalic,  in  the  east  30.00,  in  the  south  35.30 

Mesocephalic,             „  7000,           „           32.35 

At  Palma  we  find  dolichocephalic  and  mesocephalic  with 
variations  in  the  two  sexes  between  71.96  and  78.53. 

The  largest  number  of  brachycephals  is  to  be  found 
at  Gomera,  and  especially  among  the  women ;  only  a 
few  are  found  among  the  Grand  Canary  skulls;  none 
at  Palma  and  Ferro.  The  population  of  the  archi- 
pelago would  seem  to  be  more  homogeneous  con- 
sidered according  to  cephalic  index  than  according 
to  cranial  capacity  or  stature. 

As  regards  the  facial  index,  I  have  thought  it  desirable  to 
reduce  the  measure  of  facial  height  (taken  by  Verneau  from  the 
ophryon)  to  the  height  from  the  naso-frontal  suture,  a  method 
I  have  adopted  for  many  years  past  I  have  obtained  it  by 
adding  the  nasal  height  to  the  inter-maxillary  height,  measured 
by  Verneau. 

In  his  results  Verneau  gives  averages  together  with  the 
maxima  and  minima,  but  seldom  the  individual  data.  Com- 
pelled to  follow  him,  I  have  found  great  divergence  of  results. 
His  averages,  as  well  as  his  maxima  and  minima,  but  rarely 
correspond  to  those  obtained  by  my  method,  which  is  more 
exact  since  it  has  fixed  anatomical  points.  For  Teneriffe  I  have 
obtained  average  male  indices  of  52  to  52.9  (maxima  55,  56.5, 
minima  47.7,  50);  for  Gomera  indices  of  59,  57,  53,  48;  for 
('•rand  Canary  average  indices  of  52.5  to  57.7  (maxima  59.80 and 
60,  minima  48.7  and  51.2);  for  Ferro  averages  of  52  and  53 
(maxima  54,  56,  58,  and  minima  48.8,  50);  for  Talma  the  indices 
oscillate  between  50.4  and  55.6. 


Summarising  the  figures  obtained  as  regarding 
facial  index,  it  appears  that  the  greater  number  show 
the  presence  of  the  elongated  or  leptoprosopic  type 
of  face,  this  type  often  showing  extreme  forms  with 
indices  of  55  to  60 ;  the  chaemoprosopic  or  broad-faced 
are  rare,  only  9  times  in  73  cases,  or  at  a  percentual  rate 
of  12.3.  These  results  lead  us  to  conclusions  very 
unlike  those  of  Verneau,  who  believes  that  the  true 
Guanche  type  possesses  a  short  broad  face. 

In  Verneau's  opinion  the  Guanches  have  been 
variously  mixed  with  the  racial  elements  which 
perhaps  arrived  at  the  same  time  to  colonise  the 
islands.  He  considers  that  the  Guanches  are  of  the 
Cro-Magnon  race,  and  that  at  Teneriffe  they  present  its 
characters  in  stature,  skull,  and  face;  mingled  with  this 
he  finds  a  Semitic  element  whence  results  the  mixed 
type  most  common  in  the  island.  He  adds  a  third 
but  less  numerous  type  with  a  short  head  and  broad 
nose.  At  Teneriffe  the  true  Guanche  race  is  most 
numerous,  while  at  Gomera  it  is  scarcely  found  at  all. 
At  Grand  Canary,  where  Chil  finds  the  Guanches 
present,  Verneau  only  finds  a  chaos  of  racial  elements. 
Although  dolichocephaly  is  common,  and  brachy- 
cephaly  rare,  the  stature  is  high  on  the  whole,  and 
hence  he  believes  that  here,  as  at  Teneriffe,  only  to  a 
greater  extent,  a  Semitic  element  has  entered.  Thus, 
taking  the  island  altogether,  he  finds:  (i)  Guanches, 
(2)  Semites,  (3)  crosses  between  these  two,  (4)  a  type 
with  short  head  and  brow,  of  unknown  origin,  (5) 
another  type,  perhaps  Berber,  at  the  north  of  the 
island.  At  Ferro  and  Palma  the  phenomena  are 

A  final  investigation  is  concerned  with  the  colour 
of  the  skin,  eyes,  and  hair.  Tradition  refers  to  blonds 


in  the  Canaries;  the  poet  Viana  represents  the 
princess  Dacil  with  Teutonic  complexion;  Vicra 
y  Clavijo,  Berthclot,  and  Millares  state  that  they 
have  seen  mummies  with  blond  hair.  Verncau  saw 
some  with  red  hair,  which  he  attributes  to  the  action 
of  mummification,  as  in  Peruvian  mummies.  At  the 
same  time  he  is  inclined  to  admit  the  existence  of 
blonds  at  TenerirTe,  where  he  has  met  children,  and 
sometimes  adults,  with  blond  hair  and  also  with  blue 
eyes.  Among  the  adults  some  have  chestnut  hair, 
more  or  less  light,  while  some  arc  real  blonds.  He 
accepts  these  blonds  without  hesitation  as  descendants 
of  the  ancient  Guanches. 

If  we  judge  Dr.  Verncau's  conclusions  by  his  facts, 
regarded  in  the  light  of  other  craniological  criteria 
than  the  rough  method  of  the  cephalic  index  or 
stereotyped  shapes,  we  shall  certainly  find  some  of 
his  inductions  inacccptable.  Verncau  exerts  himself 
to  find  the  pentagonal  or  sub-pentagonal  forms  as 
necessary  characteristics  of  the  Cro-Magnon  skull, 
and  when  he  finds  ellipsoid  or  ovoid  skulls  he  sees 
Semitic  or  hybrid  skulls.  I  have  often  shown  that 
even  amongst  the  most  homogeneous  populations 
there  is  no  single  cranial  type  or  single  stereotyped 
form;  Cro-Magnon  skulls  present  varied  types,  and 
not  merely  that  01  the  celebrated  old  skull  on  which 
some  would  stereotype  all  the  individuals  belonging 
to  the  same  race. 

More  than  this :  Verneau  finds  that  the  Guanche 
type,  as  he  conceives  it,  is  unlike  that  of  the  Hcrbers ; 
and  therefore  he  considers  it  European,  and  in 
addition  blond  and  white,  with  light  eyes  like  a 
Teutonic  type,  although,  according  to  his  own  state- 
ments, there  arc  few  blonds  now  in  the  islands,  and 


IK)  evidence  of  blondness  among  the  mummified 
human  remains.  As  regards  the  face,  he  believes 
that  the  Guanchc  type  was  broad  and  short,  like  the 
Cro-Magnon  skull.  But  by  his  own  measurements 
we  have  found  that  the  indices  are  leptoprosopic  and 
even  exaggerated,  up  to  60. 

I  believe  we  may  conclude,  on  the  basis  of  Ver- 
neau's  own  observations,  that  the  population  of  the 
Canaries  was  mingled  before  the  conquest,  and  that 
there  were  two  chief  elements,  one  of  Guanches,  doli- 
chocephalic and  mesocephalic,  with  leptoprosopic 
face,  the  other  an  undetermined  racial  element  with 
short  head,  short  and  broad  face.  There  is  also  a 
third  element,  of  secondary  rank,  dolichocephalic  and 
mesocephalic,  short  face,  short  stature,  but  we  are  not 
entitled  to  call  it  Semitic.  If  such  an  element  were 
present  it  would  be  difficult  to  distinguish  it  clearly. 
Let  us,  however,  turn  to  the  opinions  of  two  other 
more  recent  observers,  Meyer  and  F.  von  Luschan. 

Meyer  has  himself  summarised  his  ideas  and  those 
of  Von  Luschan  concerning  the  Guanches,  whom  they 
believe  to  have  been  blonds  of  white  skin,  and  dis- 
tinguished from  two  other  types  which  also  inhabited 
the  Canaries.  Thus  there  would  be  three  physically 
different  types.  « 

The  jirst  type  is  formed  by  the  .Guanches.  whose 
stature,  according  to  those  investigators,  was  between 
m.  1.70  and  1.90,  bodies  robust  and  head  large, 
markedly  dolichocephalic.  The  forehead  was  well 
developed,  the  occiput  strong  and  low,  the  face  low 
and  broad,  the  eyes  large,  the  jaws  very  wide,  the 
cephalic  index  is  78,  the  vertical  index  73.  The  nose 
was  relatively  short,  the  teeth  but  slightly  prominent. 
On  the  whole,  the  skull  has  most  resemblance  to  the 


prehistoric    type    of    Cro-Magnon.     The    hair    was  U 
blond,  reddish,  or  light  chestnut ;   the  skin  and  eyes 
light.     This  Guanche  type  was  diffused  throughout 
all  the  islands,  but  was  purest  and  most  numerous  in 

The  second  type  was  of  stature  m.  1.65  to  1.67, 
slender  7n~body,  and  with  a  delicate  mcsocephalic 
skull.  The  face  was  long  and  narrow,  the  nose 
narrow.  The  cephalic  index  is  81,  the  vertical  index 
73.  A  resemblance  to  the  Hamitic  skull  cannot  fail 
to  be  recognised.  The  hair  was  black,  the  skin  a  light 
brown,  the  eyes  dark.  This  type  is  specially  found  at 
Grand  Canary,  Pal  ma,  and  Fcrro,  but  not  at  Gomera. 

The  third  type  was  of  shorter  stature  on  the 
average  than  the  two  previous  types.  The  bones 
were  slender,  the  skull  hypsibrachycephalic,  very 
short,  broad,  and  high.  The  face  was  long  and 
narrow,  the  nose  narrow  and  straight.  The  cephalic 
index  was  84,  the  vertical  index  79.5.  This  cranial 
shape  is  entirely  identical  with  that  called  by  Von 
Luschan  the  Armenoid  pre-Semitic  of  Western  Asia. 
The  colour  of  hair,  skin,  and  eyes  most  probably 
corresponded  with  that  of  the  brunet  types  of 
Western  Asia.  This  type  was  widespread  and  pure 
at  Gomera,  where  the  second  type  was  absent,  but  is 
also  traceable  in  the  rest  of  the  archipelago. 

If  we  classify  these  three  types,  these  investigators 
conclude,  we  have:  (i)  Dolichocephals  related  to  the 
very  ancient  Cro-Magnon  race ;  (2)  Mesocephals  of 
Hamitic  relationship;  (3)  Hypsibrachycephals  related 
to  the  prc-Semitic  Armcnoids  of  Western  Asia.1 

1  "  Ueber  die  Url>cwohner  der  Canarischen  Inseln,"  Festschrift  /«> 
A.  Bastion,  Merlin,  1896;  cf.  Von  I.uschan's  appendix  to  Die  Inset 
Tenerife,  Leipzig,  1896. 


It  will  be  seen  that  the  two  distinguished  German 
authorities  differ  considerably  from  Verneau ;  they 
accept  Verneau's  Guanche  type  entirely,  but  the 
delicate  type  with  a  cephalic  index  of  8 1 — that 
is,  brachycephalic,  not  mesocephalic — is  for  them 
Hamitic,  and  the  brachycephals  of  84  are  Armenoid. 

Let  us  consider  Von  Luschan's  data.  He  finds 
among  50  skulls  i  dolichocephalic,  22  mesocephalic, 
27  brachycephalic,  following  the  classification  of  the 
Frankfort  Convention;  for  the  facial  index  (following 
the  same  classification)  we  have  40  leptoprosopic  (i.e., 
in  the  proportion  of  80  per  cent.)  and  10  chamaepro- 
sopic  (in  the  proportion  of  20  per  cent).  If,  how- 
ever, we  adopt  my  classification  we  have  the  indices 
in  the  proportion  of  70  per  cent,  leptoprosopic,  35.22 
mesoprosopic,  and  8  per  cent,  chamaeprosopic  (only  4 
cases).  These  figures  are  founded  on  Von  Luschan's 
own  data ; l  and  they  agree  with  the  observations  of 
Verneau,  who  at  Teneriffe  in  18  cases  only  twice 
found  chamaeprosopic  (between  47.7  and  48.7),  though 
Teneriffe  is  the  island  in  which,  according  to  these 
authors,  the  Guanche  elements  are  most  numerous. 
At  Gomera  it  was  only  found  once  among  13  cases, 
at  Grand  Canary  twice  among  28,  at  Ferro  three 
times  among  18,  at  Pal  ma  not  at  all. 

The  short  and  broad  type  of  face  is  therefore  very 
seldom  found,  while  the  type  with  long  or  even  very 
long  face,  which  we  have  learned  to  know  among  the 
Hamites  of  the  whole  African  zone  from  east  to  west, 
is  common  and  widely  diffused.  But  among  the 
Hamites  we  have  only  exceptionally  found  a  skull 
with  a  cephalic  index  of  Si;  it  is  usually  dolicho- 
cephalic and  mesocephalic.  I  will  here  present  the 

1  See  Meyer,  Die  Insel  Tenerife. 


results,  as  regards  skull  shape,  of  an  examination  of 
the  small  collection  of  crania  from  the  Canaries  pos- 
sessed by  the  Rome  Museum  of  Anthropology.  Here 
is  the  list : — 

I  ELLIPSOIDS:  I,  Ell.  corythocephalus;  2,  Ell.  proophryo- 
ats;  3,  Parallclepipedoides,  (a)  africus,  (/>)  canaiiensis.  II. 
OVOIDES:  i,  O.  lobatus.  III.  PENTAGONOIDS  :  i,  Pent, 
planus;  2,  Pent,  acutus.  IV.  PLATYCEPHALUS:  i,  Stenoplaty- 
cephalus.  V.  SPHENOIDS:  i,  Sph.  tetragonus  panws;  2,  Sph. 
cyrtocephalus  oblongus;  3,  Sph.  canariensis. 

FIG.  21. — Sfhenoides  canaricnsh  (Scrjji). 

It  is  unnecessary  to  describe  all  the  skulls  of  this  little  scries, 
as  their  characters  may  be  at  once  inferred  frorn.  their  names, 
and  the  reader  who  has  followed  me  so  far  will  recognise  that 
many  of  them  are  common  to  the  Mediterranean.  I  will  only 
say  a  few  words  concerning  those  that  deserve  special  attention. 
The  Parallele(>if>cdi>idcs  ainaricnse  is  distinguished  from  the 
elsewhere  described,1  by  being  larger,  showing  a 

1  See  Afrita. 



more  complete  parallelism  and  a  very  developed  frontal  bone, 
elevated  above  the  plane  of  the  cranial  vault.  The  Sienoplaly- 
cephalus  is  a  small  low  flattened  skull,  with  the  characters  found 
in  the  microcephalic  crania  of  the  Mediterranean,  and  in  Russia 
at  the  Kurgan  epoch.1  This  cranial  form  thus  found  in  the 
midst  of  ancient  skulls  from  the  Canaries,  has  an  important 
bearing,  in  my  opinion,  on  the  African  origin  of  European 
pigmies  which  I  suggested  some  years  ago.  Another  type 
which  merits  special  attention  is  the  Sphenoides  canariensis ; 

Fl(».  22. — Sphenoides  canariensis  (Sergi). 

this  is  a  male  skull  of  capacity  1,530  c.c.,  cephalic  index  81.3, 
vertical  index  71.8,  facial  index  53.5,  nasal  index  43.6  (Figs. 
21,  22).  This  wedge-shaped  form  approaches  the  round 
sphenoid,2  but  it  is  broader  in  front,  low  like  a  platycephalic 
skull,  and  with  very  short  and  receding  forehead;  the  large 
mastoid  apophyses  are  so  placed  that  the  skull  inclines  back- 

J  Sergi,  Varieta  microcefaliche  e  Pigmci  di  Eiiropa,  Roma,  1893;  ifi., 
Specie  e  Varieta  ttwarte,  Turin,  1900. 

8  Cf.  Sergi,  Sin  ii  di  antropolog ia  lazialt,  Rome,  1895. 


ward  instead  ot  ascending  in  front  This  skull  is  unique  in 
the  collection,  but  I  have  found  many  similar  in  Von  Luschan's 
collection  at  Berlin,  and  it  is  represented  in  Plate  I.  of  Meyer's 
memoir.1  This,  it  appears  to  me,  is  the  skull  which  Von 
Luschan  terms  Armenoid. 

It  may  be  well  to  point  out  that  the  Armenoid 
type  was  described  by  Von  Luschan  on  the  occasion 
of  his  travels  in  Lycia  and  in  his  study  of  the  Tach- 
tadshy  skull.  This  skull,  though  brachycephalic,  has 
a  different  form ;  generally  the  occiput  slopes  vertically 
or  a  little  obliquely  so  as  to  approach  the  vertical; 
the  summit  of  the  cranial  height  is  much  behind  the 
bregma,  and  from  the  summit  there  is  an  oblique 
descent  towards  the  forehead.  Viewed  from  the  side, 
the  skull  has  a  trapezoidal  appearance.2  Mine  and 
those  of  Meyer  do  not  altogether  resemble  the  Arme- 
noid type  of  Asia  Minor,  and  it  seems  to  me,  there- 
fore, that  Meyer's  third  type  from  the  Canaries  cannot 
with  any  probability  be  described  as  Armenoid.  I 
call  it  Canariense,  because  I  have  never  seen  a  similar 
cranial  form  elsewhere.  I  do  not  wish  to  imply  that 
it  arose  in  this  archipelago,  but  it  is  foreign  to  the 
Hamitic  type  which  mainly  dominates  here. 

From  a  craniometric  point  of  view  the  skulls  of  my 
series  comprise:  2  dolichoccphals,  6  mesocephals,  4 
brachycephals  with  the  minimum  brachycephalic  index 
(81);  as  regards  facial  index  4  are  leptoprosopic 
(average  index  54.3),  4  mesoprosopic  (average  50.4), 
and  4  chamaeprosopic  (average  81.5);  as  regards  nasal 
index  there  are  5  leptorhinc  (average  index  44.9),  3 
mesorhinc  (average  51.3),  4  platyrhinc  (average  55.2). 

1  See  also  Fig.  c  in  appendix  to  Meyer,  Die  Intel  Tenerife,  p.  298. 
•  Cf.    "Die   Tachtadschy,'1  Arckiv  fur  Anthrojolosie,  xix.,  1891, 
fit's.  15,  16,  17. 


When  we  consider  these  from  the  point  of  view  of 
form,  all  the  varieties,  with  the  exception  of  one  sub- 
variety,  the  SpJicnoidcs  Canariensis^  are  found  to  be 
common  to  the  groups  of  Hamitic  stock  in  Africa 
and  in  the  Mediterranean  among  the  populations  of 
Southern  Europe.  It  is  sufficient  to  compare  the  list 
of  the  Canary  varieties  with  the  other  lists  to  become 
convinced  of  the  resemblance.  This  is  to  me  a  satis- 
factory result,  considering  the  small  number  of  skulls, 
and  shows  the  community  of  origin  and  of  stock 
between  the  inhabitants  of  the  Canary  Islands  and 
the  Hamites. 

With  this  general  affirmation,  however,  I  do  not 
wish  to  deny  that  among  the  Hamites  of  the  Canaries 
there  were  not  other  and  foreign  racial  elements. 
The  differences  in  stature,  in  cranial  capacity,  and  in 
part  in  cranial  and  facial  shape,  indicate  the  presence 
of  mixture,  as  affirmed  by  Verneau,  Meyer,  and  Von 

It  is  difficult  to  know  the  origin  of  the  type  I  have 
called  SpJienoides  Canariensis.  At  first,  noticing  that 
the  brachycephals  in  the  skulls  studied  by  Verneau 
were  chiefly  among  the  women,  I  thought  that  this 
type  might  have  owed  its  origin  to  the  introduction 
of  slave  women  into  the  archipelago,  and  that  their 
offspring,  including  males,  were  btechycephalic.  It 
would  still,  however,  be  difficult  to  tell  where  they 
came  from,  and  I  think  it  useless  to  invent  new 

The  list  includes  the  Stenoplatycephalus,  of  small 
capacity,  and  with  similar  if  not  identical  characters, 
which  I  have  found  in  the  Mediterranean  and  in 
Russia  among  the  pigmies.  Although  this  skull  has 
a  higher  capacity  than  among  the  pigmies,  I  have 


no  hesitation  in  regarding  it  as  of  the  same  type  and 
variety.  It  that  is  so,  this  skull  indicates  that  the 
pigmies  came  into  the  Mediterranean  through  Africa, 
and  hence  with  other  racial  elements  passed  into  the 
Canaries,  where  they  help,  to  a  large  extent,  to  ex- 
plain the  presence  of  very  low  statures. 

What  shall  we  say,  finally,  as  to  the  origin  of  the 
Guanchcs,  concerning  whom  so  many  theories  have 
been  set  forth  ?  Admitting  that  they  have  characters 
in  common  with  the  residue  of  the  so-called  Cro- 
Magnon  race,  shall  we  agree  with  Verneau  that  they 
migrated  from  the  north  ?  Contrary  to  that  opinion, 
I  have  concluded  that  primitive  Europe  received  its 
population  in  large  part  from  Africa;  as  regards  the 
Canaries,  we  may  conclude  with  still  greater  reason 
that  the  primitive  population  migrated  from  Africa, 
and  constituted  the  last  expansion  of  African  emigra- 
tion towards  the  west.  This  is  confirmed  by  the 
ethnology,  and  especially  by  the  linear  writing  of 
the  so-called  Libyan  type.  The  brachyccphals  con- 
stituted a  foreign  element  of  unknown  origin. 



The  Hiltiles—The  Armenoids  of  Lycia— Cyprus—  7 he  P/tce- 

The  Hiitites, — We  have  no  reason  to  suppose  that  the 
movement  of  emigration  in  the  east  of  Africa  stopped 
at  the  Nile  valley;  we  may  suppose  that  it  extended 
towards  the  east  of  Egypt,  into  Syria  and  the  regions 
around  Syria,  and  thence  into  Asia  Minor.  It  is 
possible  that  in  Syria  this  immigration  encountered 
the  primitive  inhabitants,  or  a  population  coming 
from  northern  Arabia,  and  mingled  with  them  or 
subjugated  them. 

After  the  celebrated  Oriental  discoveries  in  the 
Mesopotamian  .Valley,  and  the  elucidation  of  the 
Egyptian  monuments,  came  the  discovery  in  Asia 
Minor  and  Syria  of  other  monuments  and  of  inscrip- 
tions in  unknown  and  indecipherable  hieroglyphics. 
They  showed  that  a  powerful  and  energetic  nation  at 
a  very  remote  period  appeared  as  it  were  between  the 
two  oldest  empires  of  the  world  in  the  character  of  a 
terrible  enemy.  This  powerful  nation  was  that  of  the 
Kheti,  Khatti,  or  Hittites — the  name  was  variously 
pronounced  by  different  peoples — and  their  racial 
components  were  of  older  date  than  the  Phoenician 
dominion  in  Syria  and  the  Hellenisation  of  Asia 
Minor.  They  constituted  a  pre-Phcenician  and  pre- 
Hellcnic  power  in  the  Eastern  Mediterranean. 


To  explain  the  enigmas  presented  by  the  Hittitcs 
studies  of  all  kinds  arc  not  lacking.  English,  German, 
and  American  scholars  have  devoted  their  most 
serious  attention  to  the  matter,  and  among  Italians 
leather  Ccsare  DC  Cara  has  written  two  very  interest- 
ing works,  noteworthy  for  the  erudition  and  logical 
reasoning  employed  in  establishing  the  facts  and 
drawing  conclusions  from  them.1  It  is  agreed  that 
thejanguage  of  the  Hittites  was  not  Semitic — though 
almost  nothing  is  known  of  it — nor  Aryan;  it  is 
suspected  to  be  a  Hamitic  tongue,  though  such  a 
statement  certainly  has  only  a  va^ue  meaning.  Such 
De  Cara  believes  it  to  be,  and  he  relates  it  therefore 
to  Egyptian  and  to  Babylonian,  which  for  him  is  also 
Hamitic,  and  he  endeavours,  with  this  conviction,  to 
interpret  the  racial,  geographical,  and  other  names  by 
comparison  with  the  Egyptian  language.  This  is  a 
new  method  which  will,  I  believe,  furnish  important 
results  for  the  ethnography  of  the  Mediterranean, 
where  hitherto  it  has  been  usual  to  interpret  every- 
thing on  an  Aryan  or  Indo-Germanic  basis. 

For  De  Cara  the  Hittitcs  are  Pejasgians.  and  one 
with  the  Hyksos  who  invaded  Egypt ;  this  he  seems 
to  me  to  have  proved.  He  considers  that  their 
primitive  scat  was  in  the  high  regiojis_of_Syria,  and 
that  their  dominion  included  Syria,  Asia  Minor, 
Armenia,  the  Black  Sea  district,  and  southern  Scythia 
— that  is  to  say,  around  the  Black  Sea  and  Sea  of 
Azov  ;  these  regions  being  independent  of  the  other 
more  westerly  countries,  Greece  and  Italy.  In  his 
opinion,  the  Hittite  stock  peopled  the  Mediterranean, 
at  least  as  far  as  Italy,  setting  out  from  its  eastern 
coast,  or  Western  Asia.  In  speaking  of  the  Hittite 

1   Cli  Ilelhe:- /'<•/.»<;;/,  Rome,  1894;   Gli  Hyhos,  Rome,  1889. 


146  Till:    MEDITERRANEAN    RACE. 

dominion  in  Asia  he  is  unable  to  accept  all  the 
peoples  included  under  the  name  Hittite  as  one  race ; 
he  regards  them  as  a  confederacy.  Now,  if  it  is  true 
that  the  dominion  of  the  Hittitcs  in  Asia  included  all 
the  peoples  and  regions  to  which  De  Cara  extends 
the  name  Hittite,  he  is  right  in  considering  them  as  a 
confederacy  in  the  political  sense,  because  they  were 
often  united  in  fighting  against  the  Egyptians  or 
the  Babylonians  or  the  Assyrians.  It  is  easy  to 
imagine  also  that  some  peoples  were  tributary  to  the 
true  Hittites,  and  being  dominated  by  them  had  been 
thus  influenced  in  their  civil  and  religious  life.  De 
Cara  is  not  concerned  with  the  physical  type  of  the 
Hittites,  and  with  reason,  for  that  problem  cannot  be 
solved  by  linguistics  or  archaeology  alone.  His 
important  conclusion,  however,  agreeing  with  my 
own  investigations,  remains:  the  Hittitcs,  as  the 
primitive  inhabitants  of  Syria  and  Asia  Minor,  are 
a  Mediterranean  people,  like  the  western  Pelasgians, 
who  are  of  the- same  stock  as  the  eastern  Pelasgians. 

English  arcluL'olo^ists,  however,  including  Wright.1 
Saycc,2  and  others,  regard  the  Hittites  as  a  Turanian 
or  Mongolian  race  of  yellow  complexion.  Their 
arguments,  it  is  true,  are  by  no  means  conclusive; 
they  find  evidence  in  the  absence  of  beard  in  the 
figures  carved  on  rocks  or  painted  by  the  Egyptians 
on  their  monuments,  in  the  mode  of  wearing  the  hair 
by  which  it  has  the  appearance  in  profile  of  a  Chinese 
pig-tail,  in  the  profile  of  their  faces  as  drawn  by  the 

1   The  Empire  of  the  Hiitites,  and  eel.,  London,  1886. 

-  The  Hillites ;  id.,  Tin  Races  oj  the  Old  Testament,  London, 
1891;  cf.  Condor,  "llitiilo  Ethnology,"  /our.  Aiitkro/oloffcal  ///*/., 
vol.  xvii. ,  1887-8;  it/.,  "The  Early  Races  of  Western  Asia,"  Join: 
Anthi .  /»s/.,  vol.  xi.x.,  1889-90 



Egyptians,  though  in  this  last  case  Saycc  believes 
that  the  Egyptians  were  caricaturing  their  enemies. 

But  if  we  carefully  examine  the  figures  in  the 
Hittitc  monuments  we  find  some  personages  with 
beards,  and  others  without ;  thus  the  two  figures  in 
Plate  XIV.  (Fig.  23),  which  is  the  reproduction  of  a 
bas-relief  at  Ibreez,  by  Davis,1  from  Wright's  work, 

FIG.  23.— Bas-relief  at  Ibreez  (Davis). 

have  full  beards,  so  also  the  figure  seen  in  Plate  XVI 1 1. 
or  the  false  Sesostris  of  Herodotus ;  in  the  long 
series  in  Plate  XXIV.  (Fig.  24),  reproduced  from 
Perrot  and  Guillaume,2  individuals  with  beards  are 
mingled  with  others  without  beards.  Any  one  who 

1    Transactions  of  the  Rit>l.  Society,  iv.,  1876. 

*  Explorations  archJologiqutt  de  la  Galalie  tt  de  la  Bitkynie,  Paris, 



imagined  that  the  Egyptians,  who  arc  for  the  most 
part  painted  and  carved  without  beards  and  without 
hair,  belonged  to  a  race  unprovided  in  this  respect, 
would  doubtless  be  in  error,  and  no  one  has  looked 
upon  the  Egyptians  as  Turanian.  The  hair  is  worn 
in  two  lateral  locks,  one  on  the  right,  the  other  on 
the  left,  not  in  a  single  lock  as  would  appear  in 
profile.  The  facial  profile  in  the  Egyptian  monu- 
ments would  seem  to  indicate  prognathism  rather 
than  flattening  of  the  face;  the  profiles  on  the  Hittite 
monuments,  on  the  other  hand,  are  orthognathous 

FIG.  24.— Hittiles  (Perrot  and  Guillaume). 

and  regular,  often  beautiful ;   I  can  see  no  traces  of 
the  Mongolian  type. 

The  Armenoids  of  Lycia.  —  An  anthropological 
study  by  Dr.  von  Luschan1  in  L.ycia  and  the  neigh- 
bouring regions  would  lead  us  to  believe  in  the 
existence  of  a  primitive  race  with  hypsibrachyccphalic 
(that  is,  high  and  short)  skull,  an  Armenian  or 
Armenoid  race,  which  had  peopled  this  region,  and 

1  F.  von  Luschan  and  Petcrsen,  Keisen  in  Lykieii,  Afylias,  ttnJ 
Kibirate,  Vienna,  1889;  id.,  "Die  Tachtadschy  und  andere  Ueherreste 
tier  alien  Bevolkerung  Lyciens,"  Archivf.  Ant/t.,  vol.  xix.,  1891. 

mi:  ARM I:\OIDS  OF  LYCIA.  149 

pci  haps  also  the  other  regions  of  Asia  Minor.  Since 
Von  Luschan's  conclusions  mi^ht  induce  us  to  regard 
this  race  as  representing  the  Hittitcs,  and  hence  lead 
archaeologists  and  historians  astray,  I  wish  to  show 
that  such  an  identification  could  not  be  accepted. 

Luschan  measured  in  Lycia  177  individuals  of  the 
Mohammedan  faith,  and  found  among  them  both 
extreme  dolichocephaly  and  extreme  brachycephaly ; 
in  some  regions  the  dolichoccphals  outnumbered 
the  brachycephals  ;  in  others  the  latter  were  more 
numerous.  He  also  measured  179  individuals  belong- 
ing to  the  Greek  Church,  and  found  that  the  two  forms 
were  almost  equally  common  among  them.  He  then 
asked  himself:  Who  are  the  primitive  inhabitants 
of  Lycia?  A  series  of  ancient  skulls  might  furnish 
the  answer,  but  unfortunately  in  the  Lycian  tombs 
with  bilingual  inscriptions  at  Limyra  only  one  skull 
could  be  found  and  that  was  imperfect,  though  com- 
parable to  a  Tachtadshy  skull,  also  imperfect,  and  to 
an  Armenian  skull,  again  imperfect ;  all  three  were 
of  the  same  hypsibrachycephalic  type.  The  author 
further  studied  93  skulls  from  Adalia,  finding  25 
brachycephalic  and  68  dolichocephalic  and  meso- 
ccphalic.  He  compared  these  dolichocephalic  skulls 
with  a  Bedouin  skull  from  Palmyra  and  with  another 
of  the  thirteenth  century  from  Limyra,  reaching  the 
conclusion  that  the  primitive  Lycian  population  was 
hypsibrachycephalic,  but  that  in  very  ancient  times 
the  dolichocephals  arrived  from  two  different  direc- 
tions, from  Greece  and  from  Arabia.  Luschan  hence 
believes  that  the  population  is  composed  of  a  primitive 
A i  monoid  clement  and  of  two  secondary  elements, 
Greek  and  Arabian. 

I  think  we  can  explain  Luschan's  facts  in  a  manner 


more  in  harmony  with  other  facts.  According  to 
this  interpretation  the  skull  forms  of  Adalia  (such  as 
Luschan's  Fig.  95),  the  Palmyra  Bedouin,  and  the 
Limyra  skull  of  the  thirteenth  century  belong  to  the 
primitive  population,  while  the  ancient  Limyra  skull 
of  Armenoid  type  represents  a  stock  which  slowly 
infiltrated  Lycia  and  possibly  other  parts  of  Asia 
Minor.  In  other  words,  the  dolichocephalic  forms 
described  by  Von  Luschan  are  the  same  as  those 
found  in  other  parts  of  Asia  Minor  occupied  by  the 
Pelasgians,  the  same  that  we  find  in  Egypt,  to  the 
south  of  Egypt,  and  in  East  Africa  generally.  These 
cranial  forms  belong  to  the  Hittites,  who,  as  we  have 
already  seen  reason  to  believe,  emigrated  into  Asia 
through  Egypt.  We  may  compare  a  skull  from 
the  temple  of  Wady  Hamz,  which  is  pentagonoid  ; l 
Palmyra  skulls,  some  pentagonoid,  others  ovoid, 
forms  found  in  Egypt  and  East  Africa;2  skulls 
excavated  at  Hissarlik  and  examined  by  Virchow, 
some  ellipsoidal  like  those  of  Palmyra  and  Adalia, 
others  with  a  more  special  form  of  ellipse  constantly 
found  in  Africa  and  in  the  Mediterranean  as  far  as 
the  extreme  west,  in  Spain  and  Portugal,  and  in  the 
neolithic  interments  of  Great  Britain — i.e.,  an  ellipse 
compressed  at  the  sides,  like  the  skull  of  the  warrior 
in  Schliemann's  Ilios  (Fig.  25,  Figs.  973-976  of  the 
English  edition),  which  I  term  the  Pelasgian  ellipsoid. 
I  find  that  all  these  forms  are  common  to  the 
countries  we  have  explored,  to  Egypt,  and  to 

On  these  grounds  I  am  convinced  that  the  primitive 
population  of  Lycia  and  the  rest  of  Asia  Minor,  as 

1  Jour.  Anth.  //«/.,  vol.  viii  ,  Plate  IX.,  1878-79. 
*  foif.  Anlh.  /«*/.,  vol.  i.,  1871-72. 

"I  UK    AUMKXolPS   01-    LYc  I  A.  15! 

also  of  Syria,  is  of  the  same  type  as  the  Egyptian, 
and  derived  from  the  same  centre  of  diffusion.  This 
primitive  population  constituted  the  Hittite  nation, 
which,  in  this  case,  could  not  have  been  Turanian,  as 
Wright  and  Sayce  believe,  nor  of  brachycephalic 
Armcnoid  type,  as  argues.  As  I  have 
already  remarked,  it  is  probable  that  the  immigrants 
encountered  a  population  coming  from  Northern 

Fie.  25.— Skull  from  Troy,  Ellipsoidet 
felasgicus  (Virchow). 

Arabia,  but  as  the  skull  characters  of  the  two  races 
were  allied,  it  is  difficult  to  distinguish  them. 

Luschan's  Armcnoid  brachycephals,  of  whom  a 
single  skull  is  found  in  the  Limyra  graves,  are 
certainly  Armenian,  and  it  need  not  surprise  us  to 
find  that  even  at  the  period  of  the  Hittite  domination 
there  was  such  an  infiltration  into  Asia  Minor  and 
also  Syria.  If  there  was  an  alliance,  as  it  seems,  or 


a  domination  of  the  Hittites  over  the  Armenians,  the 
entrance  of  Armenian  elements  into  the  Hittite 
region  was  natural.  The  Armenian  movement  to- 
wards the  west  and  south  has  continued,  especially 
where  important  changes,  by  dissolving  the  dominant 
nation,  have  enabled  the  Armenian  population  to 
progress  without  obstacle.  In  confirmation  of  this,  I 
may  mention  that  I  have  found  skulls  of  Luschan's 
Armenoid  type  in  Egyptian  collections,  such  as  that 
of  Moilano  in  the  Museo  Civico,  though  they  are  only 
of  sporadic  occurrence,  some  four  or  five  in  the  whole 
scries;  in  Sicily  also  I  have  found  them  among 
aeneolithic  skulls  of  Mediterranean  type.1  The  true 
and  authentic  Hittite  stock,  with  its  original  anthro- 
pological characters,  must  be  explored  on  the  sea- 
coast;  certainly  Hittite  domination,  extending  to- 
wards the  interior,  has  carried  with  it  many  racial 
elements  of  the  stock,  but  on  the  whole  the  allied  or 
tributary  population  has  not  been  changed.  That  is 
why  I  think  De  Cara  has  done  well  to  be  cautious  in 
not  regarding  the  Hittite  populations  as  a  race,  but 
only  as  a  federation.  Moreover,  a  single  skull,  dis- 
covered in  the  tombs  of  bilingual  inscription  (Greek 
and  archaic  Aramaic),  and  posterior  to  the  dominion 
of  the  Hittite  stock,  can  prove  nothing  in  this  respect 

Cyprus. — Cyprus,  so  near  to  Asia  Minor,  and  so 
closely  connected  with  it,  shows  in  its  population  the 
same  craniological  characters  of  African  origin  and 
facial  types  common  to  the  Mediterranean,  as  we  may 
see  from  its  terra-cotta  figurines  (Fig.  26)  and  its 

If,  as  appears,   we  may   rely  on  what  Dr.   Ohnc- 

1   "  Crani  preistorici  dclla  Sicilia, ".////  Soc.  roin.ina  Antropol«gial 
vol.  \i.,  1899. 

CYPRUS.  153 

falsch-Richtcr  has  written  regarding  the  new  data 
found  at  Cyprus  and  the  successive  periods  of  civilisa- 
tion there,  we  have  two  very  ancient  periods  which 
show  how  foreign  Asia  was  to  Cyprus  in  prehistoric 
and  primitive  times.  According  to  Ohnefalsch- 
Richter,  the  second  period  would  be  towards  the  first 
half  of  the  fourth  thousand  years  before  Christ,  a 
prc- Phrygian  and  pre-Hittite  period,  and  co-eval  with 
the  first  city  of  Hissarlik.  The  first  period  is  still 

FlC.  26.  — Tcrra-cotta  figurine  of  Cyprus  (Tubbs). 

more  ancient,  and  would  begin  in  the  second  half  o( 
the  fourth  thousand  years,  B.C.  3500;  it  is  absent  at 
Hissarlik  and  is  therefore  anterior  to  the  first  city, 
and  termed  by  this  author  the  prehistoric  pre- Hissar- 
lik period  of  Cyprus.  This  civilisation,  anterior, 
according  to  Ohnefalsch-Richter,  to  any  Asiatic  in- 
fluence, is  autochthonous.  Moreover,  he  believes  that 
the  Libyan  civilisation  at  Ballas  and  Naqada,  as 
discovered  by  Flinders  Pctric,  and  that  called  Libyan- 


Amoritic  at  Tell-el-Hesy  in  Palestine,  are  an  importa- 
tion from  Cyprus.1  Now  this  would  prove  direct 
communication  between  prehistoric  or  Libyan  Egypt, 
as  we  may  call  it,  Cyprus,  and  the  coast  of  Asia  Minor, 
which  thus  would  not  have  given  to  Cyprus  but  have 
received  from  it.  With  regard  to  direct  relations,  and 
the  importations  from  Cyprus  and  prehistoric  Egypt, 
the  same  author  believes  that  it  is  necessary  to  discover 
new  data  before  we  can  reach  more  exact  conclusions 
concerning  the  mystery,  as  he  calls  it,  of  the  Libyan 

We  have  no  reasons  for  denying  early  relations 
between  prehistoric  Egypt  and  Cyprus,  and  between 
this  island  and  Asia  Minor.  Such  relations  would  be 
the  natural  result  of  the  diffusion  of  the  African  stock 
towards  the  east  in  prehistoric  times,  long  anterior  to 
the  beginnings  of  the  use  of  the  metals;  copper,  as 
has  often  been  stated,  probably  came  to  Egypt  from 

The  Ph&nicians. — With  regard  to  the  Phoenicians 
we  are  in  some 'obscurity.  Those  who,  with  Petric 
and  Sayce,  rely  on  the  testimony  of  the  homophonies 
from  the  Old  Testament,  or  from  anthropological 
types  revealed  by  Egyptian  monuments,  consider  them 
to  be  Hamites,  originating  in  South  Arabia,  where  also 
they'would  seek  the  origin  of  the  Egyptians.  Punites, 
Pceni,  Phcenices,  would  be  the  same  name  and  refer 
to  the  same  race.2  It  is  true  that  the  Egyptians  have 
represented  them  of  a  brick-red  colour,  like  them- 
selves, and  like  the  Punites;  and  it  is  true  that  the 

1  "  Neues  iiber  die  auf  Cypern  Ausgrabungcn,"  Z/.  fiir  Ethnologi/, 
Veihandinngen,  1899. 

2  Petrie,  A  History  of  Egypt,  vol.  i.,  p.  14;  Sayce,  The  Races  of  the 
Old  Testament,  1891,  chapter  vi. 


portraits  of  the  Phoenicians  of  Damascus  do  not 
differ  from  those  of  the  Punites,  nor  ot  the  other 
inhabitants  of  Syria  (Figs.  27,  28).  But  can  we 
absolutely  trust  them? 

On  the  other  hand,  there  are  some  who  consider 
that  the  Phoenicians  were  Semites.  This  view  is 
found  especially  among  historians,  who  chiefly  rely 
on  the  language.  Although  Semitic,  it  appears  to 
present  some  peculiarities;  this  is  not,  however,  a 
question  which  we  can  enter  into. 

So  far  as  I  can  judge  by  the  few  skulls  which  I 
have  seen  at  the  Academy  of  Science  at  Turin,  and 

FIG.  27.— Syrian  (Petric).  FIG.  28.— Punitc  (1'ctrie). 

which    were    studied    by    Lombroso,   or    by   others 
examined  by  Mantegazza  and  Zannetti,  by  Collignon, 
and    by    Bertholon,1    I     should    conclude    that    the 
Phoenicians  do  not  differ  from  the  Egyptians. 
The    Turin    skulls    were    presented    by    General 

1  Lombroso,  I .\-lntisemitismo,  Turin,  1894,  Appendix  III.;  Mante- 
gazza e  Zannrtti,  "  Note  Antropologiche  sulla  Sardegna,"  Arch,  ftr 
FAntrof>*t  vol.  vi  ;  Collignon,  "Cranes  de  la  Necropole  Phcnicicnne 
de  Mahidin,"  J'.lnfhro'ologie,  iii.,  1891;  licrlholon,  "Note  sur 
deux  cranes  I'heniciens  trouvcs  en  Tunisic,"  />.,  1890,  vol.  ii.;  "  Docu- 
ments anthropologiques  sur  les  Ph«5nicies,"  Bull.  Sof.  Attlhrop.  d« 
Lyoii,  xi.,  1892. 


Ccsnola,  having  been  excavated  by  him  at  Cyprus 
in  Phoenician  tombs,  together  with  idols,  phalli,  and 
Phoenician  inscriptions  of  the  epoch  of  Sennacherib, 
or  towards  the  seventh  century  B.C.  They  are  six  in 
number,  one  being  brachycephalic,  one  mesocephalic, 
and  four  dolichocephalic.  As  classified  by  Lombroso 
in  accordance  with  my  method,  they  show  the  follow- 
ing forms:  RJiomboides,  brachycephalic,  as  all  rhom- 
boid skulls  are,  Splienoides  stenometopus  (Bcloides\ 
Pentagonoides  acutus,  Ellipsoides  isocampylos,  Trape- 
zoides ;  the  sixth  is  pathological,  and  therefore  not 
classified.  All  these  cranial  forms  arc  such  as  I  have 
found  in  Egypt,  in  Hamitic  Africa,  and  in  the 

Although  the  skulls  examined  by  the  above-named 
authors  were  not  classified  according  to  my  method, 
but  in  accordance  with  other  and  less  conclusive 
methods,  those  of  mere  craniometry,  the  figures 
given  by  the  authors  show  that  the  skulls  do  not 
differ  from  the  types  prevalent  in  the  Mediterranean, 
and  characteristic  of  the  stock  there  dominant. 

On  these  grounds  I  believe  that  the  Phoenicians 
belonged  to  the  same  stock  in  which  are  included 
the  Egyptians  and  other  Libyan  peoples,  and  the 
Hamites  of  Africa  and  Europe  generally,  but  that 
at  a  relatively  late  period  they  underwent  Semitic 
influence,  especially  in  language,  their  anthropological 
origin  being  thus  concealed.  Such  a  phenomenon  is 
not  new,  the  modern  Egyptians  themselves  furnishing 
an  evident  example  of  it. 

1  Cf.  Africa,  p.  385. 



The  Invasion  of  Europe — The  Iberians — The  Ugurians—Thc- 
Pelasgians — The  Italic  Problem— The  Eiiuscans. 

The  Invasion  of  Europe. — We  have  found  that  there 
arc  four  racial  names  indicating  the  four  great 
branches  of  the  Mediterranean  stock.  Of  the  branch 
occupying  North  Africa — the  Libyans  and  that 
people  who  represented  them  so  gloriously  under 
the  name  of  Egyptians — I  have  already  spoken.  It 
remains  to  speak  of  the  branches  which  occupied 
Europe,  and  especially  the  great  peninsulas  which 
still  preserve  in  large  part  their  primitive  names  and 
inhabitants.  I  refer  to  the  Ligurians,  the  Pelasgians, 
and  the  Iberians,  concerning  whom  much  has  been 
.written  and  many  theories  set  forth  by  anthropolo- 
gists and  historians.  Here  the  difficulties  seem  to 
be  great,  not  as  regards  the  demonstration  of  the 
affinity  between  the  three  branches,  which  contain  the 
same  physical  ethnic  elements,  but  on  account  of  the 
numerous  errors  which  prevail  regarding  their  anthro- 
pology, and  of  the  persistence  with  which  they  are 
preserved.  Thus  it  was  that  when  some  years  ago  I 
wrote  regarding  the  African  origin  of  these  European 
racial  branches  only  a  few  here  and  there,  like  Arthur 
Evans,  received  my  opinions  with  favour;  most 


anthropologists  found  them  fantastic  and  insub- 

Things  have  changed  since  then.  The  archaeological 
discoveries  in  prehistoric  Egypt  and  Cyprus,  together 
with  those  in  Greece  itself,  have  demonstrated  the 
part  played  by  Africa  in  the  civilisation  of  Mediter- 
ranean Europe,  and  my  opinion  has  gained  more 
credit.  Archaeologists  also  have  themselves  inde- 
pendently approached  it,  and  considered  it -probable. 
Ethnologists,  like  Keanc1  and  Brinton,2  accept  the 
African  origin  of  the  first  European  stocks  in  the 
Mediterranean,  and  also  in  the  centre  of  the  continent. 

Bathed  by  the  waters  ol  the  Mediterranean,  Europe 
is  separated  from  the  two  great  continents  with  which 
it  forms  the  basin,  on  the  east  by  the  Hellespont, 
and  on  the  west  by  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar ;  but 
these  waters  are  no  obstacles  to  the  progress  of 
migration,  nor  are  the  more  ample  waters  of  the  whole 
Mediterranean,  since  the  innumerable  islands  scattered 
over  it  serve  as  bridges  or  stations,  and  the  peninsulas 
stretch  out  their  arms  towards  Africa  as  though  to 
welcome  it.  The  emigrants  had  the  sea  before  them, 
and  the  evidence  shows  that  at  various  points  they 
passed  over  it.  It  seems  that  from  Egy_pt.  before  yet- 
Egypt  was  known  m  history,  African  colonists  passed 
over  to  Greece  by  the  islands,  perhaps  first  of  all 
Crete ;  from  the  region  nf  Numidia  they  probably 
crossed  over  into  Sicily,  Sardinia,  Southern,  Central, 
and  Northern  Italy,  Southern  France  ;  by  Gibraltar 
they  invaded  the  Iberian  peninsula.  Almost  the  same 
roads  of  invasion  were  followed  by  the  Arabs  in  the 
eighth  century. 

1  A.  II.  Keanc,  Jtfan  Past  and  Present,  1899. 

2  D.  Brinton,  Knees  and  Peoples,  New  York,  1890. 


These  three  possible  routes  for  the  invasion  of 
Kuropc  by  the  Mediterranean  were  followed  by  the  / 
three  branches  of  our  stock  called  the  Iberians,  the 
Ligurians,  and  the  1'clasgians.  No  doubt  distinctions 
had  art'ipn  in  the  three  divisions,  variations  in  cos- 
tume, language,  and  the  accessory  physical  elements, 
according  to  the  grouping  of  the  racial  types  con- 
stituting the  various  branches  and  sub-divisions  ;  but 
the  fundamental  common  characters  were  preserved, 
and  are  still  preserved,  throughout  the  whole  Mediter- 
ranean. Many  variations  in  customs  must  be  derived 
from  the  region  occupied  by  the  migrants  with  the 
special  conditions  of  its  soil  and  social  state.  But 
notwithstanding  these  influences,  the  piimitive  char- 
acters of  the  stock,  as  it  is  easy  to  show,  have  still  been 

In  course  of  time  the  three  branches  have  been 
displaced  in  some  parts,  and  been  re-mixed  ;  they 
have  grown  hostile  to  each  other  and  fought.  The 
sub-divisions  have  adopted  various  names,  either 
from  their  leaders,  the  regions  they  have  occupied, 
or  some  other  circumstance,  and  have  hence  become 
strangers  or  enemies  to  each  other.  And  since  the 
races  that  are  most  closely  allied  in  their  elements 
make  the  fiercest  foes,  as  we  see  among  animal 
species,  the  original  stock  has  been  divided  up  into 
pans  that  arc  everywhere  hostile  to  one  another. 

It  would  be  possible  to  follow  these  various 
changes,  but  here  we  need  only  occupy  ourselves 
with  the  primitive  invasions  and  immigrations,  when 
the  racial  names  were  not  so  well  determined  as  they 
were  in  later  and  historical  times. 

The  Iberians. — Concerning  the  primitive  inhabit- 
ants of  the  Iberian  pcninsu'a,  their  physical  char- 



acters  and  cranial  forms,  we  possess  undeniable  evi- 
dence; the  Kjokkenmodings  of  Mugcm,  the  grottoes 
of  Casa  da  Moura  (Fig.  29),  and  the  discoveries  con- 
cerning the  early  metal  age  in  the  south-east  of 
Spain,1  have  demonstrated  the  existence  of  cranial 
types  which  are  undoubtedly  of  African  origin.  In 
them  we  may  discover  types  which  we  have  already 
seen  in  Hissarlik,  in  North  Africa,  in  Ethiopia,  in 
Egypt'  'n  Italy,  and  in  Greece.  They  show  a  special 
form  which  I  do  not  hesitate  to  call  Pelasgic,  since  it 

FIG.  29. — Skull  from  Casa  da  Moura  (Cartailrnc). 
I.   Ovo:des ;  2.  Ellips.  pelasgicus. 

is  so  often  seen  among  populations  which  are  without 
doubt  Pelasgic  ;  their  ovoid  and  ellipsoid  forms  arc 
those  belonging  to  the  cast  and  north  of  Africa,  from 
Somaliland  and  Egypt,  to  the  Canaries. 

This  general  statement  may  seem  erroneous,  since 
amid  the  prehistoric  skulls  of  African  form  we  find 
brachycephalic  skulls  of  other  forms.  F.  de  Paula 

1  Cf.  Cartailhac,  Ages  prihistoriqnes  de  CRspagne  et  Jit  Portugal, 
Paris,  1886;  Siret,  Les  premiers  ages  dn  metal  au  norJ-tsl  de  1'Espagne, 
Antwerp,  1887;  Sergi,  "  Sugli  abitanti  primitivi  del  Mediterraneo," 
Florence,  Arch,  per  fAntrof.,  1892;  Brussels,  1892;  Rome,  1892; 
"  Crani  siculi  ncolitici,"  Ko'l,  /'a'f/tt.  /fa'.,  1891,  Parma. 


and  Oliviera,  who  have  examined  the  skulls  from 
Mugem,  Casa  da  Moura,  and  elsewhere,  state  that 
they  have  found  forms  like  those  of  Furfooz  and 
others,  belonging  to  my  cuneiform  and  sphenoid 
types,  which  are  foreign  to  the  Mediterranean.  It  is 
true  that  the  prevailing  type  is  Mediterranean,  usually 
called  dolichocephalic,  and  that  in  the  great  Mugcm 
scries  two  skulls  only  are  brachyccphalic  and  sphe- 
noidal ;  still  they  exist1  Also  in  the  series  of  skulls 
discovered  by  Siret,  brachycephalic  forms  are  found 
among  the  predominant  dolichocephalic  and  meso- 
cephalic  skulls  of  African  form.2 

It  is  necessary  to  point  out  that  we  are  here  dealing 
with  a  period  towards  the  end  of  the  neolithic  age  and 
the  beginning  of  the  age  of  metals,  a  period  at  which, 
as  I  will  show  later,  begins  the  first  slow  Asiatic  , 
immigration  by  the  eastern  Mediterranean  and  by 
the  land  to  the  east,  through  Russia  and  Central 
Europe.  Thus  brachyccphalic  Asiatic  types  are 
found  not  only  in  the  Iberian  peninsula,  but  in 
many  Mediterranean  regions3  and  in  the  centre  of 

At  the  same  time  the  studies  of  Broca  on  the 
Basques,  as  well  as  of  Thurnam,  have  shown  the 
persistence  of  the  Iberian  branch,  not  only  in 
physical  characters,  but  also  in  language  and  customs. 
Observations  on  the  modern  populations  of  Spain 
and  Portugal  have  also  shown  that,  notwithstanding 

1  Cartailhac,   "  &»pagne  et,"  Anthropologie,  iv. 

*  Sirct,  op.  cit. 

*  Sergi,  "  Crani  preistorici  clclla  Sicilia,"  At.'i  Sot.  torn,  di  Ant: 
vol.  vi.,  1899. 

4  Itroca,  Altmoires  sur  let  Basques,  1872;,  "Further  Re- 
searches on  the  two  principal  forms  of  Ancient  British  Skulls,"  Memoirs 
Sot.  Anthropology t  vol.  iii. 



invasions  from  the  end  of  the  neolithic  period  and 
after  the  beginning  of  the  age  of  metals,  the  primitive 
type  of  African  origin  has  remained  predominant 
Dr.  Ferraz  de  Macedo,  among  1000  modern  Portu- 
guese skulls,  found  only  70  brachycephalic,  with  512 
dolichocephalic,  and  418  mesocephalic.1  Professor 
Oloriz  of  Madrid  among  over  8000  heads  found 
only  26.47  per  cent  brachycephalic,  the  dolicho- 
cephalic and  mesocephalic  being  73.53  per  cent.,  thus 
giving  an  average  mesocephalic  index  to  Spain,  as 
to  the  Spanish  Basques.2 

The  Ligurians. —  This  important  branch  of  the 
Mediterranean  stock,  ever  since  Nicolucci's  first 
anthropological  researches,3  has  not  only  been  ill 
understood,  but  assigned  a  false  origin  and  incorrect 
physical  characters,  since  it  has  been  supposed  to  be 
brachycephalic  and  of  Mongolian  or  Turanian  stock. 
Even  to-day,  notwithstanding  the  studies  of  Lombroso, 
Issel,  Livi,  and  myself,  dating  back  for  many  years, 
and  notwithstanding  the  prehistoric  evidence  found 
in  Ligurian  districts,  and  the  persistence  of  the  primi- 
tive Ligurian  element  in  the  present  population,  the 
error  is  still  maintained  by  foreign  anthropologists, 
especially  by  the  French,  who  persist  in  regarding 
the  Ligurians  as  brown-skinned  Turanians.  From 

1  Cf.  Estacio  da  Vega,  Palecethnologia.  Antigttitades  Monumentaef  do 
Al^arvt,  Lisbon,  1886-87,  vol.  ii.,  p.  493. 

'2  Distribution  geografica  del  indict  cefalico  en  Espaila,  Madrid,  1894. 
I  cannot  accept  the  theories  of  Collignon  concerning  the  Basques,  and 
therefore  do  not  here  take  them  into  account.  See  "  Les  Basques," 
Memoires  dela  SociM  d'Anthropologie  de  Paris,  1895.  See  also  Keane, 
Man  Past  and  Present,  pp.  460  et  seij.,  as  to  the  linguistic  analogies 
between  the  Basques  and  the  Berbers. 

a  Nicolucci,  La  Stirpe  Ligtire  in  Italia  nei  tempi  antichi  e  net 
modern?',  Naples,  1864. 


Mcntone  to  Ventimiglia  (Fig.  30)  the  neolithic  sepul- 
chral grottoes  have  revealed  skeletons  belonging  to  the 
true  original  stock,  which  show  clearly  the  various 
cranial  forms  characterising  the  great  Mediterranean 
race  throughout  the  basin.1 

The  Ligurian  stock  was  very  widely  diffused  ;    it       / 
occupied  the  south  of  France,  being  linked  with  the      ' 

FIG.  30. — Ancient  Ligurian  Skull  from  the  grotto 
of  Finalmarina,  Ellipsoides  (Sergi). 

Iberians  of  Spain  and  mingling  with  them  at  the 
point  of  junction  ;  it  occupied  nearly  the  whole  of 
Northern  Italy,  and  without  doubt  much  of  the  centre 

1  Vemeau,  "  Nouvelle  dccouverte  de  squclettes  pre"historiques  aux 
Baoussc-Koussc,''  L'Anthrof.,  vol.  iii.  ;  E.  Kivicre,  De  Fanti^ititf  de 
thomme,  tff.,  stir  Its  Alfes  Afaritimes,  Paris,  1879;  Serfi'»  "  Ligiiri  c 
Celli  nclla  valle  del  Po,"  Florence,  1883,  Arch,  per  4ntn>p.  \  Livi, 


of  Latium,  under  the  name  of  Siculi,  as  well  as  all  the 
islands.  To-day  an  Italian  province,  Liguria,  pre- 
serves the  name  and  the  stock  itself,  in  part  mixed 
with  Piedmontese  Celts,  yet  easily  distinguishable. 
The  cranial  form  remains  invariably  persistent  from 
the  time  of  its  appearance,  as  I  have  often  been  able 
to  demonstrate.  The  Ligurians  of  the  south  of 
France  mingled  with  the  Celts,  who  arrived  later, 
and  it  is  the  Celto-Ligurians  who  are  known  to 
history,  The  Provencal  population  still  reveals  the 
presence  of  the  two  different  stocks. 

From  researches  over  the  whole  of  the  Italian 
peninsula  and  islands,  it  appears  that  the  inhabitants 
of  Central  Italy  on  the  hither  side  of  the  Apennines, 
ancient  Etruria,  ancient  Umbria,  now  restricted  to 
the  western  region  ot  the  Apennines,  Piccno,  Sabina, 
Latium,  down  to  the  extreme  south,  with  the  three 
islands  of  Sicily,  Sardinia  and  Corsica,  have  possessed 
in  common,  and  still  possess  in  great  part,  a  series  of 
cranial  forms,  among  which  are  found  others,  less 
numerous  and  apparently  foreign  to  the  common 
type.  These  forms  or  types  are  thus  common  there- 
fore with  those  of  Egypt,  North  Africa,  and  the 
Iberian  peninsula.  I  have  been  able  to  demonstrate 
this  fact  in  a  series  of  studies  on  Latium  and  other 
parts  of  the  Italian  peninsula  and  islands.  The 
primitive  Italian  stocks  would  thus  possess  com- 
munity of  origin  with  those  of  the  other  Mediter- 
ranean regions,  and  hence  with  those  of  East  Africa, 

"  L'indice  cefalico  degli  Italian!,"  Arch,  per  r Anti-apologia,  Florence, 
xvi.,  1886;  Issel,  Liguria  geologica  e  pi  tis/onca,  1892,  vol.  ii.,  pp.  331 
et  seq.  ;  Ilerve,  Revue  AfetisueHe  de  fecole  (FAnlhropelogie,  vol.  iv., 
1896,  and  elsewhere;  Oloriz,  Distribution  geograjica  del  inJice  cefalico 
en  Espafla,  pp.  266-67. 


the  centre  of  diffusion  of  the  great  race  which  has 
peopled  the  basin.1 

The  Pelasgians. — To  the  great  Mediterranean  family, 
already  including  the  Iberians,  Ligurians,  and  Libyans, 
must  now  be  added  another  similarly  primitive  popula- 
tion, an  individualised  branch  of  African  origin  like  the 
others,  which  has  been  discussed  with  varied  fortune  by 
historians  and  arcrueologists :  I  refer  to  the  Pelasgians. 

Great  obscurity  has  enwrapped  the  Pelasgians,  who 
have  been  pointed  out  to  us  as  a  mysterious  people  of 
unknown  origin.  Now  they  are  being  discussed,  but 
only  in  the  light  of  inscriptions  and  linguistic  remains. 
It  is  time  that  anthropology  entered  into  the  discussion, 
for  thus  only,  it  seems  to  me,  may  we  find  the  solution 
of  the  problem. 

The  solution  of  the  Pelasgian  problem  will  also  be 
the  solution  of  the  Etruscan  problem,  for  the  relation 
of  the  Etruscans  to  the  Pelasgians  is  no  longer 
doubtful;  the  Lemnos  inscription  removes  all  doubt  on 
this  matter.2  The  Etruscans  are  western  Pelasgians, 

1  Cf.  Sergi,  "  La  Stirpe  Ligurenel  Bologncse,"  Attidi  Storia  palria, 
etc.,  Bologna,  1883  ;  "  Liguri  e  Cclli,"  cit. ;  "  Antropologia  storica  del 
Bolognese,"  Atti%  cit.,  1884;  "  Di  alcune  Varieta  uniane  della 
Sardcgna,'1  Boll.  Ace.  Medica  di  Roma,  1892;  "  Di  alcune  Varieta 
umane  della  Sicilia,"  Acccui.  Lined,  1892;  "  Crani  Siculi  neolitici," 
Boll.  Palet.  ital.,  1892  ;  "  Dcgli  abitanti  primiiivi  del  Mediterraneo," 
Ank.  per  fAntiop.,  Florence,  1892  ;  Transactions  of  the  Moscow 
Congress,  1893  ;  A  communication  to  the  Anthropological  Society  of 
UnisM-N,  Tome  xi.,  1893;  "  Studi  di  Antropologia  laziale,"  Afc.  Med. 
di  Koma,  1895;  "Crani  prcistorici  «lella  Sicilia,"  Alii  Sot.  row.  di 
Antrop.,  1899,  vol.  vi. ;  Arii  e  Italia,  1898.  Cf.  also  Pulle,  "  Profile 
antrop.  dell'  Italia,"  Arch.  ptrrAntrof> ,  1898;  Pieroni,  "  Della  stirpe 
Ligure  nella  darfagnana,"  Hull.  Soc.  I'eneto,  1892  ;  Verneau,  Notivelle 
Dhotn-erle  de  SqiulelUs  prehistoritjnes  aiix  Baomst-Rotnst  frts  de 
Afenlon,  cit. 

1  Cf.  Pauli,  Eint  Vorgriechiulu  Inschrift  VJH  Ltmnos,  Leipzig, 
1886;  Hesselmeyer,  Die  relas^erfra^e,  Tubingen,  1890. 


while  the  Pelasgic  family  chiefly  extends  between 
Greece  and  Asia  Minor. 

While  the  primitive  inhabitants  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean basin,  represented  by  Iberians,  Ligurians,  and 
Libyans,  are  revealed  as  already  occupying  the 
Iberian  peninsula,  Southern  France,  Italy,  Sicily, 
Sardinia,  and  Corsica,  on  the  European  side,  and 
while  they  occupied  the  African  side  from  the  Red 
Sea  to  Gibraltar,  and  also  the  Atlantic  coast,  a  large 
zone,  from  Italy  to  Asia  Minor,  is  still  missing,  before 
we  can  complete  the  Mediterranean  basin.  What 
name  had,  or  could  have,  the  primitive  people  who 
occupied  this  great  zone  extending  from  Europe  to 
Asia?  Here  we  can  no  longer  speak  of  Iberians, 
Ligurians,  or  Libyans,  and  yet  before  this  region  was 
Hellenised  a  population  must  have  existed  here. 
This  we  must  regard  as  the  Pelasgian,  a  race  related 
to  the  other  Mediterranean  branches,  a  great  branch 
of  the  immense  family,  with  many  physical  characters 
in  common,  as  we  shall  see  ;  African  also,  like  the 
Libyans,  Iberians,  and  Ligurians. 

This  general  induction  concerning  the  origin  of  the 
Pelasgians  becomes  clearer  in  the  particular  case  of 
the  Etruscans,  concerning  whom  we  possess  more 
numerous  and  better  confirmed  documents,  among 
others  the  undeciphered  language  which  some  are 
still  making  efforts  to  interpret,  perhaps  in  vain,  since 
it  resists  every  comparison  with  other  ancient  dead 
languages.  We  know  with  certainty  that  it  is  neither 
a  Semitic  nor  Indo-European  language,  equally  foreign 
to  either  family;  whence  Ottfried  MUller  declared  the 
Etruscans  a  primitive  people  (Un>olk\  whom  it  is 
impossible  to  classify  linguistically  and  ethnologically. 
Hesselmeyer  reaches  a  similar  conclusion  concerning 


TffEl  PELASGIANS.     «  1  67 

the  Pclasgo-Tyrrhenians,  a  dying  primitive  people, 
subdued  by  later  occupants  of  the  soil. 

To  demonstrate  my  thesis  that  the  Pelasgians,  and 
with  them  the  Etruscans,  were  of  African  origin,  a 
branch  of  the  great  Mediterranean  family,  I  will  first 
deal  with  the  traditions  recorded  by  Herodotus,  con- 
firmed as  they  are  by  my  own  researches  and  induc- 
tions. The  anthropological  arguments  I  will  turn  to 

Herodotus  mentions  the  Pelasgians  in  speaking  of 
Greek  origins,  and  writes:  "The  Athenians  are  of 
Pelasgic,  the  Lacedaemenians  of  Hellenic,  origin."1 
"  When  the  Pelasgians  occupied  all  the  region  now 
called  Greece,  the  Athenians  were  Pelasgians  and 
were  called  Kranai  ;  when  Cecrops  ruled  they  were 
called  Cecropidi  ;  under  Erethes  they  were  trans- 
formed into  Athenians,  and  finally  lonians,  from 
lonus,  the  son  of  Xutus."2  Since  these  statements  do 
not,  however,  express  all  that  Herodotus  meant,  it  is 
well  to  add  his  further  explanatory  observations  :  "  I 
cannot  with  certainty  say  what  was  the  language  of 
the  Pelasgians,  but  if  we  may  judge  by  that  still 
spoken  by  the  existing  Pelasgians,  such  as  the 
Crcstoni,  above  the  Tyrrhenians,  neighbours  of  the 
Dorians,  and  once  inhabiting  Thcssaly,  or  the  inhabit- 
ants of  Placea  and  Scilax  on  the  Hellespont,  once  of 
the  same  country  as  the  Athenians  ;  and  if  we  recall 
the  names,  now  transformed,  of  so  many  other  Pelas- 
gian  cities,  we  may  say  that  the  Pelasgians  spoke  a 
barbaric  language.  And  if  this  was  common  to  the 
whole  Pclasgian  stock,  the  Athenian  stock,  being 
Pelasgian,  changed  its  language  at  the  same  time  as 
the  change  occurred  in  Greece."8  And,  as  if  this  were 

1  Book  I.,  56.  »  Book  IV.,  44.  »  Book  I.,  57. 


not  sufficient,  he  adds  :  "The  Hellenic  stock,  already 
separated  from  the  Pelasgian,  was  weak,  and  from 
being  weak  in  numbers  it  grew  by  mingling  with 
other  barbaric  stocks ;  but  the  Pelasgians,  it  seems  to 
me,  never  increased."1  The  substance  of  all  this  is 
that  the  first  inhabitants  of  Attica,  as  of  the  rest  of 
Greece,  were  Pelasgians,  and  that  a  new  stock,  the 
Greeks,  changed  the  language  of  the  country  and  was 
incorporated  with  the  Pelasgians,  a  few  Pelasgian 
cities,  with  the  same  language  and  the  same  primitive 
customs,  still  remaining  here  and  there  in  Greece.2 
It  is  noteworthy  that  Herodotus  refers  to  the  trans- 
formed, that  is,  Hellenised,  names  of  Pelasgian  cities, 
as  indicating  the  extension  of  the  Pelasgian  stock.3 
That  Herodotus  really  means  that  the  Pelasgians 
were  barbarians,  unlike  the  Greeks,  appears  from 
another  passage  where  he  says  that  "  the  Pelasgians, 
already  Hellenised,  united  themselves  with  the 
Athenians  when  the  latter  began  to  call  themselves 
Hellenes."4  Again,5  his  narration  of  how  the  Pelas- 
gians were  driven  out  of  Athens,  and  his  reference  to 
the  construction  ot  the  so-called  Pelasgian  wall,  are 
facts  which  only  critics  prejudiced  by  preconceived 
ideas  can  call  in  question.  They  show  also  that  the 
Pelasgians  had  been  subjugated  by  the  new  racial 
element,  the  Hellenic,  and  then  assimilated,  whence 
the  relative  disappearance  of  their  name.  We  see  also 
how  they  were  compelled  to  expatriate  themselves 
from  one  region  to  another  as  the  Hellenic  invasion 

1  Book  I.,  58. 

-  Cf.  Pauli,  op.  cit.t  whose  inductions,  with  those  of  G.  Meyer,  con- 
firm Ileroclotus's  narrative. 

8  Cf.  Sergi,  "  Varieta  umane  della  Russia  e  del  Meditcrraneo,"  Aft. 
Sac.  rom.  antropologia,  1894. 

4  Book  II.,  51.  "  Book  VI.,  137. 


progressed,  and  how  they  made  attempts,  vainly  no 
doubt,  to  re-capture  their  lost  territories. 

But  these  barbarous  Pelasgians  were  not  so  bar- 
barous or  so  incapable  as  may  appear  at  the  first 
glance;  Homer  calls  them  "divine"  ("dioi  te 
Pelasgoi ")  in  the  Iliad  and  Odyssey,  and  finds  them 
at  the  walls  of  Troy,  together  with  the  Carians,  the 

FIG.  31.— Greek  Skull  from  Megan, 
Fentagonoides  obtusus  (Sergi). 

Peoni,  the  Lelegi,  led  by  Ippotous  from  Asiatic  Lar- 
issa ;  and  in  Crete,  together  with  other  peoples. 
Moreover,  many  elements  of  Greek  religious  worship 
come  from  them,  directly  or  indirectly ;  thus,  the 
Dodonian  Jupiter  was  Pclasgic.1  Herodotus  narrates 
a  legend  concerning  this  deity,  and  interprets  it  in 

1  Iliad,  xvi.  233. 


his  own  manner.1  From  this  it  appears  that  the 
origin  of  the  Dodonian  Jupiter  is  to  be  found  in 
Libya,  whence  he  was  brought  by  the  Pelasgians  into 
Greece,  when  Greece  was  still  Pelasgia.  The  Greeks, 
the  Hellenes,  accepted  the  worship  of  this  Jupiter,  as 
they  accepted  the  worship  of  other  exotic  deities, 

FIG.  32. — Italian  Skull  from  Novilara,  Ellipsoides 
\    pelasgtcus  rotttnJtts  (Sergi). 

retaining  the  original  name  recorded  by  Homer  and 

Here  Herodotus  begins  to  narrate  the  more  im- 
portant relations  between  Pelasgia  (now  called 
Greece),  Egypt,  and  Libya,  and  thus  we  have  a  first 
revelation  of  Pelasgic  origins.  Herodotus  finds  that 

1  n.  ,54-56. 


the  worship  of  Hercules  in  Egypt  is  very  ancient,  and 
cannot  be  of  Greek  origin,  but  that,  on  the  contrary, 
the  Greek  Hercules  must  be  of  Egyptian  origin.  To 
prove  this,  Herodotus  refers  to  the  worship  of  Nep- 
tune, and  of  the  Dioscuri,  unknown  to  the  Egyptians. 
He  goes  further  and  points  out  that  at  Phoenician 
Tyre  there  is  a  temple  dedicated  to  Hercules,  whose 
worship  is  here  associated  with  the  origin  of  Tyre, 
which  took  place  2,300  years  earlier.  He  also  visited 
the  temple  of  Thasus,  where  he  found  the  Thasian 
Hercules.  Hence  the  worship  of  Hercules  is  not  of 
Hellenic  origin,  but  anterior  to  the  Hellenes.1  So 
also  with  the  worship  of  Bacchus,  and  of  the  phallus, 
which  Herodotus  found  in  Egypt,  and  believes  to 
have  been  thence  exported  to  Greece ;  nor  by  chance 
is  the  name  of  Cadmus  Tyrian.8 

The  list  of  the  relations  between  Egypt  and 
Greece  is  not,  however,  closed  here.  Herodotus  con- 
siders that  the  names  of  nearly  all  the  gods  of  Greece 
are  derived  from  Egypt,  the  Pelasgians  being  the 
intermediaries  who  brought  them  into  Greece  ;3  and 
he  attributes  absolutely  to  the  same  Pelasgians  the 
worship  of  Mercury  and  the  Cabiric  mysteries  which 
he  supposes  to  have  been  brought  by  them  into 
Samothrace.4  Neptune,  not  adored  in  Egypt,  came 
to  the  Greeks  from  Libya,  and  it  would  be  use- 
less to  seek  his  origin  outside  Libya,  where  he  is 
held  in  honour  by  all/'  Nor  does  he  hesitate  to 
affirm  that  the  garments  and  the  aegis  of  the  statues 
of  the  Grecian  Minerva  were  derived  from  the  cos- 
tume of  Libyan  women,  as  also  the  ornaments  of  the 
palladium  ;  and  Herodotus  further  believes  that  the 

MI.,  43,  44-  'II.,  50-52.  ML,  50. 

*  II.,  48,  49.  «  II.,  5'. 


cries  during  the  sacrifices  were  derived  from  the  loud 
shrieks  of  the  Libyan  women  in  their  rites.1 

The  element  of  truth  in  all  these  alleged  relations 
between  Hellenic,  Egyptian,  Phoenician,  and  Libyan 
cults  is  that  we  need  not  seek  the  origins  of  Greek 
religion  in  India,  in  the  primitive  beliefs  of  the  so- 
called  I ndo- Europeans,  but  in  the  Mediterranean 
itself,  partly  in  the  valley  of  the  Euphrates  and  the 
Tigris,  by  Asiatic  and  Egyptian  intermediaries.  Then 
followed  new  elements  which,  for  the  sake  of  being 
better  understood,  I  am  willing  to  call  Indo-European, 
but  these  new  elements  were  superposed  on  the  first, 
with  which  they  amalgamated,  transforming  them  but 
little.  Hence  the  Hellenes,  with  a  vanity  similar  to 
that  of  all  other  populations,  regarded  themselves  as 
the  first  people,  the  autochthons,  men  par  excellence. 
The  eastern  part  of  the  Mediterranean  basin  was 
beneath  the  direct  influence  of  Mesopotamian  civilisa- 
tion, that  being  the  most  ancient,  and  the  first  to 
infiltrate  through, Asia  Minor;  a  new  influence,  the 
so-called  Indo-European,  followed. 

The  Italic  Problem. — Thus  it  happened  that  the 
great  Mediterranean  family — which  I  divide  into  the 
comprehensive  groups  of  Iberians,  Ligurians,  Libyans 
proper,  and  Pelasglans,  and  regard  as  of  African 
origin — underwent  various  fates  in  the  history  of 
Mediterranean  civilisation.  When  the  new  Indo- 
European  element  appeared,  the  primitive  European 
peoples  of  the  Mediterranean  were  subjected  to  a 
process  of  transformation;  Egypt,  which  possessed  a 
very  ancient  and  solid  civilisation,  maintained  -itself 
for  a  long  time;  the  Libyans  of  Nor^h  Africa  remained 
as  they  were ;  the  Pelasgians  were  decomposed  under 
1  IV.,  189. 


Hellenic  influence;  the  Ligurians  and  Iberians  were 
cKangcd  by  the  Roman  power.  It  would  be  an  error, 
however,  to  believe  that  a  numerous  Aryan  population 
emigrated  from  Asia  or  North  Europe  and  occupied 
the  Mediterranean  basin,  destroying  the  previous 
populations.  The  Hellenic  stock  which  changed 
Pelasgia  into  Greece,  importing  a  new  language  and 

FIG.  33  —Italian  Skull  from  Novilara,  Ellipsoides 
f€lasgiciis  (Scrgi). 

a  new  civilisation,  was  a  small  nucleus  which  increased 
by  aggregation  with  the  primitive  inhabitants,  the 
Pelasgians,  as  Herodotus  expressly  states:  "  the  Greek 
stock,  separated  from  the  Pelasgic,  was  weak  and 
small  in  number  at  first ;  it  increased  by  means  of 
many  other  barbarous  and  numerous  stocks."1  Thus 
it  is  that  any  one  to-day  who  studies  the  racial 

1  I-,  58- 



elements  of  Greece  and  Latin  Italy  necessarily  finds 
that  the  primitive  elements  of  the  Mediterranean 
prevail  in  greatest  amount,  varying  in  different 
regions;  the  Indo-European  or  Aryan  elements  are 
very  rare. 

The  general  result  is  that  the  Pelasgians  had  their 

FlG.  34. — Skull  from  Alfedena,  OoiJes  longissimtts  (Scrgi). 

chief  seat — after  the  emigration  from  Africa,  and  prob- 
ably from  Egypt,  before  the  great  Egyptian  civilisa- 
tion was  established — in  the  eastern  Mediterranean, 
and  chiefly  in  the  Greek  peninsula,  the  whole  of  the 
Greek  archipelago,  and  in  Western  Asia.  Doubtless 
colonies  emigrated  from  the  eastern  towards  the 


western  part,  under  different  racial  names,  especially 
into  Italy  and  its  islands,  and  perhaps  also  towards 
Iberia,  where  there  are  undoubted  Pclasgic  remains, 
pre-Myccnaean  and  Mycenxan. 

We  have  evident  proof  that  the  Pclasgians  were  a 
branch  of  the  Mediterranean  family  in  the  study  and 
comparison  of  ancient  and  modern  skulls  in  Greece 

FIG.  35.— Skull  from  Alfcdena,  OoiJes  plantis  (Sergi). 

and  its  islands,  and  also  in  Italy.  The  Asiatic 
invasions,  from  whatever  direction  they  came,  pro- 
duced mingling  of  race,  but  no  alteration  of  type  in 
the  ancient  inhabitants1  (Figs.  32-38). 

1  Scrgi,  "  Etruschi  e  Pelasgi,"  Nttova  Antologia,  1893;  id.,  "  Crani 
<li  Creta  dell'  epoca  miccnca,"  Atti  Sot.  torn,  di  .-/////<»/.,  vol.  ii.,  1895; 
"  Studi  di  antropologia  laziale,"  Boll.  Aecad.  niedica  di  Kama,  vol. 
xxi.,  1895.  Cf.  Virchow,  "  Ueber  gricchische  Schadcl  aus  alter  und 
neuer  Zeit  und  iiber  eincn  Schadel  von  Mcnidi  der  fur  den  des  Sophoklcs 


The  Italici.  —  In  a  little  book  published  a  few  years 
ago1  I  have  sought  to  show,  with  the  help  of  many 
arguments  and  anthropological  data,  that  the  Italici 
are  not  of  Aryan  stock,  and  that  it  is  due  only  to  the 
comparisons  produced  by  linguistic  classifications  that 
this  error  has  been  perpetuated  among  archaeologists 
and  historians.  This  Italic  problem  is  really  a 
European  problem,  because  it  concerns  not  only  Italy, 
but  Greece,  and  those  nations  of  the  centre  and  north 
of  Europe  which,  after  the  Aryan  or  Eurasiatic  in- 
vasion, became  barbarous  again  and  remained  semi- 

'~\  f\  lybarbarous  until  Latin  civilisation  intervened. 

We  have  found  that  Italy  was  inhabited  up  to  the 
A*    Neolithic   epoch   by   a   homogeneous    population   of 

^-  Mediterranean  stock,  who  were  afterwards  called  the 
Ligurians  and  the  Pelasgians;  that  towards  the  end 
of  the  Neolithic  period,  in  a  period  called  by  Italian 

e  archaeologists  ./Eneolithic,  because  we  already  begin 
to  find  the  use"~oT~pure  copper,  there  is  the  first 
indication  of  the  intrusion"  of  a  _new_race  with  physical 
characters  (brachycephaly)  unlike  those  of  the  Medi- 
terranean peoples;  and  that  finally  there  was  a  large 
invasion  of  this  new  race  from  the  north,  leading  to 
the  occupation  of  ^considerable  part  of  the  Po  valley, 
and  constituting  a  vast  Umbrian  domain,  after  pass- 
ing the  Apennines,  from  the  Adriatic  to  the  Tyrrhine 
Sea,  as  far  as  Latium,  and  from  there  to  the  Tiber 
towards  its  mouth  and  lower  part. 

We  have  also  seen  that  these  invaders  carried  with 
them  a  new  language  and  new  customs,  among  others 

gehalten  ist,"  Akad.   der   Wissemeh,,   Berlin,    1893;    an(^   Nicolucci, 
"  Antropologia  della  Grecia,"  A*.  Acad.  di  Nafoli,  1867;  not  for  their 
opinions,  however,  but  for  the  plates. 
1  Arii  e  Italici,  Turin,  1898. 


that  of  burning  the  dead.  The  dominion  which  they 
maintained  for  several  centuries  led  to  a  change  in 
the  custom  of  burying,  previously  found  among  all 
the  Mediterranean  peoples,  and  to  a  change  in  the 
language  of  the  invaders,  which,  as  spoken  by  Mediter- 
ranean mouths  having  already  a  language  of  their  own, 
underwent  many  phonetic  alterations,  and  adopted 
into  its  vocabulary  many  words  of  the  native  language. 

Fir..  36.— Skull  from  Alfedena,  EllipsoLlu  ewboluus  (Scrgi). 

Similar  phenomena  occurred  in  the  Greek  peninsula 
when  the  Pclasgians,  the  first  inhabitants,  underwent 
the  same  fate  as  the  Italic!. 

The  evidence  furnished  by  burial-places — that  is  to 
say,  the  skeletons  in  the  ancient  tombs  of  the  early 
Mediterranean  inhabitants  of  Italy  and  those  of  the 
Aryan  invaders,  have  shown  clearly  the  mingling  of 
two  stocks;  while  in  spots  where  the  Aryans  have  not 




penetrated  there  are  only  traces  of  a  single  stock, 
without  blending  with  foreign  races. 

These  facts  have  convinced  me  that  the  name 
Italici  belongs  properly  to  the  early  inhabitants  of 
Italy,  as  also  the  name  Italy  belongs  to  the  southern 
region,  which  the  Aryans  in  their  first  invasions  never 
reached,  and  that  the  Aryans  were  strangers  to  the 

FIG.  37. — Skull  from  Alfedena,  Pentagonoidcs  acitttis  (Scrgi). 

Italici,  indeed  only  temporary  invaders,  though  their 
dominion  succeeded  in  transforming  the  native 
language  and  some  of  the  customs.  We  may  find 
some  testimony  in  the  language,  and  in  remains  of  the 
stock  mixed  with  the  early  inhabitants,  remains  which 
still  persist  in  Central  Italy  and  in  Tuscany,  with  the 
same  physical  characters  as  the  prehistoric  invaders 
possessed,  while  in  the  valley  of  the  Po  the  invaders 

THE   ITALICI.  1/9 

definitely  changed  the  anthropological  physiognomy, 
without  succeeding  in  annulling  the  old  and  primitive 

Hence  I  believe  that  archaeologists  are  in  error 
when  they  continue  to  regard  the  Italici  as  above  all 
Aryans;2  as  also  are  the  linguists  in  persisting  to 
affirm  the  existence  of  a  primitive  racial  Greco-Italic 
group,  with  prc-formed  and  reconstituted  languages, 
which,  after  being  first  united,  was  divided  into  two 
portions,  one  invading  Italy,  the  other  Greece,  bearing 
a  higher  civilisation,  and  languages  already  existing 
in  the  form  of  Greek  and  Latin.  Some  linguists  are 
convinced  of  this  error;  among  others,  DC  Cara  in 
Italy,  who  accepts  the  view  that  I  have  long  advocated, 
and  Kcanc  in  England,  although  the  latter  supplies  a 
variant  to  my  interpretation.3 

Thus  I  affirm  that  the  Italici,  of  Mediterranean 
origin,  were  forced  through  violent  invasion  to  adopt 
the  Aryan  language,  as  also,  for  some  time  as  far 
as  Central  Italy,  they  were  subjugated  by  Aryan 
dominion,  until  the  development  of  new  elements  of 
Mediterranean  civilisation  changed  the  course  of 
events.  Then  the  customs  which  Aryan  dominion 
had  caused  to  disappear  began  to  flourish  again; 
thus  cremation  ceased,  or  only  remained  as  a  sur- 
vival among  the  few. 

The  language  assumed  its  own  proper  physiognomy 
when  Rome  united  beneath  its  power  the  various 
Italic  regions;  before  that  dominion  it  had  been  a 

1  This  appears  from  a  study  by  GiulTiida,  "  I-a  Stature  in  Rapporto 
allc  forme  craniche,"  Atti  &<K.  rom.  Antrof.,  vol.  v.,  1898;  also 
MoNt-hen,  lot.  (it. 

*  Pullc,  "  Profilo  antropologico  dell'  Italia,"  Florence,  1898,  pp.  21, 

3  A  fan  Pasf  and  Present,  pp.  512  513. 


series  of  heterogeneous  forms  due  to  the  varying 
influence  of  surviving  primitive  dialects  and  the 
varying  effects  of  Aryan  influence. 

The  Etruscans.— 1hz  Etruscan  problem  has  as 
many  different  aspects  as  a  polyhedron;  there  is  the 
question  of  origin,  of  civilisation,  of  physical  characters, 
of  chronology,  oi  language,  of  influence  exercised 


FlG.  38.— Skull  from  Alfedena,  Pcntagotioides  atuttts  (Scrgi). 

within  and  outside  Italy.  I  do  not  profess  to  solve 
this  problem  in  these  few  pages,  in  which  the  Etrus- 
cans only  enter  as  an  incident,  and  not  as  the  chief 
object  of  my  work. 

In  the  Italian  edition  of  this  book  I  denominated 
the  Etruscans  the  "  Later  Pelasgians,"  as  a  separate 
Pelasgic  branch  in  Asia  Minor,  sailing  towards  Italy 
at  a  relatively  late  period  as  compared  with  the  pre- 


historic  Pclasgic  emigrations  which  populated  Greece, 
and  in  part  Italy  also.  I  had  substantially  accepted 
the  tradition  of  Herodotus  against  the  opinion  of  the 
Germans  that  the  Raseni  were  the  Alpine  Rhrctians 
who  had  descended  into  Central  Italy.  This  latter 
opinion  is  now  altogether  thrown  aside;  it  is  as  absurd 
as  if  we  were  to  argue  that  the  sun  rises  in  the  west. 
After  Brizio,  who  maintained  with  very  powerful 
arguments  that  the  Etruscans  came  from  the  eastern 
Mediterranean,1  another  distinguished  investigator, 
Montelius,  has  thrown  the  weight  of  his  authority  on 
to  the  same  side.2  I  am  not,  however,  convinced  of 
the  probability  of  Montelius's  chronology,  which  would 
put  back  the  arrival  of  the  Etruscans  to  the  eleventh 
century  B.C.  I  still  stand  by  my  old  opinion  that  that 
event  cannot  be  put  earlier  than  the  second  half  of 
the  eighth  century,  as  also  Arthur  Evans  believes, 
and  the  observations  of  Myres  seem  to  me  just.3 
This  problem  of  chronology,  however,  requires  further 

With  the  anthropological  characters  of  the  Etrus- 
cans I  have  dealt  at  length  elsewhere,  and  have  shown 
that  the  mingling  of  two  racial  types  in  Etruscan 
tombs  is  due  to  mixture  with  the  earlier  Umbrian 
population,  so  that  subsequently  the  graves  in  which 
burial  was  practised  naturally  present  both  the  Medi- 
terranean type  and  the  foreign  type  which  came  later 
with  the  Aryan  invasion.  I  have  also  shown  that  the 
"  obesus  Etruscus  "  of  Catullus  belongs  to  the  foreign, 
not  to  the  Etruscan  element,  and  that,  strange  to  say, 

1  I<i  rror-enifiiia  itegli  Etrusthi,  Bologna,  1885. 

•  "The  Tyrrhenians  in  Greece  and  Italy,''y0//r.  Anlh    /us/.,  vol. 
xxvi.,  1897  ;  cf.  my  Arii  e  llalici,  cap.  iv. 

*  Montelius,   "  Prc-classical  Chronology  in  Greece  and  Ilaly,''  Jour. 
Anth.  /as/.,  hi.  cit. 



it  still  persists  in  Etruria,  as  I  have  myself  observed, 
while  the  true  Etruscan  type  is  clearly  visible  in  the 
paintings  in  the  more  ancient  tombs,  and  in  some  of 
the  tcrra-cotta  sarcophagi.  The  great  tombs  in  the 
Chiusi  district  are  without  doubt  genuinely  Etruscan, 
and  in  these  we  find  depicted  various  scenes  from 
life  and  many  human  figures.  I  have  found  no 

FIG.  39.— Etruscan  Skull  from  Cere,  Ellipsoidcs 
embolicus  (Sergi). 

obese  type  there,  but  only  the  slender  and  delicate 
forms,  with  elongated  face,  of  the  Mediterranean 
type.  The  obese  type,  therefore,  with  large  head  and 
broad  face,  is  foreign,  and  not  Etruscan.1 

The  physical  characters  of  the  Etruscans  were  thus 

1  Cf.  for  details  Arii  e  Italia,  cap.  v.;  "  In  Etruria,"  I'ifa  Italiatia, 
Rome,  1897  ;  for  the  "  Obcsus  Elruscus,"  Rivista  Modenta  di  CttHtirat 
Florence,  1898. 


of  the  Mediterranean  type;  they  were  true  and 
genuine  Italic!;  and,  as  others  have  also  maintained, 
they  belonged  to  the  Pelasgic  branch  (Figs.  39,  40). 

Among  other  arguments  in  support  of  this  position 
may  be  mentioned  the  inscription  at  Lemnos,  long 
since  well  known,  with  its  characters  closely  approach- 
ing the  Etruscan,  and  like  those  undeciphcred.  In 
regard  to  this  I  have  only  to  say,  as  I  have  written 
elsewhere,  that  Etruscan  must  represent  the  Pelasgic 
language,  a  linguistic  branch  of  the  Mediterranean 
tongue,  now  lost,  and  related,  as  Brinton  supposes,  to 
the  Libyan  languages.1 

To  persist  in  maintaining,  like  Corssen,  and  more 
recently  Deccke  and  Lattes,  that  Aryo-Italic  affinities 
are  to  be  found  here  is  to-  fall  under  a  delusion 
probably  due  to  the  fact  that  in  Italy  Etruscan  must 
have  undergone  this  influence,  in  the  midst  of  a  popu- 
lation under  Aryan  influence,  yet  very  superficially, 
and  perhaps  only  in  some  inflexions  pronounced  in 
the  Etruscan  manner,  and  hence  altered.2  The 
Etruscan  language  will  always  be  the  crux  of 
obstinate  philo-Aryan  linguists,  who  will  never  be 
able  to  find  the  key  to  interpret  it 

It  maybe  admitted  that  the  Etruscan  colony  which 
occupied  the  Umbrian  territory  could  not  have  been 
very  numerous,  but  by  its  superiority  in  civilisation 
it  was  able  to  dominate,  morally  and  materially, 
the  surrounding  population,  and  was  hence  able 
to  influence  change  of  customs,  among  others 
the  mode  of  burial,  which  afterwards  was  nearly 

1  "  The  Ethnological  Affinities  of  ihc  Ancient  Etruscans,"  Prot.  Am. 
/'hit.  -Yor.,  I'hiladclidiia,  vol.  xxvi.,  1889;  ?'<*.,  "On  Etruscan  and 
Libyan  Names,"  lot.  tit.,  vol.  xxviii.,  1890. 

8  Sec  Arii  e  Italici,  p.  175. 


always  mixed,  inhumation  and  cremation  existing 
side  by  side  among  the  subjugated  population,  as  I 
have  myself  been  able  to  observe  when  assisting  in 
the  excavation  of  poor  and  common  graves  in  this 

True  primitive  Etruscan  tombs  are  chambered,  and 
more  or  less  rich  and  spacious;  those  dug  out  in  the 
rock  or  earth,  though  chambered  yet  small  and  poor, 

FIG.  40. — Etruscan  Skull  from  Cere,  Ellipsoidcs  embolicus  (Sergi). 

must  belong  to  the  common  folk  who  had  been 
Etruscanised,  Hence  it  is  easy  to  argue  that  not  all 
the  skeletons  in  the  Etruscan  territory  are  Etruscan ; 
the  greater  part  must  belong  to  a  population  anterior 
to  the  Etruscan  colonisation,  though  it  underwent  the 
influence  of  the  new  dominion. 

This  influence,  strong  as  it  was,  was  not  strong 
enough  to  transform  the  language  of  the  conquered 


into  that  of  the  conquerors;  after  the  destruction  of 
the  Etruscan  dominion  the  Etruscan  language  dis- 
appeared for  ever,  leaving  in  stone  records  inscriptions 
that  are  undeciphered  and  indecipherable,  in  spite  of 
the  fact  that  sometimes  they  are  bilingual. 

The  true  and  permanent  Etruscan  influence  was 
that  of  the  civilisation  taken  as  a  whole,  both  as  the 
point  of  departure  for  the  future  Latin  civilisation,  and 
also  as  an  expansion  of  the  civilisation  of  the  eastern 
Mediterranean  in  Italy  and  towards  Central  and 
Northern  Europe. 



Current  opinions  regarding  the  first  inhabitants  of  Europe— 
Europe  not  peopled  from  the  North — Homo  Neandcr- 

Current  opinions  regarding  the  first  inhabitants  of 
Europe. — Now  that  we  have  seen  what  manner  of 
people  constituted  the  primitive  population  of  the 
Mediterranean  basin,  we  have  to  inquire  whether  the 
African  emigration  proceeded  still  further  towards 
the  north  beyond  the  great  basin.  This  inquiry  is 
interesting  not  only  from  the  anthropological  point  of 
view,  but  also  as  regards  ethnology  and  the  origins 
and  diffusion  of  the  civilisations  which  have  succeeded 
one  another  in  Europe  and  the  Mediterranean  itself. 

But  in  entering  on  this  fresh  investigation  it  is 
opportune  to  recall  a  principle  which  lies  at  the 
foundation  of  the  rrtethod  employed  in  my  researches. 
I  have  written  elsewhere1 : — "  It  is  necessary,  it  seems 
to  me,  to  begin  anew  as  though  no  classification  yet 
existed,  and  to  begin  with  a  simple  and  rational 
method ;  it  is  necessary  to  study  a  human  group  by 
means  of  its  constant  characters,  without  any  refer- 
ence to  its  history  or  its  state  of  culture,  to  establish 
the  characters  revealed  by  analysis  and  to  follow  them 
in  other  human  groups  in  geographical  distribution, 

1  Africa,  Trefazione,  p.  viii. 


without  pre-occupying  ourselves  too  much  with  their 
secondary  characters  and  the  variations  which  occur 
in  these,  to  explain,  in  short,  the  causes  of  these 
variations  and  to  determine  human  varieties." 

The  reader  who  has  followed  me  so  far  will  see 
that  I  have  carried  out  this  principle  in  analysing  the 
peoples  of  the  Mediterranean,  whose  cradle  and  a 
large  part  of  their  distribution  is  to  be  found  in 
Africa;  the  same  principle  has  guided  me  in  investi- 
gating the  Hamitic  stock  in  Africa  and  in  classifying 
it  among  human  varieties.  This  same  principle  will 
serve  us  in  inquiring  whether  the  African  migra- 
tions, besides  peopling  the  Mediterranean,  have  also 
occupied  other  parts  of  Europe.  Before  entering  on 
this  inquiry  I  will  briefly  summarise  the  dominant 
opinions  regarding  the  first  inhabitants  of  Europe. 

It  was  De  Quatrefages,  the  most  eminent  of  French 
anthropologists,  who  risked  a  general  synthesis  of  the 
primitive  inhabitants  of  Europe.  He  was  a  man  of 
large  intellect  and  of  deep  intuitions,  while  Broca  was 
occupied  with  the  details  of  the  data  of  anthropo- 
logical science,  of  which  he  may  be  regarded  as  the 
founder  in  France,  and  seldom  ventured  on  any 
synthesis  of  its  elements,  in  his  time  scattered  and 
uncertain.  Perhaps  in  this  he  showed  that  prudence 
which  is  one  of  the  highest  qualities  of  -.veil-balanced 
minds;  but  it  is  useful,  and  perhaps  even  necessary, 
to  attempt  a  synthesis,  even  though  only  provisional, 
of  the  mass  of  disconnected  facts ;  such  a  synthesis 
becomes  a  point  of  departure  for  later  researches 
and  interpretations,  and  is  useful  to  the  progress  of 

De  Quatrcfagcs's  work  was  continuous  and  always 
developing,  though  always  in  the  same  sense  and  the 


same  direction.  The  reader  of  his  works  on  the 
human  species,  on  the  skulls  of  human  races,  on  fossil 
man  and  primitive  man,  will  find  few  changes;  the 
direction  of  ideas  and  affirmations  is  identical  through- 
out. At  the  period  when  he  wrote,  the  well-known 
discoveries  at  Cro-Magnon,  Crenelle,  Furfooz,  and 
elsewhere  had  not  been  revised  ;  like  other  anthro- 
pologists and  ethnologists,  he  regarded  them  as 
quaternary.  With  this  conviction,  due  to  the  age 
in  which  he  wrote,  he  reconstructed  the  primitive 
quaternary  races,  of  which  he  concluded  there  were 
six:  the  race  of  Canstadt,  the  race  of  Cro-Magnon, 
the  mesocephalic  race  of  Furfooz,  the  sub-brachy- 
cephalic  race  of  Furfooz,  the  race  of  Crenelle,  and 
finally  the  race  of  Truchere.  "  All  these  races 
belonged  to  the  quaternary  epoch,  which  immediately 
preceded  our  own."1  Tertiary  man,  the  earliest  man 
for  De  Quatrefages,  was  a  precursor  of  quaternary 
man  and  of  Canstadt  race.  He  was  not  an  evolu- 
tionist, and  he  did  not  accept,  like  G.  de  Mortillet,  an 
intermediary  being  between  man  and  the  anthropoid 
apes.  He  accepted  the  Castenedolo  man,  the  dis- 
coveries of  Bourgeois  and  those  of  Capellini  in 
Tuscany  with  regard  to  pliocene  man. 

When  he  maintained  the  continuation  of  the  Cro- 
Magnon  race  to  the  neolithic  period,  against  the 
arguments  of  De  Baye,  Broca,  Hamy  (his  eminent 
collaborator  and  the  successor  to  his  chair),  and 
others,  he  relied  chiefly  on  the  implements  of  the 
Cro-Magnon  man,  which  resemble  the  neolithic,  and 
since  at  that  time  the  Cro-Magnon  man  was  regarded 
as  quaternary  he  was  right  It  mast  be  said  to  the 
honour  of  his  perspicacity  that  he  accepted  the  per- 

1  Homines  fossilts  ct  Homines  sauvages,  p.  59.     Paris,  1884. 


sistcncc  of  the  quaternary  populations,  such  as  he 
believed  them  to  be  and  had  named  them,  and  refused 
to  admit  that  hiatus  between  the  palaeolithic  and 
neolithic  epochs  which  was  accepted  by  all  his  con- 
temporaries, including  even  Mortillet.  Time  has 
shown  that  he  was  right,  and  Piette's  discovery  of  a 
pre-neolithic  period  has  confirmed  the  opinions  of 
the  anthropologist  of  the  Paris  Museum  of  Natural 

Many  corrections,  however,  have  to  be  made  in 
the  so-called  quaternary  discoveries  at  Cro-Magnon, 
Crenelle,  Furfooz,  and  elsewhere,2  and  few  remains 
are  now  recognised  as  of  that  early  epoch,  except 
some  fragments  bearing  witness  to  the  physical  shape 
of  man.  In  spite  of  recent  doubts,  the  Neanderthal 
skull  remains  as  evidence  of  quaternary  man,  and 
some  skeletons,  with  fragments  from  the  relatively 
recent  Magdalen ian  quaternary  epoch,  between  palaeo- 
lithic and  neolithic  times.  Cro-Magnon,  Crenelle,  and 
Furfooz  are  neolithic  and  of  different  periods. 

Thus  many  of  the  theories  set  forth  by  De  Quatre- 
fages  and  others  fall  to  the  ground ;  if  we  admit  that 
the  skulls  of  Crenelle,  Truchere,  and  Trou-du-Frontal 
are  not  quaternary,  any  hypothesis  as  to  the  origin 
of  quaternary  brachycephaly  is  unnecessary,  for  it  is 
only  in  the  latest  neolithic  graves  that  brachycephals 

Of  French  anthropologists  who  since  De  Quatre- 
fages  have  attempted  a  synthesis  of  the  early  inhabi- 

1  DC  Quatrefages,  I' t spice  Ilumaine,  Paris,  1877;  Histoire  ge'ttlrale 
d  .  A',iffs  J/HHiaines,  Paris,  1889;  DC  Quatrefages  and  Hamy,  Crania 
Ethnica,  Paris,  1882. 

•'  Among  these  must  be  mentioned  that  at  Cantelupn  in  Latium, 
regarded  :is  ijuntcrnar)-,  and  now  recognised  as  late  neolithic  -thai  is  to 
say,  a-ncolithic. 


tants  of  Europe,  De  Mortillet,  Herv6,  and  Salmon  are 
the  most  notable,  and  those  showing  the  least  dis- 
agreement in  their  facts  and  explanations. 

Salmon  divides  the  Stone  Age  into  three  great 
periods :  the  quaternary  palaeolithic,  the  mesolithic 
as  characterised  by  the  Magdalenian  epoch,  and  the 
neolithic.  With  regard  to  human  types,  as  shown  by 
crania,  he  accepts  the  division  made  by  Herv6,  who 
divides  the  quaternary  or  first  period  of  the  Palaeo- 
lithic Age  into  lower,  middle,  and  upper,  distinctly 
seen  in  the  Chelle,  Moustier,  and  Magdalenian 
epochs.  He  considers  that  we  know  nothing  of 
lower  quaternary  man,  but  that  we  know  middle  and 
upper  quaternary  man  by  means  of  the  skulls  from 
Spy,  Laugerie-Basse,  and  Chancel ade.  The  Mag- 
dalenian form  of  Laugerie-Chancelade  survived 
through  the  mesolithic  transition,  and  is  to  be  found 
in  the  early  neolithic  form  of  Baumes-Chaudes. 
This  type  was  followed  by  the  brachyccphalic  of 
Gaul,  immigrating  before  the  neolithic  dolichocephal, 
and  then  that  of  Crenelle.  Lastly  came  the  neolithic 
dolichocephal,  a  new  immigrant,  bringing  new  ele- 
ments of  civilisation  together  with  polished  stone 

Herv£  finds  that  the  Magdalenian  race  was  con- 
tinued in  the  Neolithic  represented  at  Baumes- 
Chaudes-Cro-Magnon  ;  this  descendant  of  Chance- 
lade  had  nothing  in  common  with  the  man  of 
Neanderthal.  As  regards  the  brachycephalic  type, 
Herv£  believes  that  there  was  an  immigration  at 

1  Cf.  Salmon,  "  Sur  1'utilite*  de  la  nouvclle  division  palelhnologiqne 
de  1'age  de  la  pierrc,"  Bull.  Soc.  Dauphinoisc  cTEthnoIogie,  etc., 
Grenoble,  1894;  id.,  "  De"nombrement  et  types  des  cranes  neolithiques 
de  la  Gaule,"  Revue  mtnsticlle  d' Anthropologiet  Paris,  1895. 


the  beginning  of  this  age,  the  brachycephals  of 
Crenelle  representing  their  vanguard,  then  already 
diffused  over  a  vast  portion  of  Western  Europe. 
This  element,  during  the  Neolithic  Age,  mingled  with 
the  ancient  long-headed  race.1 

For  De  Mortillet  things  happened  somewhat  differ- 
ently. A  convinced  evolutionist,  he  believed  that 
the  race  of  Neanderthal  and  Spy  was  continued  in 
the  forms  of  Laugerie  and  Chancelade,  which  were 
thus  a  transformation  of  the  well-known  quaternary 
type.  There  followed  an  invasion  of  brachycephals, 
similar  to  that  accepted  by  Hcrv^  and  Salmon,  and 
the  appearance  of  the  ancient  tall  dolichocephals. 
Thus  for  this  eminent  French  ethnologist  there  was  a 
formation  of  neolithic  races  on  the  basis  of  a  trans- 
formation of  the  first  quaternary  type  of  Neanderthal 
and  Spy.  This  opinion,  though  maintained  by  Mor- 
tillet during  many  years,  has  not  been  accepted  in 
France  nor  elsewhere.2 

The  problem  of  ancient  races  seems  to  be  simplified 
for  French  anthropologists  since  such  races  appear  to 
be  reducible  to  four :  a  primitive  quaternary  dolicho- 
cephalic, that  of  Neanderthal-Spy ;  a  mesolithic,  also 
quaternary,  but  recent,  that  of  Chancelade- Laugerie  ; 
a  third,  brachyccphalic,  of  the  Crenelle  type;  a  fourth, 
new  dolichocephalic  neolithic  type,  of  recent  arrival, 
and  represented  by  the  GcnayJ^6te-^Or}  skull.  But 
this  is  an  illusion;  there  arc  many  complications  and 
many  seconcTaTy  divisions,  though  these  arc  in  part 

1  Hcrve",  "  I  .a  Race  dcs  Troglodytes  Magdallnicns,"  Kevue  tie 
J'A.o/e  tf  A »///.,  1893;  it/.,  "  DUtrilmtion  en  France  dc  la  Race  Nco- 
liihique  de  Baumes-Chaudcs,"  Revue  de  rJtfole,  etc.,  1894, 

-  J'rfds  il'Anfhrvfo.'oipe,  p.  372,  1887  ;  id.,  "  Les  Hrachyccphales 
Ncnliihiqucs,"  Ktvue  de  FEcoU,  etc.,  1894-5. 


reduced    by   nerve"    after  a  detailed  analysis  of  the 
skulls  of  brachycephalic  type. 

In  the  Crania  EtJinica  four  types  and  four  races  of 
this  brachycephalic  character  were  recognised;  nerve" 
reduces  to  three  the  morphological  neolithic  types  of 
Furfooz  and  Crenelle,  of  which  the  two  types  of 
Furfooz  represent  two  sub-types,  varieties  due  to  a 
crossing  with  the  indigenous  element.  Crenelle  is 
the  pure  race,  that  of  the  neolithic  brachycephals.1 
The  two  types  of  Furfooz — one  sub-brachycephalic, 
the  other  mesaticephalic — derived,  according  to 
nerve",  from  the  pure  brachycephal  of  Crenelle,  are 
widely  distributed,  reaching  as  far  as  the  Mediter- 
ranean. Where  brachycephals  and  sub-brachycephals 
exist,  mesaticephals  are  also  to  be  found ;  but  the 
converse  is  not  true,  mesaticephaly  having  a  much 
wider  area  of  extension  than  the  other  three  forms. 

But  how  is  it  possible  to  find  a  large  number  of 
mesaticephals  where  the  brachycephals,  from  which 
they  are  supposed  to  be  derived,  are  not  found  ? 
nerve"  thus  explains  this  phenomenon  :  the  brachy- 
cephals found  in  the  two  chief  regions,  the  Belgic  and 
the  Allobrogic,  as  he  terms  them,  only  reached  the 
mesaticephalic  area  in  small  number,  being  absorbed 
by  the  long-headed  population,  leaving  a  number  of 
half-breeds,  the  mesaticephals.  In  my  opinion,  how- 
ever, the  theory  that  mesaticephals  are  the  result  of 
crossing  is  a  fundamental  error.  If  the  pure  types 
are  absorbed  I  do  not  see  how  the  cross-breeds  can 
resist,  for  we  know  that  types  due  to  mingling  of  race 
disappear,  allowing  the  pure  type  to  re-appear.  To 
me  it  seems  that  the  mesaticephals  are  as  primitive 
as  the  dolichocephals  and  the  brachycephals. 

J  Herve,   "  Les  Brachycephales  Ncolithiques,"  loc.  cit. 


For  De  Quatrefages  the  Crenelle  brachyccphals  (a 
quaternary  population,  as  he  supposes)  were  Lapps; 
I  Icrvd  and  other  French  anthropologists  also  believe 
in  a  Lapp  immigration.  The  difference  between  De 
Quatrefages  and  the  others  is  only  one  of  epoch, 
which  is  now  supposed  to  be  towards  the  end  of 
the  neolithic  age,  if  not  indeed  at  the  beginning  of 
the  age  of  metals. 

It  is  important,  however,  to  know  the  origins  of 
the  Magdalenian  race  as  interpreted  by  Herv£, 
Salmon,  and  others;  we  must  remark  that  this  race 
may  now  be  summarised  in  the  formula  Chancelade- 
Cro-Magnon-Baumcs-Chaudes.  De  Quatrefages, 
Hamy,  and  at  a  later  date  Ve'rneau  considered  that 
the  Cro-Magnon  race,  then  believed  to  be  quaternary, 
migrated  from  the  north  to  the  south,  and  also 
occupied  the  Mediterranean  basin  with  Africa, 
excluding  Egypt  and  the  Canary  Islands.  It  was 
the  so-called  hyperborean  theory  of  human  palaeon- 
tology, which  Hamy  maintained  and  subsequently 
abandoned.  Now  Herv£  and  others  record  this  fact 
with  complacency,  but  regretting  that  so  able  an  anthro- 
pologist as  Hamy  should  have  abandoned  the  position. 
Herv£  still  maintains  the  old  hyperborean  theory, 
supporting  his  arguments  more  especially  by  Testut's 
observations  regarding  Chancelade  man,  and  by  other 
indications  of  ethnological  character. 

At  Chancelade  in  Dordogne  was  discovered  a 
quaternary  station  of  the  epoch  called  Magdalenian, 
and  in  it  a  human  skeleton.  From  an  investigation 
by  Testut1  it  appeared  that  the  skull  (Fig.  41)  has  a 
capacity  of  i./^occ,  a  length  of  193 mm.;  breadth,  139; 
height,  150;  with  indices,  respectively,  of  72.02  and 

1  "Recherches,"  etc  ,  B»ll.  Sec.  Atith.  dt  Lyon,  vol.  viii.,  1889. 



77.7.  The  face  has  a  bi-zygomatic  breadth  of  140  mm., 
and  a  height  of  77,  with  index  of  55 ;  the  nose  has  an 
index  of  42.6.  Hence  the  skull  is  dolichocephalic, 
hypsicephalic,  leptoprosopic,  and  leptorhinc. 

Testut  declares  that  this  Chancelade  skull  shows 
the  characteristics  of  the  higher  races.  To  the  in- 
dividual with  this  large  cranial  capacity  he  attributes 
a  stature  of  1.50  m.,  according  to  his  own  calculations; 
fresh  calculations  raise  the  height  to  1.592  m.,  but  it 
remains  low. 

At  the  same  time  Testut  observes  that  this  cranial 

FIG.  41.— Chancelade  Skull  (Testut). 

type  had  nothing  in  common  with  that  of  Neander- 
thal and  Spy,  while  it  has  a  resemblance  to  the  skulls 
of  Cro-Magnon,  Sordes,  L'Homme-Mort,  and  Laugerie- 
Basse,  whether  these  belong  to  upper  quaternary 
or  neolithic  times.  Towards  the  end  of  his  study  he 
asks  if  the  Chancelade  man  belonged  to  the  same 
racial  type  as  the  Cro-Magnon  man,  and  he  replies  in 
the  negative,  on  the  ground  that  the  latter  had  a 
stature  of  1. 80  to  1.90  m.,  and  the  former.of  only  1.5001., 
the  former  also  having  a  broad  face  with  bi-zygomatic 
diameter  of  143  mm.,  and  the  latter  a  long  face  with 


bi-zygomatic  diameter  of  140,  and  greater  facial 

These  are,  in  fact,  important  differences,  the  chief 
among  them  being  those  in  stature  and  in  facial 
index.  As  regards  the  first  point,  we  cannot  explain 
how  a  skull  of  such  large  capacity  should  be  normally 
united  with  so  low  a  stature,  if  we  were  not  rendered 
suspicious  by  shape  and  curvature  of  the  thighs,  the 
relatively  excessive  development  of  the  upper  limbs 
as  compared  to  the  lower,  the  large  dimensions  of  the 
foot,  and  other  facts  and  indications  of  abnormality, 
which  lead  us  to  think  of  a  rachitic  and  deformed 

Testut,  however,  finds  analogies  between  the  Chan- 
cclade  and  the  Eskimo  skull,  and  brings  forward  a 
scries  of  cephalic  indices.  Apart  from  the  fact,  which 
I  have  so  often  encountered,  that  indices  may  serve 
to  approximate  the  most  diverse  forms,  and  to 
separate  the  most  homogeneous,  I  could  show  that 
cranial  height  indices  of  from  77  to  80  arc  common  in 
the  skulls  of  northern  and  eastern  Africa,  including 
ancient  Egypt,  and  I  could  show  a  series  of  skulls  of 
the  eighth  century  B.C.,  discovered  at  Novilara(Pesaro), 
in  which  the  roof-shaped  form  (stcgoides}  is  common 
to  many,  with  a  face  of  indices  between  55  and  60, 
and  vertical  forms  similar  to  that  of  Chanceladc, 
which  I  have  termed  Pelasgicus,  Thus  the  Chance- 
lade  skull  appears  to  me  a  Pelasgicus  stegoides  of  the 
Ellipsoides  class,  still  found  to-day  in  East  Africa. 
Why  refer  to  the  Eskimo  a  skull  to  be  found  so  near 
as  the  Mediterranean  ?  Testut  himself  admits  that 
the  Chancelade  skull  resembles  those  of  Cro-Magnon, 
Sordes,  and  Laugerie. 

Hcrve"  takes  up  the  problem  of  the  Magdalenian 


race,  and  separating  it  from  the  type  of  Neanderthal 
and  Spy,  accepts  the  conclusions  of  Testut  concerning 
the  origins  of  the  Chancelade  type;  he  finds  its  con- 
tinuation at  Laugerie,  Cro-Magnon,  and  Sordes,  that 
is  to  say  that  the  Magdalenian  race  is  continued  into 
the  Neolithic ;  he  also  confirms  Testut's  hypothesis 
concerning  its  northern  origin,  calling  attention  to 
some  of  the  industrial  products  of  the  Magdalenian 
epoch  which  recall  those  of  the  Eskimo  and  other 
northern  populations.1  Thus  for  French  anthropolo- 
gists the  men  who  peopled  Europe  in  the  quaternary 
epoch  were  either  derived  by  transformation  from  the 
Neanderthal  and  Spy  type,  as  Mortillet  believed,  or 
they  came  from  the  polar  regions,  and  were  related 
to  the  Lapps  and  the  Eskimo. 

Boyd  Dawkins  also  finds  a  relationship  between 
the  cave-men  and  the  Eskimo,  chiefly  in  their  imple- 
ments and  utensils,  which  are  very  similar,  as  also  their 
ornaments,  but  instead  of  deriving  the  primitive  in- 
habitants of  Europe  from  the  north,  he  believes  that  the 
Eskimo  are  the  representatives  of  the  cave-men  driven 
out  of  their  ancient  regions  in  Europe  and  Asia.  He 
writes: — "All  these  points  of  connection  between  the 
cave-men  and  the  Eskimo  can,  in  my  opinion,  be 
explained  only  on  the  hypothesis  that  they  belong  to 
the  same  race.  To  the  objection  that  savage  tribes, 
living  under  the  same  conditions,  might  independently 
invent  the  same  implements,  and  that,  therefore,  the 
correspondence  in  question  does  not  necessarily  imply 
a  unity  of  race,  the  answer  may  be  made,  that  there 
are  no  savage  tribes  known  which  use  the  same  set  of 
implements  without  being  connected  by  blood.  The 
ruder  and  more  common  instruments,  such  as  flakes, 

1  Herve",  "  La  Race  des  Troglodytes  Magdaleniens,"  toe.  cif. 


and  in  a  lesser  degree  scrapers,  are  of  little  value  in 
classification,  but  where  a  whole  set  agrees,  intended 
for  various  uses,  and  some  of  them  rising  above  the 
most  common  wants  ol  savage  life,  the  argument  as 
to  race  is  of  considerable  weight  It  is  still  further 
strengthened  by  the  identity  of  art  The  articles 
found  in  the  caves  of  Britain,  Belgium,  France,  or 
Switzerland  differ  scarcely  more  from  those  used  in 
west  Georgia  than  the  latter  from  those  of  Greenland 
or  Melville  Peninsula. 

"  From  these  considerations  it  may  be  gathered  that 
the  Eskimo  are  probably  the  representatives  of  the 
cave-men,  and  protected  within  the  Arctic  Circle 
from  those  causes  by  which  they  have  been  driven 
from  Europe  and  Asia.  Unaccustomed  to  war  them- 
selves, they  were  probably  driven  from  Europe  and 
Asia  by  other  tribes  in  the  same  manner  as  within 
the  last  century  they  have  been  driven  further  north 
by  the  attacks  of  the  Red  Indians."1 

If  we  could  accept  the  considerations  brought  for- 
ward by  Dawkins,  his  conclusion  would  be  near  to  the 
truth.  But  we  have  similar  examples  among  popula- 
tions very  distant  from  each  other;  must  we,  therefore, 
on  this  ground  accept  unity  of  race?  It  seems  to 
me,  on  the  other  hand,  that  the  resemblances  in  the 
geological  and  climatic  conditions  of  Europe  at  that 
remote  epoch,  were  the  cause  of  the  similarity  in  the 
products  of  the  primitive  inhabitants  of  Europe  in 
Switzerland,  Belgium,  and  Great  Britain  to  those  of 
the  Eskimo. 

The  German  anthropologists  have  no  general 
theories  concerning  the  primitive  inhabitants  of 
Europe.  They  have  endeavoured  to  discover  the 

1  Early  Man  in  Britain,  pp.  241-42. 


Aryans,  and  especially  the  German  Aryans,  believing 
that  they  can  recognise  these  in  the  tall  long-headed 
blonds  of  the  so-called  Reihengrdber. 

Europe  not  Peopled  from  the  North. — One  of  the 
chief  and  characteristic  defects  in  the  work  of  anthro- 
pologists in  all  countries  is  (as  I  have  sought  to  show 
on  various  occasions)  the  lack  of  a  true  taxonomic 
method;  in  other  words,  there  is  no  sound  criterion 
of  classification.  Cephalic  indices  are  not  sufficient, 
and  anthropologists  often  abuse  them,  or  regard  them 
as  of  secondary  value,  without  supplying  any  sure 
and  stable  character  in  their  place.  If  we  ask  Herve 
and  Salmon  to  furnish  a  calculable  and  convincing 
difference  between  the  Magdalenian  dolichocephals 
and  the  other  neolithic  peoples,  they  cannot  do  so. 
The  numerical  variation  of  a  few  units  cannot  con- 
stitute a  difference  of  race;  an  index  of  74  is  in  its 
ethnic  significance  the  same  as  one  of  76  and  77,  and 
it  would  be  absurd  to  suppose  otherwise.  While  it  is 
generally  agreed  that  the  Neanderthal  cranial  type 
is  different  from  such  a  type  as  that  of  Cro-Magnon, 
Mortillet,  relying  exclusively  on  the  current  method 
of  indices,  was  justified  in  regarding  them  as  both  of 
the  same  race. 

But  let  us  consider  the  form  of  the  skull:  a  skull 
with  a  wedge-shaped  occiput  is  different  from  a  skull 
with  a  rounded  occiput,  in  spite  of  any  similarity  in 
cephalic  index  ;  thus  the  Chancelade  skull  may  be 
placed  among  Eskimo  skulls  as  regards  cephalic  index 
and  capacity,  though  skulls  of  identical  type  are  found 
in  Egypt,  in  East  Africa,  in  the  Canaries,  in  Italy. 
Shall  we  say  then  that  Europe  and  a  part  of  Africa 
have  been  peopled  from  the  North  Pole,  and  that  the 
Egyptians  were  of  Eskimo  origin?  I  do  not  know 


how  it  is  possible  to  maintain  any  such  hypothesis  of 
the  northern  origin  of  European  peoples,  thus  over- 
throwing not  only  the  origins  of  man  but  of  the 
whole  flora  and  fauna. 

A  Scandinavian  naturalist,  in  a  work  dealing  with 
the  flora  and  fauna  of  that  peninsula,  confirms  the 
statement  that  Scandinavia  was  not  inhabited  before 
the  neolithic  epoch.  Of  palaeolithic  man  scarcely  a 
vestige  can  be  found,  and  the  importers  of  neolithic 
culture,  he  writes,  must  have  migrated  from  Africa  or 
the  Iberian  peninsula  ;  such  an  immigration  would  be  , 
in  harmonious  relationship  with  an  increase  in  the/ 
temperature  of  the  climate  of  Europe  after  the  glacial 
epoch.1  This  statement  is  in  full  accord  with  the 
prehistoric  data,  according  to  Montclius,  an  authority 
above  suspicion  in  the  accuracy  of  his  observations.2 
If,  therefore,  on  account  of  the  low  temperature 
northern  Europe  could  not  be  inhabited  by  man 
until  after  the  glacial  epoch,  it  is  not  easy  to  see 
how  the  centre  and  south  of  Europe  could  be  invaded 
by  a  race  originating  in  the  north  in  the  quaternary  / 
epoch;  for  if  Chancelade,  Laugerie-Basse,  and  other 
places  show  the  Eskimo  type,  according  to  Testut 
and  Herv<5,  and  the  implements  of  Laugerie  are  also 
of  northern  type,  there  must  have  been  a  migration 
from  the  north  to  the  south,  at  that  remote  epoch,  of 
a  population  arising  in  a  clime  even  more  unfavour- 
able than  that  region  is  now. 

We  cannot  accept   the   evidence   of  the   cephalic 

1   Andersen,   Srtusta   v>'ix(i;'ir/tltns  his/oria,   i   R'orthtt  fi 
Stockholm,  1896;  cf.  Krause,  "  Die  Anfang  <lcr  Kultur  in  Scandinavia," 
Globus,  LXXI.  9,  z;ih  Fcl>.  1897. 

*  Montclius  "  Do  1-oilmlurUk.i  IViiixlcrna  in  Skanclinavicn,'' 
Manadsblad,  Stockholm,  1893;  /'</.,  Ttmfs  Prthisloiiqties  tn 
SuMe  et  dam  let  an/res  I'ays  .V.  ami  -nai-tf,  Paris,  1805,  p.  1  1. 


index  when  that  evidence  is  contradicted  by  other 
important  facts.  Nor  can  I  consider  exact  the  other 
criterion,  in  accordance  with  which  we  must  unite  all 
the  physical  and  even  psychological  characters  of  man 
in  order  to  establish  a  classification  of  races.  I  have 
maintained  for  some  years  that  we  need  only  select  a 
single  character  and  can  classify  by  means  of  that, 
completing  the  classification,  or  rather  the  classified 
types,  by  such  other  characters  as  may  be  found. 
But  the  character  to  be  selected  as  the  means  of 

Fin.  42.  — Calvaria  of  Pithecanthropus 

classification  must' be  constant,  persistent,  stable,  and 
then  the  other  characters  may  be  used  to  complete 
the  established  type.  I  have  found  such  a  character 
in  the  form  of  the  skull,  in  spite  of  the  slight  varia- 
tions it  may  present,  because  I  have  been  able  to 
recognise  its  stability  from  the  earliest  appearance  of 
man  in  prehistoric  times.  The  method  has  now  been 
proved  by  practical  applications,  and  I  have  succeeded 
in  establishing  certain  human  groups  with  a  certainty 
derived  from  numerous  and  homogeneous  observa- 



tions.1     The   same  criterion  serves  to  delineate  the 
natural  history  of  the  first  inhabitants  of  Europe. 

Homo  Neanderthalensis. — It  is  definitely  accepted 
that  the  Neanderthal  skull  is  the  most  ancient  witness 
to  the  appearance  in  Europe  of  man  with  well-defined 
osteological  characters ;  we  may  leave  the  question 
of  tertiary  man  unprejudiced  in  order  to  deal  with 
quaternary  man.  If  the  human  remains  of  Castenedolo 

FIG.  43.  —Skull  of  the  Pithecanthropus  crectus 
(Dubois  and  Manouvrier). 

represent  tertiary  man  of  the  Pliocene  epoch,  it  would 
not  be  very  surprising  not  to  find  them  lower ;  an 
intermediary  type  scarcely  seems  to  me  probable,  be- 
cause such  types  could  hardly  resist  and  survive.  The 
Pitktcanthrop**  (Figs.  42,  43)  of  Java,  it  is  true,  is  an 
animal  with  some  human  characteristics,  but,  in  my 

1  See  especially  Africa,  1897,  and  my  recent  book,  Specie  e  Varittb 
Umane:  Prindpl  e  Alttodo  J'una  Sitlcmalica  Antropologica,  1900. 


opinion,  it  is  not  man  nor  the  intermediary  type;  it 
is  a  higher  type  of  the  other  anthropomorphic  species.1 
The  history  of  evolution  shows  us  species  which  re- 
present stages  of  progress  in  form  and  structure,  but 
not  transitory  types.  Hence,  it  seems  to  me,  neither 
is  the  Pithecanthropus  a  precursor,  in  Mortillet's  sense, 
nor  is  Neanderthal  man  a  species  evolved  from  it,  to 
evolve  still  further  in  the  successive  European  forms 
such  as  are  visible  in  the  man  of  Chancelade  and  Cro- 
Magnon.  The  Neanderthal  type  seems  to  me  a 
species  distinct  by  itself,  the  most  ancient  that  we 
know  in  quaternary  times,  and  distinguishable  in  sub- 
sequent epochs,  leaving  few  but  sure  records  of  its 
existence  even  in  the  present  epoch. 

Homo  Neandertlialensis  (Fig.  44)  is  thus,  according 
to  my  criteria,  a  European  species,  originating  in 
Europe  in  early  quaternary,  or  possibly  late  tertiary 
times;  on  this  point  we  still  know  nothing  definite.  It 
has  been  found  in  the  caves  of  Neanderthal,  Spy,  and 
other  spots  in  Central  Europe.  I  cannot  believe  that 
Nicolucci's  Isola  del  Liri  skull  is  quaternary ;  its 
shape  resembles  the  most  recent  higher  European 
forms,  and  it  appears  to  me  to  belong  to  the  Eur- 
african  species.  The  Olmo  skull  also,  formerly 
regarded  as  tertiaYy,  is  very  dubious,  and  seems  to 
me  to  belong  to  the  bronze  age.  Hitherto  Homo 
Neanderthalensis  has  not  been  found  in  southern 
Europe,  only  to  the  north  of  the  Alps,  and  in 
England  the  fragments  from  /Tilbury  and  Bury  St 
Edmunds  are  regarded  as  belonging  to  the  type. 

It  is  important  to  point  out  that  Homo  Neander- 

1  For  some  account  of  the  Pil/iccaiiffirofns  credits  skull,  as  to  the 
human  character  of  which  anthropologists  arc  not  agreed,  see  Dcnikcr, 
Races  of  Man ,  pp.  359-361. 



thalensis  has  not  completely  disappeared  in  Europe 
in  spite  of  the  arrival  of  a  new  species  from  Africa, 
but  persists  in  the  Baltic,  in  Friesland,  as  Spengel 
has  shown.1  De  Quatrefages  admitted  this  survival. 
Davis  also  pointed  out  examples,  and  in  some  Fries- 
land  skulls  studied  by  Sasse  and  Virchow2  I  have 
found  the  Neanderthal  type,  as  also  I  have  been  able 
to  show  it  in  a  mixed  form  in  other  regions  of  central 

FlG.  44.— Spy  Skull,  first  quaternary  race  (Fraipont  and  Jacques). 

It  is  desirable  to  note  this  survival  of  the  Ne- 
anderthal man  for  various  reasons.  It  shows  the 
persistence  of  cranial  forms  through  many  thousand 
years  and  in  spite  of  mixture  with  other  species; 
it  also  shows  that  the  forms  subsequently  pre- 
vailing arc  not — a*  believed  by  Pcnka  and,  on 
other  grounds  and  with  another  scientific  object, 

1  S|>cngel,  "  Schadcl  vim  Neanderthal-Typus,"  Ar<h.  f.  An(h.t  viii., 

*  Sasse,  "  Schiidel  aus  dem  Nordhollandischen  Wotfriohnd,"  AiJi. 
f.  Anth.,  \\.,  1876;  Virchow,  Beit  rage  t  he.  n't. 


Mortillct  —  derived  from  Homo  Neandertlialcnsis. 
Such  facts  justify  the  principles,  including  that  of 
the  persistence  of  forms,  which  I  have  maintained 
for  some  time  past. 

Excluding,  therefore,  the  Neanderthal  man  from 
our  inquiry,  we  may  turn  to  the  subsequent  human 
varieties  which,  as  we  shall  see,  still  constitute  for 
the  most  part  the  basis  of  the  present  populations. 
The  available  data,  belonging  in  part  to  the  last 
quaternary  epoch,  but  chiefly  to  neolithic  days, 
extend  from  Switzerland  to  Scandinavia,  from  the 
west  of  France  to  southern  Russia.  They  show  us, 
unless  we  wish  to  overturn  the  natural  order  in  the 
origins  of  the  fauna  and  flora,  that  Europe  was  not 
peopled  in  prehistoric  times  from  the  polar  circle 
but  from  tropical  regions. 



Great  Britain — France — Switzerland —  Germany — fiohemia — 
Scandinavia —Russia. 

Great  Britain. — More  than  thirty  years  ago  Thur- 
nam  showed  that  in  the  long-chambered  tumuli  of 
England,  especially  in  the  south-west,  in  Wilts  and 
Gloucestershire,  were  deposited  the  dead  of  a  primi- 
tive population,  long-headed  or  dolichocephalic,  and 
with  special  characters,  while  the  round  tumuli  re- 
vealed the  remains  of  another  distinct  stock,  with 
short  and  broad  heads,  or  brachyccphalic.  The  men 
of  the  Long  Barrows,  according  to  Thurnam,  were 
dolichoccphals ;  the  men  of  the  Round  Barrows, 
brachycephals.1  Greenwcll  further  showed  that  in 
the  majority  of  the  sepulchral  tumuli  bronze  is  only 
exceptionally  found  ;  in  379  graves,  in  78  of  which 
the  remains  were  cremated  and  in  301  buried,  bronze 
was  only  found  14  times  among  the  buried,  and  twice 
among  the  cremated.2  Thurnam  believed  that  the 
dolichocephalic  stock  was  anterior  to  the  brachy- 
cephalic,  which  had  imported  the  bronze,  as  also 

1  "  On  the  two  principal  Forms  of  ancient  British  and  Gaulish  Skulls," 
Memoir*  of  Ike  Amhrop.  Society  of  /.otiifott,  vol.  i. ;  "  Further  Re- 
searches," etc.,  in  Mtmoirst  fit.,  vol.  iii. ;  Crania  Britannica,  in  col- 
lalxiration  with  Davis. 

1  British  flar/emx,  Oxford,  1877. 



did  Green  well,  and  others  after  them,  including 
Garson.  The  later  stock,  it  was  believed,  had  come 
from  Belgium  and  France ;  it  had  conquered  and  in 
part  displaced  the  earlier  population,  in  part  mixed 
with  them,  as  appeared  from  mingling  in  the  graves, 
finally  becoming  dominant :  this  new  stock  was  the 

FlG.  45. — Skull  from  British  Barrow,  Ovoides  longissimus 

(Greenwell  and  Rolleston). 

It  is  important  to  note  that  the  primitive  long- 
headed stock  is  by  Thurnam  and  others,  who  have 
examined  the  skulls,  regarded  as  immigrating  from 
the  Iberian  peninsula,  and  hence  called  the  Iberian 
stock.  Thurnam  compared  the  British  skulls  with 
the  Basque  skulls  studied  by  Broca,  and  found  great 


resemblance  in  form.1  I  have  compared  the  forms  of 
the  skulls  from  the  British  graves  with  ancient  and 
modern  Mediterranean  skulls,  and  have  found  those 
characteristic  of  Spain,  of  Portugal  taken  from 
Mugem,  of  the  Italian  caves,  of  Greece,  of  Hissarlik, 
of  East  Africa.  1  have  found  among  them  the  ellip- 
soidal shape  with  compressed  sides,  which  I  call 

FIG.  46. — Skull  from  British  Barrow,  E llipsoides  felafgictis 
(Grccnwell  and  Rolleston). 

Pelasgic,2  also  found  at  Casa  da  Moura,  at  Novi- 
lara,  and  in  Abyssinia,  where  it  is  fairly  common,  and 
the  fine  oval  forms  described  as  common,  by  those 
who  have  studied  them,  throughout  peninsular  and 

1  Cf.  Thurnam,  of.  tit.,  vol.  i.,  p.  133,  figs.  12  and  13;  p.  162,  figs 
15  and  16;  plate  I.,  figs.  I  (o  3;  also  Dawkins,  Early  Man  in  Britain, 
London,  1 880,  rh.  ix. 

8  Cf.  Thurnam,  "  Further  Researches,''  etc.,  vol.  iii.,  plale  i.,  the 
three  characteristic  figures  from  South  Wilts,  Crania  Britanni(at  plale 
ii.  (22),  xvi.  (33),  xxr.  (24),  xxvi.  (50). 


insular  Greece,  Latium,  and  the  rest  of  Italy,  Spain, 
North  and  East  Africa,  including  ancient  Egypt.  I 
have  also  seen  and  recognised  Etruscan  forms,  Cretan 
of  the  Mycenrean  era,  and  others  similar  (Figs.  45  to 
47).  These  facts  convince  me  that  the  Mediterranean 
stock,  which  with  one  of  its  branches  had  occupied  the 
Iberian  peninsula,  extended  beyond  the  Pyrenees  and 
invaded  France,  as  we  shall  see,  and  then  Britain, 
constructing  tumuli  for  its  dead  wherever  it  took 

Dr.  Garson  has  confirmed  with  considerable  fresh 
evidence  the  arguments  of  Thurnam  and  others,  in  a 
lecture  on  early  British  races.1  "  Osteological  remains 
of  the  Neolithic  people,"  he  remarks,  "  are  distributed 
all  over  Britain,  from  the  south  of  England  to  the 
extreme  north  of  Scotland.  They  are  most  numerous 
in  the  south-west  of  England,  especially  in  Wilts 
and  Gloucestershire,  the  part  of  the  country  occupied 
by  the  Drobuni,  or  Silures,  at  the  beginning  of 
the  historic  period.  They  have  been  found  in  con- 
siderable numbers  in  Yorkshire,  Derbyshire,  and 
Stafford.  Huxley  and  Wilson  have  described  the 
same  race  from  horned  cairns  in  Caithness,  and 
from  other  places,  of  Scotland.  I  have  described 
them  from  Wiltshire,  Yorkshire,  Middlesex,  and  from 

The  general  description  given  by  Garson  of  the 
characters  of  the  skeletons  is  very  interesting,  because 
it  may  apply  to  those  of  East  Africa,  Egypt,  and 
other  parts  of  the  Mediterranean.  "  The  characters  of 
the  skeletons  are  well  marked,"  he  tells  us.  "The 
skull  is  large  and  well  formed,  the  calvaria  is  long 
and  proportionally  narrow,  having  a  cephalic  index 

1  Nature,  I5lh  and  22nd  Nov.,  1894. 



of  about  70,  and  of  oval  shape.1  The  superciliary 
ridges  and  glabella  are  moderately  or  even  feebly 
developed,  the  forehead  is  well  formed,  narrow,  and 
curves  gracefully  to  the  occiput,  which  is  full  and 
rounded.  The  upper  margins  of  the  orbits  are  thin, 
and  the  malar  bones  are  never  prominent ;  the  pro- 
file of  the  face  is  vertical,  and  there  is  no  tendency 
to  prognathism ;  the  chin  is  prominent,  the  sym- 
phcsial  angle  is  from  70  to  80  degrees ;  the  length 

Fir..  47. — Skull  from  British  Barrow,  Ellipsoides  sphyroidt* 
(Green well  and  Rollcston). 

of  the  face  from  the  root  of  the  nose  is  comparatively 
short,  but  as  a  whole  the  face  is  oval  in  form  ;  the 
jaws  are  small  and  fine,  the  teeth  are  of  medium  size, 
and  generally  in  a  good  state  of  preservation,  not 
much  worn  down.  The  last  molar  is  always  the 
smallest  tooth  of  that  series.  The  facial  characters 

1  II  may  be  remarked  that  anthropologies  have  hitherto  considered 
both  ellipsoid  and  pcnlagonoid  skulls  o\al;  1^uish  between  these 
two  foi  ins. 



are  mild,  and  without  exaggerated  development  in 
any  one  direction  ;  the  same  may  be  said  of  the 
calvaria  generally.  The  stature  of  the  Neolithic 
people  is  short;  it  averages  1.674  m.  (5  ft.  6£  in.)." 

Dr.  Garson  expresses  himself  clearly  concerning 
the  extension  of  the  Neolithic  race ;  he  believes  that 
the  evidence  renders  it  probable  that  the  Neolithic 
population  occupied  at  that  time  all  the  west  of 
Europe,  and  in  agreement  with  many  other  ob- 
servers,  considers  it  identical  with  the  Iberian  race, 
of  which  the  Basques  may  be  regarded  as  a  residue. 
Garson  also  considers  that  the  Neolithic  people  are 
not  extinct  in  Britain,  their  descendants  remaining 
to-day.  It  is  true  that  subsequent  invaders  drove 
them,  in  many  instances,  to  particular  parts  of 
the  country,  and  they  also  mixed  with  their  con- 

France. — At  a  period  when  the  caves  at  Cro-Mag- 
non and  L'Homme-Mort  were  not  yet  discovered, 
Thurnam  had  seen  and  studied  the  skulls  from  the 
tumuli  of  Meudon,  Noyelles-sur-Mer,  Nogent-les- 
Vierges,  Chaumont,  Orrouy,  Avignon,  and  others, 
compared  them  with  those  from  the  British  barrows, 
and  concluded  that  they  were  of  the  same  stock,  the 
race  that  had  occupied  the  British  Isles  having  also 
at  the  same  epoch  established  itself  in  France. 

Many  fresh  discoveries  were,  however,  made  in 
France,  first  that  of  Cro-Magnon,  then  those  of 
L'Homme-Mort,  Solutre,  Engis,  Laugerie- Basse, 
Bruniquel,  and  many  others.  The  male  skull  from 
Cro-Magnon,  as  is  well  known,  served  as  a  type  for 
comparison  with  subsequent  discoveries,  and  as  it  was 
regarded  as  quaternary  by  most  anthropologists  at 

1  Daw  kins,  Early  Alan  in  Britain,  fig.  112,  p.  318,  ch.  ix. 

FRANCE.  211 

that  time,  it  became  the  representative  of  a  race 
which  French  anthropologists  found  diffused  in  many 
parts  of  Europe,  the  Canaries,  and  Africa,  where  the 
Berbers,  according  to  Broca,  are  its  modern  re- 
presentatives. As  we  have  already  seen,  opinions 
in  France  have  undergone  revision.  Cro-Magnon 
is  neolithic,  like  Baumcs-Chaudcs  and  numberless 
other  caves  and  g\ M\ x^  ;  the  late  quaternary  epoch  is 
represented  by  Chancelade  and  Laugerie,  in  Dor- 
dogne.  We  have  reason  to  believe  that  the  first 
migrations  from  Africa  to  Europe  took  place  precisely 
in  the  late  quaternary  epoch,  and  we  find,  by  ex- 
amination of  the  cranial  shapes,  that  the  skulls  of 
Laugerie  and  Chancelade  represent  the  first  African 
migrants  ;  the  more  or  less  ancient  neolithic  peoples 
are  the  migrants  who  succeeded,  belonging  to  the 
same  stock,  which,  perhaps  at  different  epochs, 
became  diffused  throughout  the  European  continent. 

French  anthropologists  have  recognised  the  Cro- 
Magnon  form  in  some  Spanish  skulls  discovered  by 
Sirct,  as  also  in  some  found  in  the  caves  of  Mentone 
and  other  parts  of  the  Ligurian  Riviera.  Now  that 
the  Cro-Magnon  skull  is  rcognised  as  neolithic,  I  do 
not  believe  that  it  is  necessary  to  assume  an  immigra- 
tion of  neolithic  dolichoccphals,  as  they  are  called 
in  France,  belonging  to  a  different  stock  from 
the  Baumes-Chaudes  dolichocephals,  considered  by 
Hervd  and  others  as  continuing  the  Laugerie-Chance- 
lade  race.  Both  may  be  regarded  as  of  the  same 
family;  the  difference  of  a  few  units  in  the  cephalic 
index  cannot  justify  us  in  regarding  them  as  of 
different  race  and  origin. 

Nor  do  I  believe  that  the  form  of  the  Cro-Magnon 
skull  can  be  regarded  as  exceptional,  as  Salmon 


thinks , l  it  is  a  pcntagonoid,  as  De  Quatrefages 
recognised,  and  this  form  is  found  in  all  the  Mediter- 
ranean and  related  families.  Similarly  I  do  not 
believe  that  we  should  see  racial  differences  in  skulls 
because  one  has  a  rounded  occiput,  another  is  wedge- 
shaped,  or  with  a  heel  or  chignon,  as  the  French 
anthropologists  say ;  we  may  consider  these  as  asso- 
ciated sub-forms  within  the  same  stock,  variations  of 
a  single  type. 

The  African  migration  which  traversed  the  Mediter- 
ranean and  occupied  the  southern  regions  of  Europe 
must  have  reached  France  by  two  roads,  that  is,  by 
Spain  across  the  Pyrenees,  and  by  the  Rhone.  Thus 
it  happens  that  we  find  traces  and  remains  in  the 
south  of  France,  especially  in  Langucdoc,  where  that 
branch  of  the  Mediterranean  family  called  Ligurian 
extends  from  the  Iberian  peninsula  as  far  as  Italy, 
while  another  branch,  the  Iberian,  first  occupying  the 
peninsula  which  took  its  name,  passed  the  Pyrenees, 
became  spread  over  France,  and  migrated  slowly  into 
the  British  Isles.  In  Caesar's  time  the  Aquitani  were 
to  be  found  between  the  Garonne  and  the  Pyrenees  in 
contact  with  the  Celts,  who  had  confined  them  there 
by  invading  France,  just  as  the  Belgae  threw  them 
against  the  Celts  and  enclosed  them  between  the 
Seine  and  the  Garonne. 

If  we  take  into  consideration  the  caves  and  the 
graves  of  the  dolmens  discovered  and  examined 
in  France,  the  stock  must  have  been  very  numerous, 
especially  in  this  epoch  called  neolithic.  In  an 
interesting  summary  of  our  knowledge  with  regard 
to  the  neolithic  skulls  of  Gaul,  Salmon  refers  to  140 

1  Dinoinbrements  ei  Typts  des  Crdius  iieolithiqtus,  Paris,  1896, 
p.  II. 


localities  with  graves  containing  skulls  that  could 
be  examined,  and  about  4000  neolithic  graves  in 
which  the  skulls  are  either  lost  or  no  longer  measur- 
able.1 This  large  number  of  graves  serves  to  show 
the  density  of  the  neolithic  population. 

Switzerland. — I  have  found  new  and  almost  un- 
expected evidence  concerning  the  expansion  of  the 
Mediterranean  stock  in  prehistoric  Switzerland.  This 
evidence  is  furnished  by  the  very  ancient  skulls  be- 
longing to  the  Helvetian  peoples  of  the  stone,  copper, 
and  bronze  ages.2  These  not  only  presented  different 
characters  from  those  recorded  by  His  and  Riiti- 
mcycr8  many  years  previously,  but  they  preserved  in 
a  surprising  manner  the  most  genuine  characters  of 
East  African  types.  To  my  surprise  I  recognised  the 
forms  belonging  to  the  Mediterranean  stock  among  a 
population  in  which  I  had  never  suspected  their 
existence.  Among  these  forms  predominated  very 
marked  pentagonoids,  Egyptian  rhomboids,  ellipsoids, 
and  ovoids,  all  very  common  in  the  Mediterranean 

It  is  impossible  not  to  infer  from  these  facts  an 
ancient  migration  towards  the  centre  of  France,  such 
as  that  which  is  borne  witness  to  by  the  Cro-Magnon 
race.  I  believe  that  the  easiest  road  such  a  migration 
could  have  followed  is  that  through  the  Rhone  Valley, 
where  we  find  the  Ligurians  of  the  same  family,  and 
then  turning  towards  the  east,  where  the  immigrants 
occupied  the  Alpine  heights  which  to-day  are  Switzer- 
land. Afterwards  the  Celts  arrived  here,  wholly  or 
1  IM.  dt. 

*  Cf.  Studcr  and  Dannwarlh,  Cranica  Ile'velUa  Anliijtia,  Lrip/i •;, 
1894,  and  my  classification  of  such  skulls  in  Artkiv  fur  An~'lirofvlogiet 
vol.  xxiii.,  1895. 

»  Cf.  Crania  //ehfti.a,  Basel,  1864. 


partly  driving  out  the  early  inhabitants,  a  phenomenon 
which  happened  also  in  France,  Britain,  and  the  Po 

Thus  I  wrote  in  the  Italian  edition  of  this  work  some  years 
ago,  and  at  a  later  date1  drew  various  conclusions  as  to  the  early 
inhabitants  of  Europe,  and  especially  of  Switzerland.  At  that 
time  I  knew  of  no  neolithic  skulls  having  forms  foreign  to  those 
of  the  Mediterranean.  Professor  Ripley  of  Boston  has,  how- 
ever, opposed  my  interpretation,  believing  that  in  the  skulls 
studied  by  Studer  and  Bannwarth  there  is  evidence  of  the 
presence  of  the  race  that,  with  Linnaeus,  he  calls  Alpine : 
"  Sergi's  attempt  to  interpret  the  data  otherwise  is  entirely 
erroneous."3  Now,  it  is  true  that  if  we  cling  to  the  data  of  the 
cephalic  index  the  Helvetian  skulls  of  Studer  and  Bannwarth 
are  dolichocephalic,  mesocephalic,  and  brachycephalic ;  but  if  we 
classify  them  by  their  shape,  as  I  have  done,  then  we  find  that 
the  brachycephals  of  this  series  do  not  reveal  a  racial  element 
foreign  to  the  Mediterranean. 

Of  the  35  skulls  only  33  could  be  classified,  and  these 
belong  to  five  varieties  (with  their  sub-varieties),  as  follows  : — 
t>,  Obtusus  ;  c,  Acutus  (Fig.  48)  ;  d,  Convexus.  III.  ELL1PSO- 
IDES  a,  Stegoides  ,  £,  Cuneatus  ;  r,  Isopericampylos;  d,  Clito- 
cephalus.  IV.  OOIDES  •  a,  Medius ;  t>,  Parvus.  V.  BELOIDES3: 
a,  Subtilis ;  b,  Convexus.  Now  it  is  to  be  noted  that  the 
rhomboid  and  some  pentagonoids  have  a  brachycephalic  index. 
Yet  both  are  Mediterranean  forms,  and  I  have  found  them  in 
ancient  Egypt.4  T*he  authors  who  classify  by  the  cephalic  index 
are  right  in  bringing  this  objection  against  me,  but,  as  I  have 
often  shown,  this  criterion  of  classification  is  erroneous,  con- 
fusing various  shapes  together ;  it  is  artificial  and  not  natural,  as 
is  a  classification  based  on  shape. 

If,  however,  a  few  brachycephalic  skulls  of  really  foreign  form 
had  been  found  I  shoulr1  not  bs  surprised,  now  that  I  know  how 
large  is  the  number  of  such  types  which  infiltrated  Europe 

1  Arii  e  Italici,  cap.  iii. 

•  Ripley,  The  Races  of  Europe,  New  York,  1899,  p.  501. 
a  It  should  l>e  noted  that  this  name  takes  the  place  of  Sphenoides  ;  see 
my  Sfede  e  Varic'.h  L'uiane,  1900. 

4  Stig'i  abitanli fritnitiz'i  del  Jlfedtterraneo,  Florence,  1892. 


towards  the  end  of  the  neolithic  epoch,  and  my  conclusions 
would  not  on  this  account  have  suffered  severely.  In  fact,  I 
find  recorded  a  skull  from  the  lake  dwellings  in  Switzerland 
which  is  not  only  brachycephalic,  but  of  a  shape  that  is  foreign 
to  the  Mediterranean  stock  ;  yet  it  is  neolithic.  This  skull  was 
described  and  figured  by  Pitard  j1  though  incomplete  it  is 

FIG.  48. — Skull  from  Auvernicr  of  the  Bronze  Ag<",  Penlagoiioides 
aculus  (Sergi). 

visibly  a  Plalycephaliis  orbicularis^  a  form  having  nothing  in 
common  with  Mediterranean  forms.  Thus  1  maintain  the 
opinion  that  the  primitive  inhabitants  of  Switzerland  were  of 
African  origin,  like  those  of  the  Mediterranean. 

Germany.  —  From  the  studies  of  Eckcr  and  Von 
Holder  on  the  skeletons  of  the  Alcmanni  and  Franks 

1  L Anthropologie%  vol.  x.,  No.  3,  1898,  p.  281. 


from  the  Rhine  graves  was  developed  the  cranial 
type  of  the  Reihengraber.  It  thus  came  to  be 
believed  that  the  Aryan  Germans  were  the  people 
with  the  physical  characters  attributed  to  the 
Germans  of  the  fifth  century  whose  skeletons  are 
preserved  in  the  Rhine  graves  :  lofty  stature,  dolicho- 
cephalic skull,  white  skin,  blue  eyes,  fair  hair.  But 
these  graves  contained  other  and  different  types,  for 
the  Alemanni  and  Franks  were  not  and  could  not  be 
without  racial  mixture.  In  spite,  however,  of  the 
obstacle  placed  in  the  way  of  the  Reihengraber 
Aryan  theory  by  the  existence  of  those  different 
types,  ever  since  that  time  it  has  entered  into  the 
ideas  and  sentiments  of  German  anthropologists,  as 
well  as  of  others  who  are  not  Germans. 

Holder  believes  that  the  theory  and  the  discovery 
are  confirmed  by  the  neolithic  and  later  graves  of 
Germany.  In  a  study  of  the  skeletons  from  the  pre- 
Roman  Hiigelgraber,  in  which  he  investigates  skulls 
belonging  to  the  ages  of  stone  and  of  bronze,  the 
Hallstatt  period,  the  beginning  of  the  iron  age,  and 
the  La  Tene  period,  he  reaches  this  conclusion  : — 
"The  investigation  of  114  skulls  of  the  pre-Roman 
epoch,  examined  according  to  the  scheme  of  the 
Frankfort  Convention,  has  yielded  64  dolichocephalic 
with  index  from  60  to  75,  34  mesocephalic  with  index 
from  75.4  to  79.4,  and  16  brachycephalic  from  80.1  to 
89.8.  The  dolichocephalic  and  mesocephalic,  which 
all  have  the  essential  characters  of  the  Germanic 
type,  are  of  the  form  already  found  in  the  Alemannic 
graves  in  our  country.  In  the  pre-Roman  epoch  the 
same  racial  elements  occupied  the  soil  of  central  and 
northern  Germany  free  from  the  Roman  dominion. 
Since  these  regions  of  our  great  country,  as  above 

GERMANY.  217 

said,  were  occupied  by  the  pure  dolichocephalic 
Teutonic  stock,  it  is  easy  to  understand  that  in  the 
Roman  tombs  at  first  only  a  few  brachycephals, 
about  2  per  cent.,  are  met  with,  and  that  as  we 
advance  in  the  middle  ages  these  become  more 
numerous  as  contact  with  the  southern  brachycephals 
becomes  greater. 

"  A  similar  relationship  may  be  found  also  in  the 
pre- Roman  graves  where  the  population  was  already 
in  contact  for  many  centuries  with  the  brachyccphalic 
zone  and  then  underwent  a  stronger  mixture  than  in 
the  population  of  the  more  ancient  tombs — that  is  to 
say,  about  14.3  per  cent 

"  A  clear  idea  of  this  process  may  be  had  by 
examining  the  cranial  forms  of  the  stone  age  and  of 
that  of  La  Tene.  Only  two  skulls  belonging  to  the 
stone  age  have  been  measured,  with  indices  of  71.2 
and  72.4.  Of  the  bronze  epoch  were  found  four 
masculine  skulls  with  indices  between  72.3  and  754« 
and  four  feminine  with  indices  between  70.4  and 
77-1.  together  with  one  of  83.8  ;  of  the  Hallstatt 
period  were  49  masculine  skulls,  of  which  46  between 
60.0  and  79.2,  and  three  between  80.3  and  86.9 ;  also 
38  feminine  skulls,  of  which  29  between  68.6  and 
78.7,  and  nine  between  80. 1  and  89.8. 

"Of  the  La  Tene  period  there  were  15  skulls,  10 
masculine,  of  which  nine  between  67.3  and  76.8,  and 
one  of  81.3  ;  also  five  feminine,  with  inclusion  of  a 
child's,  three  between  75.4  and  79,  and  two  of  81.2 
and  82.7. 

"  On  the  whole,  it  must  be  admitted  that  the 
increase  of  the  brachyccphalic  element  becomes 
greater  the  nearer  we  approach  the  region  of  Roman 
dominion  ;  thus  it  was  that  the  great  mass  of  brachy- 


cephals  reached   our  land,   and   that   the   Germanic 
element  receded."1 

The  process  described  by  Von  Holder  is  exact*  it 
seems  to  me,  only  it  is  inexact  to  regard  as  Teutonic 
and  Aryan  the  prehistoric  dolichocephalic  and  meso- 
cephalic  element  which  harmonises  with  the  Alemannic 
and  Prankish  element  of  the  Roman  graves  (Reihen- 
graber).  This  element,  from  the  stone  age  up  to 
historic  times,  is  anterior  to  the  Aryan  invasion,  and 
therefore  not  Germanic — merely  Germanised,  I  would 
say — in  language  and  customs.  Here  is  the  knot  in 
the  problem  which  the  German  anthropologists  have 
been  unable  to  untie  in  order  to  reach  the  natural 
solution,  and  yet  for  long  past  Germany  has  yielded 
neolithic  burial-places  which  clearly  show  the  char- 
acteristics of  the  primitive  population  of  Germany 
and  Europe  generally,  from  south  to  north.  One 
of  the  most  interesting  of  these  discoveries,  made 
many  years  ago,  is  that  of  Hinkelstein,  near  Mon- 
sheim.  It  was- discussed  by  Lindenschmit,  and  the 
skulls  were  studied  by  Ecker.  These  skulls  were 
incomplete,  one  with  cephalic  index  of  71.1,  the  other 
of  76.2  ;  according  to  my  classification,  one  is  a  long 
ovoid  (Ooides  longns),  the  other  a  flat  ovoid  (Ooides 
planus).  To  these  was  added  another  skull,  from 
Oberingelheim,  which  was  brachyccphalic  (81.9),  but 
an  acute  pentagonoid  in  shape  (as  may  be  seen  from 
the  figure  given  by  Ecker  himself),  and  not  different 
from  the  acute  pentagonoids  of  the  Mediterranean2 
(Fig.  49)- 

1  Untersuchungen    iiber    die    Skelctlfundc    in    den     Vorromischen 
Hiigelgrdbern  Wiirtcmbergs  und  Hohenzollc r/is,  Stuttgart,  1894. 

2  Lindenschmit,  "Das  Graberfeld  am  Hinkelstein  bei  Monsheim;" 
Ecker,  "  Einige  Bemerkungen  ul>er  die  Skelette,"  etc.,  Plates  III.-IV., 
Archivfiir  Anthropohg if,  iii.,  1868. 


Very  interesting  is  the  neolithic  burial-place  dis- 
covered at  Worms  by  Kohl  and  described  by  him. 
The  skeletons  were  examined  by  Virchow,  and  the 
skulls  include  five  dolichocephals  between  71.6  and 
73.5,  and  one  mesocephal  of  78.7  j1  that  is  to  say 
that  they  correspond  to  the  Reihengraber  types. 

After  these  important  discoveries  at  Worms,  Pro- 
fessor Mehlis  occupied  himself  with  the  much  debated 

Fir..  49. — Reihcngial>er  Skull,  rtnlazonoities  actt  'tit 
(Von  Holder). 

question  of  the  origins  of  the  first  Germanic  and 
especially  neolithic  populations.  Comparing  them 
with  the  Ligurians  of  southern  France  and  of  Italy, 
he  decidedly  asserts  that  these  neolithic  dolicho-  / 
cephals  of  Germany  are  also  Ligurians.2  In  the 
Italian  edition  of  this  book  I  limited  the  diffusion  of 

1   Kohl,    Neue  prahisloritche   J-'nn  It  ans     Worm*   tinii   Ungtburg, 
Win  ins  1896;  Zeidfhri/l  fiir  F.thiio'o^it,  1897,  pp.  464-7. 
*  "  Die  Ligurerfrage,"  Archivfur  Anth.y  xxvi.,  1899. 


the  stock  to  Switzerland  and  Great  Britain,  towards 
the  west  and  north,  and  for  lack  of  personal  observa- 
tion would  not  venture  to  go  beyond  these  limits 
towards  the  centre  and  north  of  Europe.  But  a  visit 
to  Germany,  a  year  later,  which  afforded  me  an 
opportunity  of  observing  the  Reihengraber  cranial 
types,  together  with  Dr.  von  Holder,  convinced  me 
that  they  are  of  the  same  stock  which  peopled  the 
Mediterranean.  Its  diffusion  was  therefore  more 
extended  than  I  had  believed,  and  I  then  decided 
to  declare  my  opinion,  and  wrote  a  note  on  the 
so-called  Reihengraber  type  and  its  relation  to 
Mediterranean  types.1  Now,  without  attaching  im- 
portance to  the  racial  name  of  Ligurian,  I  note  with 
satisfaction  the  opinion  of  a  German,  who  finds 
convergence  or  even  identity  of  stock  between  the 
neolithic  population  of  Germany  and  the  Ligurians 
of  Italy  and  France.  Thus  we  are  on  the  right  road, 
and  the  Teutonic  problem  of  the  Aryans  begins  to 
find  in  Germany  itself  its  natural  solution:  the  so- 
called  Reihgngrabcr  types  are  not  Germanic  Aryans, 
but  belong  to  the  pre- Aryan  population. 

Bohemia. — Here  we  are  still  on  German  territory; 
that  is  to  say,  the  primitive  neolithic  population  is  the 
same,  and  shows  the  same  characters;  the  region  now 
Slav  was  not  yet  Slav,  just  as  it  is  not  Teutonic  in 
the  region  where  German  is  spoken. 

Near  Lobositz  on  the  Elbe,  Weinzerl  of  Prague 
discovered  a  vast  burial-place,  which  he  has  fully 
described.2  In  its  deeper  strata  the  burial-place  is 

1  "  Ueber  die  sogennnnten  Reihengral>er-typus,"  Centra.'blatt.  f. 
Anth.,  1898. 

3  "Die  prahistorische  Wohnplntz  uml  die  Begranisstatte  auf  der 
Liisskuppe  sudostlich  von  Lobositz,"  Zt.  f.  Ethnologic,  1895;  1897,  in 
Verhandlungen,  pp.  42  et  seq 


neolithic,  containing  graves  in  which  the  bodies  had 
been  buried  in  the  earth  in  a  crouching  and  bent 
position,  then  graves  showing  a  stage  of  transition, 
then  graves  where  incineration  had  been  practised, 
and  finally  Roman  graves.  In  subsequent  years  Wein- 
zerl  made  new  discoveries  in  the  same  district;  the 
skulls  were  of  the  dolichocephalic  form  already  noted, 
and  as  evidence  that  the  long-headed  neolithic  popu- 
lation were  different  from  the  later  population 
possessing  bronze  and  burning  their  dead,  instances 
were  found  in  which  the  neolithic  stiatum  of  graves 
lay  beneath  the  stratum  belonging  to  the  bronze 
age.1  I  can  find  no  difference  between  these  graves 
and  those  found  by  Kohl  in  the  Teutonic  district 

Dr.  Matiegka  has  examined  various  Bohemian 
neolithic  graves,  in  which  the  bodies  are  bent,  as  in 
almost  all  the  neolithic  graves  of  Europe,  as  well  as 
of  Egypt,  and  he  gives  indices  of  the  skulls  which 
are  exactly  those  of  the  Germanic  dolichocephals.2 

I  could  enumerate  other  burial-places  in  Bohemia, 
as  well  as  in  Slav  districts  outside  Bohemia,  illustrat- 
ing the  same  fact:  that  the  first  inhabitants  of  the 
region  possessed  cranial  characters  resembling  those 
of  the  primitive  populations  of  the  Mediterranean, 
and  belonged  to  the  same  family. 

Scandinavia. — I  have  already  remarked  that  in 
the  Scandinavian  peninsula  no  trace  of  palaeolithic 
man  can  be  found,  so  that  the  country  was  only 
inhabited  from  the  neolithic  epoch.  I  have  also 
quoted  the  opinion  of  the  Scandinavian  naturalist, 
Andersen,  who,  in  studying  the  fauna  and  flora  of 
the  peninsula,  and  considering  the  conditions  of  the 

1  Let.  tit. 

*  //rofy  u  ikrunjrwi  kosliami  v  Cethdtk,  I'rogue,  1892. 


climate,  concludes  that  the  importers  of  neolithic 
civilisation  must  have  been  immigrants  from  Africa 
and  the  Iberian  peninsula.  My  own  studies  and 
observations  of  the  physical  characters  of  the  skeletons 
of  Scandinavia  bring  me  to  the  same  conclusion, 
more  especially  since  I  have  come  to  see  that  the 
Reihengraber  Germanic  type  represents  a  northern 
race  of  African  origin.1 

Retzius  long  since  concluded  -that  in  Scandinavia, 
as  in  Holland,  the  form  of  the  skull  of  the  primitive 
inhabitants  was  elongated  or  dolichocephalic  ;2  the 
graves  of  the  stone  age  bore  witness  to  this  fact,3 
which  is  fully  confirmed  by  the  persistence  ot  this 
type  up  to  the  present,  in  spite  of  the  infiltrations  of 
a  new  and  different  people. 

Justus  Barth  of  Christiania  has  studied  161  Nor- 
wegian skulls  from  the  ancient  city  of  Tonsberg, 
and  elsewhere  in  the  south-east  of  Norway;  they  are 
some  five  hundred  years  old,  as  well  as  other  skulls 
of  the  Viking  age,  that  is  to  say,  the  iron  age  and  the 
immediately  preceding  period.  Now  153  such  skulls 
have  yielded  the  following  results: — Dolichocephalic, 
64  (41.8  per  cent);  mesocephalic,  80  (52.3  per  cent); 
brachycephalic,  9  {5.9  per  cent).  If,  on  the  grounds 
previously  given,  we  regard  the  dolichocephalic  and 
mesocephalic  as  a  single  type,  we  have  the  enormous 
majority  of  144,  or  94.1  per  cent,  against  5.9  per  cent, 

"  Among  these  skulls,"  this  author  remarks,  "  is 
frequently  met  a  very  distinct  form  which  I  have 

1  Arii  e  Italic!,  cap.  vi. ,  ix. 

3  Ethnologische  Schriften,  Stockholm,  1864. 

3  Arbo,  "Ossements  humains  de  1'age  de  la  pierre  en  Norw^ge," 
Revue  cCAnth.,  1882;  cf.  Congrls  inter  not.  d'Anth.  prthist.  <J  Stock- 
holm, 1874,  discussion  by  Dr.  Diiben. 


termed  '  Viking  type/  since  a  large  number  of 
characteristic  and  noteworthy  specimens  belong  to 
the  Viking  epoch,  both  in  the  Museum  of  the 
Anatomical  Institute  at  Christiania  and  elsewhere. 
This  type  cannot  be  claimed  as  peculiar  to  Norway; 
it  is  an  archaeo-Germanic  type,  to  judge  from  its 
agreement  in  form  with  the  type  long  known  as 
Reihengrabcr.  The  Viking  type  is  not  only  found 
very  frequently  amidst  ancient  Norwegian  skulls,  but 
also  among  our  contemporaries,  especially  in  dolicho- 
cephalic and  mesocephalic  regions."  l 

I  here  reproduce  (Fig.  50)  from  Barth's  Plate  II. 
the  skull  called  "  Viking  type,"  or  rather  one  of  such 
types;  it  is  a  very  fine  specimen  of  acute  pentagonoid ; 
the  other  plates  show  various  ellipsoid  forms,  neither 
more  nor  less  than  the  Reihengraber  and  Mediter- 
ranean types. 

Certainly  it  is  not  to  be  expected  that  throughout 
Norway  and  in  the  interior  of  the  peninsula  the  old 
Viking  type  should  predominate,  for  from  the  bronze 
age  onwards  new  peoples  migrated  into  Scandinavia, 
although  in  less  number  than  in  Central  Europe. 

From  Arbo's  studies  of  the  living  population,  it 
appears  that  there  are  districts  where  the  ancient 
type  still  predominates  to  an  enormous  extent,  and 
others  where  the  brachyccphals  predominate.  Thus 
he  found  in  Nordre  Osterdal  that  the  brachycephals 
were  43.3  per  cent ;  in  Soudre  Osterdal,  23.  t  per  cent. ; 
in  Nordre  Guldbrandsdal,  12.7  per  cent.;  in  Soudre 
Guldbrandsdal,  29.3;  Kyfylke,  68.6;  Joderen,  81.9; 
Dalarna,  75.8;  Stavanger,  55.8. 

On  this  point  Arbo  makes  an  important  observa- 

1   O  tiniii  antnjua  in  par  It  at  Uiitali  Noi  wtgi*c  Met  iJianaJis  iirve/i/a, 
Christian  i.i,  1896. 



tion.  "  While  in  the  Stavangcr  district,"  he  writes, 
"  the  brachycephalic  racial  element  predominates 
from  the  sea  towards  the  mountains,  in  that  of  Lister- 
Mandal  (West  Agder)  there  is  a  successive  diminu- 
tion of  this  element  from  the  west  towards  the  east, 

FIG.  50. — Skull  of  Viking  type  from  Norway,  Pentagjuoida 
acutus  (Barlh). 

with  corresponding  increase  of  the  dolichocephals  and 
mesocephals ;  but  in  a  still  more  marked  degree  from 
the  sea  to  the  culminating  point  of  the  valleys,  which 
here  run  north  and  south.  Thus,  while  the  average 
index  towards  the  coast  and  in  the  low  valleys  is  still 


brachycephalic  (at  least  as  we  go  towards  the  east), 
it  becomes  mesocephalic  in  the  high  valleys."1  This 
shows  that  the  ancient  long-headed  population  was 
pushed  up  the  valleys  by  the  broad-headed  immi- 
grants, who,  as  may  be  seen  from  Arbo's  plate  of 
cranial  types,  have  cuneiform  and  platycephalic 

The  fact  that  the  primitive  inhabitants  of  Scan- 
dinavia, if  we  leave  out  of  question  the  Lapp 
infiltration,  are  of  the  same  physical  type  as  that 
termed  Reihengraber — wrongly  believed,  especially 
by  German  anthropologists,  to  be  the  genuine  Aryan 
— together  with  their  persistence  even  to-day,  in 
spite  of  foreign  immigration,  Lapp,  Finnic,  German 
Aryan,  from  every  side,  have  led  to  the  illusion  of 
Penka  and  others  concerning  the  European  origin  of 
the  Aryans,  whose  cradle  has  been  sought  precisely 
in  Scandinavia.  I  have  elsewhere  brought  forward 
good  reasons  to  show  that  the  Scandinavians  occupied 
the  peninsula  only  from  the  neolithic  epoch,  when  the 
Aryan  invasion  drove  the  ancient  stock  towards  the 
north,  that  is  to  say,  towards  the  Baltic,  where  a 
portion  of  them  crossed  into  Scandinavia  and  settled 
To-day  the  cranial  and  skeletal  facial  forms  show  the  / 
relationship  of  the  Scandinavians  to  the  Mediterranean  / 
and  African  stock,  while  in  other  physical  characters, 
such  as  stature  and  pigmentation,  they  constitute  a 
distinct  variety.  Kcanc  has  objected  to  this  relation- 
ship : — "  Hut  too  much  seems  to  be  built  on  the 
common  characters  of  these  dolicho  skulls,  the  two 

1  Aibo,    Fortsat.'e   Bidrag  til  Nonlnntn  tenet  An'Mro/vlogi,    Chris- 
tinuia,   1895-1897;  "  La  Carte  <\c  I'lndice   ccphnlique   en    Noru- 
I.'Anlhrofoh^it,  1887. 

1  Cf.  op.  fit.,  iii.,  1805    pp.  20  21. 



races  being  in  most  other  respects  quite  different,  the 
northerners  tall,  almost  gigantic  blonds,  of  robust  if 
somewhat  coarse  physique,  the  southerners  dark, 
short  or  medium-sized,  with  finely-proportioned  but 
slender  figures." x  When  dealing  with  the  physical 
characters  of  the  Eurafrican  variety,  we  shall  see 
what  weight  should  be  attached  to  this  objection. 
Moreover,  it  is  not  merely  dolichocephaly  which 
unites  the  two  varieties,  but  the  existence  of  cranial 
variations  common  to  both. 

FIG.  51.— Kurgan  Skull  from  Tver,  EllipsoiJts  embolicus  (Sergi). 

Russia. — The  first  skull  from  Russia  attributed 
without  doubt  to  the  stone  age  was  discovered  by 
Count  Uvarof  in  the  Government  of  Volosovo;  it 
was  examined  by  many,  and  showed  a  cephalic  index 
of  80.  Numerous  skulls  have  been  discovered  since, 
though  not  always  examined,  among  them  some 
painted  with  red  ochre,  such  as  have  been  found  in 
Bohemia,  Germany,  and  Italy,  especially  in  Ligurin, 

1  A  fan  Past  and  Present,  pp.  513^4. 

RUSSIA.  227 

and  then  in  Latium  and  Sicily.1  Those  examined 
according  to  craniometrical  methods  are  dolicho- 
cephalic or  mcsocephalic  ;  both  alike,  as  well  as  the 
conditions  under  which  they  were  found,  bear  witness 
to  the  presence  of  the  stock  which  peopled  the  south 
and  centre  of  Europe. 

It  is  also  interesting  to  know  the  results  yielded  by 
the  numerous  kurgans  (or  tumuli)  of  Russia.  These 
kurgans  are  to  be  found  from  the  Black  Sea  to  the 
extreme  north  of  the  Empire.  In  1892,  at  the  time  of 
the  International  Congress  of  Anthropology  and  Pre- 
historic Archaeology,  I  was  able  to  study  a  large 
number  of  skulls  from  the  kurgans  in  the  Moscow 
Anthropological  Museum.  I  well  remember  the 
surprise  I  experienced  on  unexpectedly  meeting 
cranial  types  already  known  to  me,  types  I  had 
studied  in  Italy,  and  had  found  in  the  peninsula 
itself  or  the  islands,  a  type  which  had  belonged 
to  the  ancient  Greeks  and  the  Egyptians  of  the  old 

When  publishing  a  catalogue  of  the  varieties  found 
in  Russia,2  I  wrote  as  follows : — "  I  venture  to  say 
that  when  I  am  able  to  publish  my  complete  study 
of  ancient  Russia,  much  that  is  now  accepted  in 
anthropology  will  undergo  change.  The  methods 
hitherto  adopted,  uncertain  and  unfruitful,  together 
with  historical  traditions  modified  by  various  scientific 
formulae,  have  assigned  an  Asiatic  origin  to  the  primi- 
tive peoples  of  European  Russia.  Nor  is  this  the  only 

1  Cf.  summaries  in  A rthivfiir  Anlh. ,  xiv. ,  1882,  xxvi.,  1899;  Sticda, 
-    dor    Kussischcn    Litcralur ;    Kin   (loin    Slcnalter   angehoriger 
!el,  von  Tichomirow ; ''  Sergi,  Ligmi  e  Celti  nella  valle  del  /'», 
Florence,  1883. 

'-'  "  Vnricta    umanc    dclla    Russia    e    del    Mediterraneo :    Calalogo 
sistcmatico,"  Atli  delta  Socie'h  romana  di  Anlrofologia,  Rome,  1894. 


error  which  we  see  to-day  through  the  abundance  of 
accumulated  facts  of  observation,  and  the  comparison 
of  human  varieties  in  the  Mediterranean  ;  it  is  Africa 
which,  above  all,  has  contributed  the  chief  number  of 
varieties  to  the  Mediterranean  and  to  southern  and 
eastern  Europe ;  Asia  came  later,  to  furnish  an 
clement  which  has  been  superposed  at  a  relatively 
recent  date,  and  which  has  not  greatly  modified  the 

FIG.  52. — Kurgan  Skull  from  Ccrnikov,  BeloiJts 
agyptiacus  (Sergi). 

racial  elements  of  the  Mediterranean,  though  it  has 
somewhat  cnanged  those  of  Russia.  Sure  and  un- 
questionable Evidence  of  this  is  furnished  by  the 
human  heads  from  the  kurgans  and  the  old  Russian 

In  examining  and  determining  the  cranial  forms 
which  I  found  in  *he  Moscow  Museum,  I  followed 
the  method  of  the  zoologist,  who,  when  visiting  a  fresh 
region  of  the  earth,  and  arranging  the  genera  and 

RUSSIA.  229 

species  and  varieties  of  its  fauna,  adopts  the  existing 
names  of  recognised  forms,  and  determines  the  geo- 
graphical distribution  of  animals.  Among  the  forms 
I  examined  I  recognised  forms  I  already  knew  as 
belonging  to  the  Mediterranean,  the  fine  pentagonal 
forms,  ellipsoids  and  ovoids,  with  the  same  characters 
they  possess  in  the  Mediterranean  :  I  saw  also  the 
secondary  forms  due  to  various  migrations  of  peoples 

1*IG.  53. — Kurgan  Skull  from  Smolensk, 
acutus  (Sergi). 

at  the  mo^t  remote  epochs,  and  I  became  convinced 
that  the  first  colonists  of  southern  Russia  came  from  / 
the  Mediterranean.  The  road  they  traversed  must 
have  been  the  Pn>i><>ntis,  by  the  Hlack  Sea,  and  the 
Chersonese.  If  the  Mediterranean  elements  may  be 
found  as  far  as  the  tumuli  of  the  north — and  I  saw 
some  from  near  Lake  Ladoga  and  St.  Petersburg — 
the  fact  may  easily  be  explained  when  we  think 


of  the  slow  infiltration  and  penetration  of  racial 
elements,  either  by  mixture  with  other  stocks  or 
by  the  subjection -and  displacement  of  peoples. 

It  may  not  be  uninteresting  here  to  refer  to  the 
opinion  of  Bogdanof,  who  has  had  every  opportunity 
of  examining  the  cranial  types  of  the  kurgans,  and 
has  described  them  in  many  special  memoirs.  He 
finds  that  the  primitive  population  of  Russia  was 
long-headed,  and  clearly  distinct  from  the  brachy- 
cephalic  population  which  came  later,  and  that  this 
primitive  population,  instead  of  disappearing,  became 
mixed  with  the  invaders,  still  preserving  numerical 
preponderance,  as  the  proportions  between  dolicho- 
cephals  and  brachycephals  in  different  tumuli,  as  at 
Cernikov,  Tver,  Novgorod,  and  elsewhere,  clearly 
shows.  Moreover,  he  affirms  that  these  dolicho- 
cephalic skulls  are  not  different  from  the  so-called 
Reihengraber  types  of  Germany,  nor  from  the  ancient 
Swedish  skulls  ;  and  I  may  add  that  neither  are  they 
different,  as  I  have  many  times  found,  from  those  of 
the  Mediterranean.  Hence  Bogdanof  concluded,  in 
his  special  report  to  the  International  Congress  of 
Prehistoric  Anthropology  at  Moscow,  that  the  original 
population  ot  Russia  was  dolichocephalic,  with  well- 
formed,  clear-cut  forehead,  not  receding,  and  long  face. 
Since  these  Russian  long-heads  are  also  found  in 
other  European  lands,  such  as  Austria,  Germany, 
Sweden,  and  probably  Denmark,  he  thinks  that  they 
are  best  called  the  primitive  dolichocephalic  and 
leptoprosopic  Europeans.  He  excludes,  therefore,  the 
populations  of  the  south,  which  he  believes  to  be  of 
another  origin.  In  this,  as  I  have  already  said,  he 
errs,  but  he  approaches  the  truth  when  he  admits 
that  the  so-called  primitive  Teutons,  primitive  Slavs, 

RUSSIA.  231 

primitive  Danes,  primitive  Swiss,  constitute  a  primitive 
European  population  (Urenropder)*  Doubtlos  the 
true  Germans,  Slavs,  Danes,  and  Swiss  are  later  and 
not  belonging  to  the  prehistoric  populations. 

Bogdanofs  principal  conclusions  concerning  the 
inhabitants  of  Russia  agree  with  my  examination  of 
the  skulls  collected  from  the  kunrans  and  studied 

FIG.  54.  —  Kurgan  Skull  from  Moscow, 
Ellipsoides  africtu  (Scrgi). 

by  the  Russian  anthropologist.  They  only  differ  in 
this,  that  he  excludes  the  prehistoric  inhabitants  of 
southern  Kuropc,  while  I  consider  that  these,  like 
ihose  of  central  and  western  as  well  as  northern  and 

1  Cf.  Ankiv  fiir  A nth.,  vol.  xiv.,  1882,  xxvi.  1889,  summary  by 
Siicda  of  Russian  anthropology;  Bogdanof,  "Qucllc  est  la  Race  la 
plus  anciennc  <le  la  Russic  Ccniralc  ?  "  Moscow  International  Congress, 


eastern  Europe,  have  a  single  origin  in  Africa.  I  also 
find  that  primitive  types  prevail  in  the  kurgans  and 
diminish  in  the  Moscow  cemeteries  of  the  sixteenth 
century.  Of  1,160  skulls  studied,  in  fact,  I  found 
that  among  the  primitive  population  56.56  were  of 
the  Mediterranean  or  Reihengraber  type,  and  43.43 
per  cent  foreign,  while  in  the  Moscow  cemeteries  the 
old  population  appeared  diminished,  being  45.58  per 
cent.,  and  the  new  arrivals  were  54.61  per  cent1 
Bogdanof  himself  had  written  that  the  dolichocephalic 
population  gave  way  to  the  brachycephals.2 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  southern  Russia 
especially,  like  the  whole  of  western  Europe,  received 
its  first  inhabitants  from  Africa :  the  cranial  types 
remain  to  attest  the  common  origin  (Figs.  51-54). 

1  Seigi,   "Al  Congresso  di  Mosca,"  Alti  Soc.  rom.  Ant.,  vol.  v., 

2  "  Beschreibung  von  Schadeln  aus  alien  Moskauer  Bcgrabnisstatten," 
summary  by  Stieda,  Archiv,  tit.,  xiv.,  1882. 



The  Etnopean  Pigmies — The   Neolithic   Brachycephals—The 
End  of  the  Diffusion  ami  the  Nnv  Invaders  of  Europe. 

The  European  Pigmies. — If  we  may  affirm  the  uni- 
formity of  the  racial  types  in  the  populations  of  the 
Mediterranean  family  within  and  without  the  great 
basin,  it  must  not  be  supposed  that  these  types  alone 
constituted  the  populations  I  have  rapidly  sketched ; 
in  the  midst  of  these  are  other  types  with  physical 
characters  plainly  revealing  another  stock,  or  even 
other  African  stocks,  which  have  mingled  with  the 
stock  whose  history  I  have  attempted  to  outline. 

These  stocks  are  inferior  in  the  physical  characters 
they  present,  of  little  or  no  aesthetic  beauty,  and  of 
inferior  development  as  regards  cranial  capacity  and 
stature.  They  constitute  a  secondary,  I  might  say 
accessory  population,  of  little  historical  importance 
in  the  development  of  Mediterranean  civilisation  and 
the  expansion  of  the  chief  stock. 

Even  this  secondary  population  may  be  followed 
in  analysing  the  racial  elements  which  have  composed 
the  nations  within  and  without  the  Mediterranean, 
and  it  is  their  head  forms,  shown  in  the  skulls,  which 
icvcal  the  characteristic  differences  separating  them 
from  the  dominating  and  directing  stock.  Attention 
may  specially  be  directed  to  a  stock  which  some 


years  ago  I  discovered  in  the  Mediterranean  and  in 
Russia,  of  single  origin  but  mixed  with  the  families 
of  peoples  already  described,  and  also  coming,  as  I 
am  led  to  believe,  from  Africa :  I  refer  to  the  pigmy 
microcephalic  stock.1 

In  various  parts  of  Italy  I  have  found   heads  so 
small,  though  normal  in  anatomical  constitution,  that 

FlG.  55.— /Eneolithic  Skull  from  near  Volterra,  Italy, 
Sphcuoides  latus  (Sergi). 

I  have  been  obliged  to  call  them  microcephalic,  like 
others   I   have  seen  from   Melanesia.2     I  have  seen 

1  See  "Varieta  umane  microccfaliche  e  pigmei  d'Europa,''.50/'/£////M 
Accad.  medico,  di  Roma,  xix.,  1893;  "  Ueber  die  europaischen  Pyg- 
miien,"  Communication  to  Congress  of  Innsbriick,  Corrcspondenz-Blatt 
der  Deutschen  anthropol.  Gescllschaft,  n.  IO,  1894.  Cf.  "I  Pigmei 
d'  Europa,"  Nncn-a  Antologia,  Rome,  1893. 

•  See  my  classification  in  "Variela  umane  della  Melanesia,"  Boll. 
Afcad.  medica  di  Roma,  1892;  "-Le  varieta  umane,  Principi  e  metodo 
di  classificazione,"  Alti  Societil  romana  di  AntropoJogia,  vol.  i.,  Rome, 
;  Specie  e  Varictb  Umane,  ft'/.,  1900. 



similar  types  from  the  kurgans  and  ancient  burial- 
places  of  Russia,  and  among  the  skulls  which  in  the 
Mediterranean  pass  under  the  name  of  Phoenician. 
The  types  or  shapes  of  these  skulls  are  different,  for 
the  most  part,  from  those  belonging  to  the  great 
stock,  and  they  often  present  characters  of  inferiority 

Fie.  56.—  Eurafrican  Skull  from  Abyssinia,  Ellifsoides 
idts  (Sergi). 

in  their  structure.  Many,  including  all  those  I  have 
measured  and  consider  to  belong  to  the  pigmy  stock, 
are  inferior  in  cranial  capacity  to  the  Nigritoes,  or 
eastern  pigmies. 

The  study  of  the  living  population  in  Italy,  from 
the  point  of  view  of  stature,  confirms  the  indications 
derived  from  examination  of  the  skulls  as  to  the 


existence  of  a  pigmy  population.  I  found  that  among 
the  male  population  at  twenty  years  of  age  there  were 
1.63  per  cent,  individuals  between  1.25  m.  and  1.45  m., 
and  14.49  per  cent,  between  1.25  m.  and  1.53  m. 
Calculating  together  the  male  and  female  population, 
considered  as  thirty  millions,  there  would  be  in 
absolute  figures  978,000  male  and  female  pigmies 
between  1.2501.  and  1.45  m,  and  4,347,000  between 
1.25  m.  and  1.55  m.,  an  enormous  number  for  a  popu- 
lation of  thirty  millions. 

The  low  stature,  the  structure  of  the  head,  various 
external  physical  characters  and  peculiarities  of  the 
skeleton  of  the  face  and  its  fleshy  coverings,  led  me  to 
infer  that  in  very  ancient  times  there  was  an  invasion 
of  pigmies  from  Africa  into  the  Mediterranean,  also 
invading  Russia  and  probably  other  European  regions. 
It  must  also  be  supposed  that  the  external  physical 
characters  have  been  modified  by  the  long  stay  in 
Europe,  and  by  mingling  with  the  tall  and  fine  stock 
from  which  hybrid  forms  would  be  derived. 

The  discovery  of  pigmies  in  neolithic  graves  of 
Switzerland  confirmed  my  opinion  as  to  their  origin, 
more  especially  as  in  these  graves  were  found  orna- 
ments formed  of  shells  of  Mediterranean  origin,  and 
as  the  head  type  in  these  Swiss  pigmies  resembled 
some  at  least  (for  the  Swiss  pigmies  were  few  in 
number)  that  I  had  studied  among  the  pigmies  of  the 
Mediterranean  and  Russia.1  Kollmann,  on  the  other 
hand,  refuses  to  accept  an  African  invasion,  and 
regards  the  pigmies  as  earlier  than  the  tall  race, 
which  was  derived  from  them — a  theory  which  I 

1  Cf.  Kollmnnii,  "Das  Schwcizcrhiltl  l>ei  Schaflfhausen  uml  Py.i;m;ieii 
in  Europn,"  Zl. /.  Eth.,  1894;  Crania  Helvetica  Antiijita,  (it.,  pp. 


cannot  regard  as  possible.  Virchow  and  Schmidt, 
again,  believe  that  they  only  represent  individual 
variations,  and  not  a  separate  stock  or  racial  variety.1 
These  two  anthropologists  regard  the  pigmies  as  indi- 
vidual variations,  because  they  believe  that  a  people 
constitutes  a  race  and  not  a  composition  of  elements 
of  different  races — a  common  error  among  anthro- 
pologists, though  this  is  not  the  place  to  demonstrate 

The  geographical  distribution  of  these  pigmies 
further  confirms  the  belief  in  their  African  origin; 
they  must  have  mixed  with  the  tall  stock  and 
followed  it  in  its  migrations  through  Europe,  just  as 
they  have  formed  an  inferior  stratum  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean population.  In  Italy  they  are  especially 
common  in  the  southern  provinces  and  in  the  islands 
of  Sicily  and  Sardinia,  while  they  are  much  less 
frequently  found  in  the  Po  valley  and  in  Piedmont, 
where,  indeed,  there  seem  to  be  almost  none. 

Of  other  minglings,  not  numerous,  it  is  true,  there 
is  no  need  to  speak  here.     They  seem  to  show,  how- 
ever, that  even  at  very  remote  epochs  men,   either1 
individually  or  in  more  or  less  numerous  bodies,  have 
moved  from  their  places  of  origin  and  mingled  withy 
other  peoples. 

The  Neolithic  Brachycephals. — In  reading  Salmon's 
fine  study  of  the  neolithic  skulls  of  Gaul,  we  meet 
with  interesting  statistics  of  the  cranial  types ;  of 
688  neolithic  skulls  examined,  397  are  dolicho- 
cephalic, 145  mcsocephalic,  and  146  brachycephalic, 

1  Virchow,  festsitzung  der  Btr'.in  GeselUchaft  Verhandlungtn,  ijth 

1894;  Schmidt,  d'/wiit,  No.  4,  1895. 

*  Cf.  my  note,  "  Intorno  ai  Tiymci  d'  Eurupa,"  Att.  Soc.  rotn.  di 
.-////.,  vol.  ii.,  1895;  ilso  Sfffie  e  I'ariet,)  ( *///.;//<•,  1900. 


It,  according  to  my  criterion,  we  unite  the  dolicho- 
cephalic and  mesocephalic,  they  constitute  78.8  per 
cent,  of  the  whole,  and  the  brachycephalic  21.2  per 

These  brachycephals  are  found  not  only  in  the 
neolithic  graves  of  France  ;  they  are  also  found  in 
Italy.  In  the  Buca  della  Fate  of  Monte  Tignoso, 

FIG.  57. — Eurafrican  Skull  from  Abyssinia,  EliipsoiJes 
cuntattts  (Scrgi). 

near  Livorno,  many  years  ago,  a  neolithic  grave 
yielded  several  human  skeletons;  two  skulls  only 
were  preserved,  and  these  are  now  to  be  found  in  the 
Rome  Museum  of  Anthropology;  one  of  them  is 
brachycephalic  of  cuneiform  type.  Near  Volterra 
also  a  similar  grave  has  yielded  similar  skulls,  to  be 
found  in  the  Rome  Museum  (Fig.  55).  Prehistoric 



Sicily,  of  the  first  Sicul  period,  according  to  Orsi's 
classification,  shows  similar  cuneiform  brachyccphalic 

How  are  we  to  interpret  these  facts  ? 

In  another  work1  I  have  shown  how  the  pacific 
infiltration  of  new  elements  reaching  Europe  from 
Asia  may  explain  the  presence  of  such  human  types, 
before  the  great  invasions  which  so  greatly  changed 

FlG.  58.— Eurafrican  Skull  from  Abyssinia, 
Ptntagonoide*  acutus  (Sergi). 

the  anthropological  face  of  Europe.  I  still  maintain 
the  same  opinion  in  spite  of  some  objections.  These 
new  racial  elements  in  no  respect  changed  the  customs 
of  the  neolithic  population  with  which  they  mixed ;  the 
immigrants  accepted  those  customs  entirely,  including 
those  which  touch  the  deepest  feelings,  those  referring 
to  burial ;  that  is  to  say  that  they  adopted  inhumation. 

1  Arii  t  Ilalid,  pp.  130  et  teq. 


Nothing  new  is  indeed  seen,  except  here  and  there 
the  presence  of  copper  objects. 

This  has,  with  justice,  led  to  the  belief  that  the 
presence  of  the  brachyccphals  is  confined  to  the  close 
of  the  neolithic  period  and  the  introduction  of  copper; 
in  Italy  this  period  is  termed  cencolitJiic,  that  is  to  say, 
the  period  of  copper  and  polished  stone  together. 
To  this  period  are  ascribed  the  graves  of  Cantalupo, 
Monte  Tignoso,  Volterra,  and  others  similar ;  we  are 
already  at  the  dawn  of  the  age  of  metals.1  In  France 
it  is  difficult  to  discern  the  epochs  so  distinctly,  but, 
doubtless,  here  also,  as  in  Italy,  the  neolithic  brachy- 
cephals  must  have  arrived  in  the  last  or  aeneolithic 

As  regards  the  brachycephals  with  cuneiform 
skulls,  in  the  neolithic  graves  of  Sicily,  I  have  shown 
that  they  are  of  Asiatic  type,  their  arrival  being  due 
to  the  varied  relations  of  Sicily  with  the  eastern 
Mediterranean  in  prehistoric  times,  as  clearly  wit- 
nessed by  the 'presence  of  objects  of  pre- Phoenician 
character.2  This  is  not,  however,  the  opinion  of 
Professor  Keane,  who  in  his  very  important  recent 
work  believes  it  may  be  admitted  that  some  of 
the  European  brachycephals  arrived  from  Africa 
together  with  the  dolichocephals.3  He  seeks  to 
justify  this  opinion  by  the  existence  of  certain 
brachy cephalic  types  found  by  Collignon  in  the 
present  population  of  the  island  of  Gerba  and  in 
Tunis.  I  have,  however,  already  pointed  out  that 

1  See  Colini,  "II  scpolcrelo  di  Remcilcllo  e  il  periodo  eneolitico  in 
Italia,"  Bolletlinodi  Paletiiologfa  Ilaliana,  1899-1900. 

*  "  Crani  preistorici  della  Sicilia,"  Alt.  Soc.  rom.  Antrof.,  vol.  vi. , 
i.,  1899. 

3  Man  Past  and  Piestnf,  cit. ,  pp.  454  el  teq. 


the  present  state  of  a  population  which  has  been 
mixed  during  a  long  series  of  historical  periods, 
cannot,  except  in  special  cases,  lead  us  to  any  safe  con- 
clusions regarding  the  primitive  population.  More- 
over, the  Roknia  skulls,  although  possessing  a 
brachycephalic  index,  belong  to  known  Mediter- 
ranean types,  as  I  have  previously  stated  (Chapter 

We  may  be  perfectly  assured  that  the  truly  brachy- 
cephalic types  of  Italy,  Spain,  and  France  are  of 
Asiatic  origin,  some  arriving  from  the  cast  by  sea,  / 
like  those  of  Sicily,  others  coming  by  land,  either 
from  the  cast  or  north,  like  the  Lapps;  they  preceded 
the  violent  invasions  which  also  came  by  land.  Africa, 
in  its  homogeneous  population,  which  constitutes  a 
Eurafrican  variety,  has  never  possessed  cuneiform 
and  spheroidal  brachyccphals  as  indigenous  elements. 

The  end  of  the  diffusion,  aiui  the  new  invaders  of 
Europe. — The  stock,  originating  in  Africa,  which  I 
call  Mediterranean,  because  in  the  Mediterranean  it 
developed  its  aptitudes  and  civilisations,  contiibuted 
without  doubt,  from  primitive  times  till  the  late 
quaternary  period,  to  the  population  of  the  whole 
Mediterranean  and  of  many  other  regions  of  Europe, 
as  I  have  shown  in  the  preceding  pages.  Its 
evident  traces  arc  found  in  the  dolmens  and  caves 
of  France,  in  the  Long  Barrows  of  Great  Britain,  at 
Casa  da  Moura  and  Mugcm  in  the  Iberian  peninsula, 
in  the  neolithic  graves  of  Switzerland,  in  many 
tumuli  in  Russia,  and  even  as  far  as  the  Canaries. 
All  these  have  yielded  typical  skulls,  showing 
the  same  characters  found  in  the  Mediterranean 
populations,  whether  Iberian,  Ligurian,  Pelasgian,  or 
Egyptian,  and  allied  to  those  of  East  Africa.  More- 




over,  there  still  exist  whole  Mediterranean  popula- 
tions which,  in  spite  of  mingling  with  other  peoples 
and  of  historical  vicissitudes,  still  preserve  their 
primitive  racial  elements. 

Towards  the  end  of  the  neolithic  period,  and  after 
the  first  and  pacific  appearance  of  the  Asiatic  tribes 
which  insinuated  themselves  in  the  midst  of  the  early 
inhabitants,  a  great  anthropological  change  took  place 

FIG.  59. — Scandinavian  Skull  of  Viking  type.     Eurafrican 
species,  Pentagonoidcs  acuttis  (Earth). 

in  Europe,  affecting  even  the  Mediterranean,  although 
in  a  slight  degree.  A  new  and  different  stock,  strong 
and  numerous,  advanced  from  the  east,  and.  spread 
through  the  centre,  west,  and  south  of  Europe,  over- 
flowing the  primitive  stock,  in  many  regions  succeed- 
ing in  displacing  it,  in  others  in  subjugating  it  This 
stock,  being  of  Asiatic  origin,  I  call  Eurasiatic,  on 
account  of  its  diffusion  in  Asia,  its  place  of  origin, 


and  in  Europe,  where  it  succeeded  in  dominating  the 
entire  population. 

This  new  stock  is,  by  its  physical  characters,  visible 
and  distinguishable  in  English  burial-places,  espe- 
cially the  Round  Barrows,  as  has  been  shown  by 
Thurnam  and  other  English  anthropologists ;  it  is 
also  seen  in  France,  whence  it  seems  to  have  passed 

Fir..  Go.— Dolicho-cili|is(iid  face,  Mummy  of  Ramses  II. 
Eurafrican  species  (Maspero). 

over  to  the  British  Isles.  In  France,  the_£ellsr  a 
branch  of  the  new  stock,  drove  back  the  Iberian 
tribcs/which  still  continued  to  live  beyond  the 
Garonne  up  to  the  epoch  of  Cro-Magnon,  while  other 
Celtic  fractions  penetrated  Spain,  and  others  ad- 
vanced into  the  valley  of  the  Rhone  and  mixed 
with  the  Iberians  and  Ligurians.  In  Savoy  and  in 
Switzerland  they  supplanted  the  primitive  popula- 


tion,  and  achieved  nearly  as  much  in  the  Po  valley, 
confining  the  primitive  Ligurian  inhabitants  within 
the  present  narrow  region  of  Liguria  at  the  foot  of 
the  Apennines. 

At  the  same  time  these  Asiatic  invaders,  afterwards 
receiving  the  racial  names  of  Germans  and  Slavs, 
spread  into  Germany,  Bohemia,  the  valley  of  the 
Danube,  extending  into  the  Balkan  peninsula,  and 
as  far  as  Asia  Minor.  It  was  at  this  period  that 
Scandinavia  was  peopled,  for  the  primitive  inhabitants 
of  the  European  continent  were  driven  towards  the 
north  by  the  new  invaders,  reaching  the  Baltic  Sea, 
and  thence  the  Scandinavian  peninsula.  Here  the 
remains  of  the  ancient  stock  of  African  origin  are 
very  numerous,  even  more  so  than  in  northern  Ger- 
many. Here  also  they  acquired  a  special  physiog- 
nomy well  known  to-day  as  peculiar  to  the  Swedish 
and  Norwegian  populations. 

Thus  was  introduced  an  almost  general  change  in 
the  races  of  Western  and  Central  Europe,  England, 
France,  Southern  Germany,  Switzerland,  and  Russia, 
while  a  partial  change  took  place  in  the  Mediter- 
ranean regions  of  Europe.  Where  the  new  stock  met 
with  more  resistance  only  a  few  sporadic  elements 
were  able  to  find  admission  ;  where  it  found  le?s  it 
mixed  with  or  completely  supplanted  the  old  popula- 

Italy,  as  I  have  said,  except  in  the  Po  valley, 
remained  as  in  primitive  times,  few  new  elements 
being  introduced  into  its  stock  ;  the  population  of 
the  centre,  the  south,  and  the  islands,  although  con- 
taining elements  of  Asiatic  origin,  was  not  changed 
because  the  elements  that  prevailed  are  still  primitive, 
a  composition  of  the  various  branches — Iberian  and 

Till:    l.NI)   OF   THE    DIlllMnN,    1  2.\$ 

Ligurian,  Pclasgian  and  Libyan — of  the  African  or 
Mediterranean  stock.  The  Iberian  peninsula  may 
also  boast  that  its  old  stock  is  preponderant  In 
Greece  and  Asia  Minor  the  concourse  of  foreign 
elements  was  much  greater,  while  Egypt,  in  spite  of 

r'u;.  Gi.—  Duliclin -cllip.-xml  face,  Micsa  of  Uganda. 
Kurafrican  species  (Stanley). 

the  afflux  of  many  peoples,  still  preserves  much  of  its 
old  stock.  The  rest  of  Africa  has  undergone  mixture, 
even  very  recently,  but  its  new  elements  arc  mostly 
of  Arabian  and  very  seldom  of  Asiatic  origin. 

lint  even  when  the   racial  physiognomy  has  been 


totally  changed,  the  ancient  Mediterranean  stock  has 
not  altogether  disappeared.  English  anthropolo- 
gists note  it  as  still  existing  in  their  country,1  and 
so  also  the  French.  In  Russia  I  have  observed  traces 
of  the  Mediterranean  race  among  the  numerous  and 
varied  stocks  composing  the  population,  as  also  I 
have  been  able  to  recognise  it  in  the  skulls  from  the 
kurgans  and  the  cemeteries  of  recent  historical  times. 
In  Scandinavia,  as  before  pointed  out,  the  remains  of 
the  ancient  stock  are  most  numerous  of  all. 

1  In  a  recent  book  (John  Rhys  and  David  Brynnior  Jones,  The 
Welsh  People,  1900)  the  African  origin  of  the  primitive  population  of 
Great  Britain  has  been  confirmed.  It  is  here  shown  that  the  Neo- 
Cellic  language  preserves  in  its  syntax  the  Hamitic  and  especially 
Egyptian  type  (pp.  23  et  seq.,  34,  74).  In  an  appendix  (B),  written  by 
Morris  Jones  ("Pre- Aryan  Syntax  in  Insular  Celtic"),  the  affinity  of 
Hamitic  syntax  to  the  Neo-Celtic  is  more  particularly  demonstrated, 
and  this  conclusion  reached  :  "And  if  iheie  is  evidence  that  this  is  so 
—if  we  find,  on  comparison,  that  Neo-Celtic  syntax  agrees  with 
Hamitic  on  almost  every  point  where  it  differs  from  Aryan — we  have  the 
linguistic  complement  of  the  anthropological  evidence,  and  the  strongest 
corroboration  of  the  theory  of  the  kinship  of  the  early  inhabitants  of 
Britain  to  the  North  African  white  race  "  (p.  6lS). 



General  Physical  Characters— The    Euraftican   Species— The 
Eut  astatic  Species. 

General  Physical  Characters. — It  will  be  seen  how  in 
investigating  the  population  of  the  "Mediterranean  I 
have  been  gradually  led  to  extend  my  researches 
beyond  that  region,  and  to  obtain  wider  results.  New 
analyses  have  revealed  the  racial  relationships  not 
only  of  many  African  populations  still  inhabiting  the 
land  of  their  origin,  but  also  of  many  European 
populations  which  have  hithcriajEscaped  comparative 
analysis,  or  arc  supposed  to  belong  to  other  human 

It  is  a  necessity  of  method  for  every  naturalist  to 
leave  the  geographical  region  which  he  is  studying  in 
order  to  understand  the  characters  of  the  animal  and 
vegetable  species  distributed  in  that  region;  so  also 
for  the  anthropologist  when  investigating  a  human 
stock  or  variety.  Like  any  other  naturalist,  the 
anthropologist  must  seek  for  the  geographical  dis- 
tribution of  a  species,  its  variations,  the  divergencies 
met  in  different  branches  or  varieties ;  nor  must  he 
be  led  astray  'by  some  divergent  character,  which 
might  suggest  some  other  than  its  true  and  natural 



origin,  or  some  affinity  which  is  only  due  to  secondary 

It  is  this  difficulty  that  we  have  to  meet,  as  well 
as  the  fact  that  these  inductions  conflict  with  the 
suppositions  of  many  anthropologists  who  have 
studied  races  and  peoples  by  methods  which  I  cannot 
regard  as  natural  methods,  as,  for  instance,  by  means 
of  the  external  cutaneous  characters,  or  by  linguistic 
or  by  historical  methods,  which  last  methods  espe- 
cially can  never  yield  acceptable  results  in  physical 

FIG.  62. — Ovoid  face,  Buharin  from  Nubia. 
Kurafrican  species  (Scrgi). 

anthropology.  I  have  studied,  as  a  naturalist  and  by 
natural  methods,  the  Mediterranean  stock  and  those 
united  with  it  by  common  physical  origin.  I  will 
briefly  set  forth  the  conclusions  I  have  reached  as 
regards  physical  characters. 

In  another  work1  I  have  described  at  length  those 
African  populations  which,  by  the  language  which 
many  of  them  speak  or  have  spoken,  are  called 
Hamitic;  these  mingle  with  the  African  Mcditer- 

1  Africa,  cap.  x.  and  xx. 


iniican  populations,  described  in  this  work,  which 
belong  to  the  stock  that  for  some  time  past  I  have 
called  Mediterranean.  The  area  of  geographical 
distribution  of  these  African  populations  is  immense, 
for  it  reaches  from  the  Red  Sea  to  the  Atlantic,  from 
the  equator,  and  even  beyond  the  equator,  to  the 
Mediterranean.  In  this  vast  area  we  find,  when  we 
exclude  racial  mixtures,  that  the  physical  characters 
of  the  skeleton,  as  regards  head  and  face,  are  uniform, 

Fir..  63. —  Ovoid  face,  Kgypt.     Eun-Jiican 
species  (Scrjji). 

but  that  the  physical  characters  of  the  skin  and 
intermediate  parts,  that  is  to  say  the  development 
and  form  of  the  soft  parts,  vary.  This  uniformity  of 
the  cranio-facial  skeletal  characters,  which  I  consider 
the  guiding  thread  in  anthropological  research,  has 
led  me  to  regard  as  a  single  human  stock  all  the 
varieties  distributed  in  the  area  already  mentioned. 
In  the  varying  cutaneous  coloration  I  see  an  effect 
of  temperature,  of  climate,  of  alimentation,  and  of  the 
manner  of  life. 



Now,  to  come  to  the  Mediterranean  stock,  I  must 
make  the  same  distinction  of  physical  characters,  that 
is  to  say,  external,  internal,  and  intermediate.  As 
I  have  already  described  it  elsewhere,  this  stock  in 

FlG.  64. — Long  quadrangular  face,  Shoan. 
Eurafrican  species  (Traversi). 

its  external  characters  is  a  brown  human  variety, 
neither  white  nor  negroid,  but  pure  in  its  elements, 
that  is  to  say  not  a  product  of  the  mixture  of  Whites 
with  Negroes  or  negroid  peoples.  It  is  generally 



believed  that  the  brown  type  is  derived  by  mixture, 
and  it  is  placed  among  varieties  of  the  White  race, 
the  Mediterranean  peoples  being  thus  made  a  branch 
of  that  race.  This  scarcely  seems  to  me  exact,  for 
from  the  behaviour  of  the  external  characters  in  our 
Mediterranean  variety  they  appear  to  be  of  primitive 

Fir..  65.  —  PfBtftgMUd  face,  a  Ci.i'l.i.     EuraCrican 
s|>ccics  (Tra\xr*i). 

formation,  since  they  arc  constant  within  the  limits  of 
the  populations  included  under  this  variety.  These 
external  characters  are  the  brown  colour  of  the  skin, 
eyes  (chestnut  or  black  iris),  hair,  beard,  and  the  hair 
on  other  parts  of  the  body. 

If  we  consider  the  other  characters  as  a  whole,  we 
find  that  the  body  is  well  formed  and  proportioned, 


of  medium  stature,  oscillating  between  m.  1.60  and 
in.  1.70,  the  nose  is  either  leptorhine  or  mcsorhine 
(i'e.,  more  or  less  narrow),  the  apertures  of  the  eyes 
horizontal  and  rather  large,  the  lips  sometimes  thin 
and  sometimes  a  little  thick  and  fleshy,  the  ears 
standing  away  from  the  head,  the  forehead  nearer 
the  vertical  than  receding,  and  smooth,  often  short, 
the  cheek-bones  not  high  nor  too  distant  from  each 
other,  the  face  not  flattened,  of  oval  and  ellipsoidal 
•contour,  the  neck  long  and  rounded  ;  in  face  and 
look  and  facial  gesture  there  is  an  expression  of 
grace,  vivacity,  and  aesthetic  beauty.  In  the  mascu- 
line sex  there  is  well-defined  muscularity,  the  tendency 
to  undue  fleshiness  being  rare ;  in  the  women,  the 
secondary  sexual  characters,  the  breasts  and  hips,  are 
well  developed. 

It  is  the  cranial  and  facial  forms  that  lead  us  to 
accept  the  consanguinity  of  the  African  Hamites,  of 
red-brown  and  black  colour,  with  the  Mediterranean 
peoples ;  the  'same  characters  reveal  the  consan- 
guinity of  the  primitive  inhabitants  of  Europe,  and 
of  their  remains  in  various  regions  and  among 
various  peoples,  with  the  populations  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean, and  henc,e  also  with  the  Hamites  of  Africa. 
For  some  time  past  I  have  reached  the  conclusion 
that  the  so-called  Reihcngraber  type  of  the  Germans 
and  the  Viking  type  of  the  Scandinavians,  being 
identical  in  character  with  the  Mediterranean  and 
Hamitic  types,  had  the  same  African  origin  ;  the 
populations  with  these  cranial  and  facial  forms  in  the 
north  of  Europe  arc,  as  I  have  shown,  of  African 
origin,  separate  branches  of  the  same  trunk. 

The  objections  to  be  made  to  these  conclusions  are 
chiefly  two :  that  these  Germanic  and  Scandinavian 



peoples  of  long  skulls  and  oval  faces  arc  blonds  in 
hair  and  beard,  with  white  skins  and  blue  eyes  ;  anJ 
that  they  are,  moreover,  of  higher  stature  than  the 
Mediterranean  brunets.  This  latter  objection  has 
been  brought  forward  by  Kcanc. 

Flo.  65.— Ellipsoid  face,  Morocco 
species  (Monbard). 


Now,  as  regards  coloration,  we  may  admit,  as  I  have 
already  admitted,  as  regards  the  difference  between 
the  Mediterranean  people  and  those  of  east  and 
equatorial  Africa,  that  it  is  the  result  of  many  ex- 
ternal conditions.  Temperature  is  one,  and  perhaps 
the  chief,  of  these  conditions;  for  when  we  consider 


the  residence  ol  a  population  during  many  thousand 
years — that  is,  from  the  quaternary  epoch  to  the 
neolithic  and  onwards — in  a  climate  where  thermal 
action  is  weak,  we  must  agree  that  a  kind  of  albinism 
would  be  produced,  and  hence  a  decoloration  of  pig- 
ment in  all  parts  of  the  body,  especially  in  the  skin 
and  its  appendages.  This  phenomenon  is  general 
in  the  formation  of  human  races,  and  gives  them 
characters  which,  once  acquired,  may  be  considered 
constant,  even  with  a  change  of  locality.  To-day,  in 
fact,  we  see  brunets  and  blonds  mixed  in  various 
climates,  without  losing  the  hereditary  colour  they 
have  acquired. 

|  We  may  therefore  conclude  that  as  residence  under 
the  equator  has  produced  the  red-brown  and  black 
coloration  of  the  stock,  and  residence  in  the  Medi- 
terranean the  brown  colour,  so  northern  Europe  has 
given  origin  to  the  white  skin,  blond  hair,  and  blue 
or  grey  eyes.  I  believe  we  may  consider  this  a 
beautiful  example  of  the  formation  and  variation  of 
external  characters  among  a  section  of  the  human 
race  which  from  time  immemorial  has  been  diffused 
by  migrations  between  the  equator  and  the  arctic 
circle,  and  has  focmed  its  external  characters  accord- 
ing to  the  variations  of  latitude  and  the  concomitant 
external  conditions. 

The  objection  regarding  the  stature  of  the  Ger- 
manic or  Scandinavian-European  type  scarcely 
appears  to  me  to  be  stronger.  In  Scandinavia, 
according  to  the  observations  of  Hultkrantz  and 
Arbo,  only  a  part  of  the  population  presents  a 
very  high  stature  with  respect  to  other  European 
regions,  the  average  being  m.  1.69,  while  the  popula- 
tion of  the  British  Isles  exceeds  in  stature  that  of 


Sweden  and  Norway.  Moreover,  we  find  here  and 
therein  Kuropc  various  groups  of  populations  above 
the  average  stature,  as  in  Bosnia,  and  in  Italy  in 
Veneto  and  Garfagnana,  and  I  have  been  able  to 
observe,  though  not  in  compact  groups,  gigantic 
individuals  in  the  population  of  Puglia,  of  Catania, 
and  also  of  Latium.  Nor  is  that  all;  in  east  Africa, 
among  the  Gallas  and  Somalis,  may  be  found  peoples, 
like  the  Dinkas,  of  stature  higher  than  m.  i./o  and 

Ripley  explains  the  greater  stature  of  English  and 
some  other  peoples  as  partly  due  to  advantageous  ex- 
ternal conditions,  that  is  as  a  product  of  the  social 
environment.1  I  do  not  dissent  from  this  opinion, 
but  I  believe  that  the  sociological  factor  alone  is  not 
sufficient  for  the  formation  of  stature ;  we  have  to 
take  into  consideration  other  biological  conditions, 
external  and  internal,  which  it  would  here  be  out  of 
place  to  discuss. 

Certainly  stature  is  a  character  which  cannot  be 
passed  over  in  the  classification  of  races;  but  it  is  not 
a  primary  character  which  can  destroy  the  value  of 
other  characters  which  already  possess  an  unques- 
tionable importance;  it  can  only  serve  as  a  means 
of  sub-dividing  human  races  and  sub-races,  as  in  the 
present  case. 

Thus  we  may  conclude  that  when  we  observe 
the  peoples  of  various  racial  names  belonging  to 
the  Mediterranean  stock,  including  both  those  in  the 
African  regions,  called  Hamitic,  and  those  in  the 
north,  we  sec  a  large  part  of  mankind  exhibiting 
constant  and  persistent  characters,  from  the  late 
tliiatcrnary  period  to  the  neolithic  period,  and  from 

1  Rij.lcy,  The  Races  of  Europe,  p.  So. 



that  on  to  modern  times.  These  characters  arc  those 
of  the  skull  and  the  face. 

It  is  not  necessary  to  describe  these  characters 
further  ;  but  it  may  be  useful  to  summarise  them. 

Throughout  this  immense  stock,  from  the  equator 
in  Africa  to  the  Arctic  circle  in  Scandinavia,  we  have 
found  four  characteristic  and  constant  cranial  forms, 

FIG.  67. — Long  quadrangular  face,  Sicily. 
Eurafrican  species  (Mantia). 

always  found  together  in  every  region  and  in  every 
clime,  with  whatever  variations  in  external  characters; 
these  are  the  pentagonal  (Pentagonoides\  ellipsoidal 
(Ellipsoides)>  ovoid  (Ovoides\  and  the  arrow-shaped 
{Beloides).  These  four  forms  represent  four  cranial 
varieties,  each  with  a  series  of  variations  which  con- 
stitute sub-varieties  or  sub-forms,  corresponding  to 


the  type  to  which  they  belong,  and  which  are  dis- 
tributed in  different  proportions  in  the  groups  of 

Together  with  the  cranium  and  its  forms,  we  have 
to  consider  the  face,  both  as  a  whole  and  in  its  various 
parts.  In  a  special  study  I  have  been  able  to  show 
that  the  face  in  its  outlines  assumes  forms  analogous 
to  those  of  the  skull  as  seen  from  above  (i.e.,  in  the 
norina  verticalis).  Ellipsoidal,  ovoid,  triangular,  and 

FIG.  68. — KUipsnid  face,  Sardinia,  Iialy. 
Kurafrican  species  (Sergi). 

p.-uallelogrammatic  forms  are  common  to  the  whole 
Mediterranean  stock,  and  these  iforms  are  associated 
with  the  cranial  forms  distinctive  of  the  stock.1 

The  Eurafrican  Species. — The  important  question 
arises  as  to  what  these  cranial  and  facial  forms  which 
we  have  thus  found  so  common  in  the  great  basin,  as 
well  as  in  the  peoples  of  northern  Africa  and  northern 
Kurope,  really  represent.  I  have  said  that  they 

1  See  my  Specie  e  I'ariela  I'maiif,  cap.  ix.  and  Appendix  II  ;  also,  c.i p.  \\. 



present  themselves  like  the  variations  of  a  well 
determined  zoological  species,  for  these  varieties 
are  constant  and  persistent,  always  associated 
together  in  the  stock  in  which  they  appear,  and 
they  have  thc-ir  own  particular  variations,  corre- 
sponding to  sub-forms  or,  as  I  term  them,  sub- 
varieties.  In  other  human  families  1  have  found 
other  variations,  equally  common  in  the  groups  and 
branches  into  which  they  are  divided,  and  equally 
mixed  in  the  formation  of  each  branch  of  the  family. 
On  account  of  the  dissimilar  architecture  which  these 
other  cranial  forms  present  with  those  of  the  face,  it  is 
impossible  to  admit  that  they  are  of  the  same  species 
as  those  belonging  to  the  Mediterranean  groups. 
This  comparison  and  a  corresponding  series  of 
variations  have  convinced  me  that  this  human  family, 
including  so  many  groups  of  peoples  between  the 
equator  and  the  north  of  Europe,  is  really  a 
zoological  species. 

This  human  species,  with  cranial  and  facial 
characters  thus  well  determined,  I  call  Eurafrican;1 
and  this  because,  having  had  its  origin  in  Africa, 
where  it  is  still  represented  by  many  peoples,  it  has 
been  diffused  from  prehistoric  times  in  Europe,  and 
has  formed  the  basis  of  the  most  primitive  population. 
This  Eurafrican  species  is  not  Brinton's  race,  nor 
Keane's  Caucasian  race,  for  it  contains  none  of  the 
racial  elements  with  cephalic  forms,  by  some  termed 
brachycephalic,  which,  according  to  my  classifica- 
tion, are  cuneiform,  spheroidal,  and  platycephalic; 
these,  I  consider,  belong  to  another  human  species. 
My  Eurafrican  species  has  absolute  uniformity  of 
cephalic  and  facial  forms  throughout  its  geographical 

1   Africa,  cap.  xx.  ;   Arii  e  Italici,  cap.  ix. 


distribution,  which  is  very  wide,  and  beneath  what- 
ever colour  of  skin  and  hair. 

Practically,  we  may  consider  the  cranial  type 
single,  for  the  four  variations  are  always  found 
together,  and  we  may  divide  the  whole  Eurafrican 
species  into  races  according  to  the  colour  of  the 
skin.  As  I  have  already  pointed  out,  we  have  to 
admit  that  the  variations  in  pigmentation  have  taken 
place  in  the  long  course  of  ages  through  the  influence 
of  environmental  conditions ;  thus,  independently  of 
bony  variations,  races  have  naturally  been  formed. 
The  Eurafrican  species  thus  falls  into  three  races  :  the 
African,  with  red-brown  and  black  pigmentation ; 
the  Merfiffrnwtan^of  brunet  complexion,  inhabiting 
the  great  basin  including  part  of  northern  Africa, 
formerly  occupying  Asia  Minor,  the  three  great 
peninsulas  of  Europe,  the  Mediterranean  islands,  and 
the  Canaries,  as  well  as  a  portion  of  western,  central, 
and  eastern  Europe,  now  difficult  to  determine ; 
finally,  a  Nordic  race,  of  blond  skin  and  hair,  blue  or 
grey  eyes,  most  numerously  represented  in  Scandi- 
navia, north  Germany  and  England. 

Thus  the  Mediterranean  stock  is  a  race  or  variety 
of  the  Eurafrican  species,  and  differs  from  the  two 
other  varieties  chiefly  in  colour.  As  I  have  already 
indicated,  it  is  not  confined  to  the  limits  of  the 
Mediterranean,  for  to-day  populations  with  the 
identical  characters  of  the  stock  may  be  found  else- 
where in  Europe,  as  in  Great  Britain.  The  varied 
movements  of  peoples  have  caused  mingling  of  the 
two  varieties,  Mediterranean  and  Nordic,  the  brown 
and  the  white,  and  their  descendants  show  corre- 
spondingly mixed  coloration  of  the  eyes,  hair,  and 

in    some 


Other  variations  have  been  produced 
regions  of  Europe  where  the  species  is 
variations  which  may  be  called  regional  or  local, 
both  in  stature,  in  muscular  and  adipose  development, 
and  in  facial  physiognomy.  It  is  easy  to  understand 
how  certain  types  in  the  population  of  Great  Britain, 

FlG.  69. — Dolicho-ellipsoid  face,  Italy. 
Euralrican  species  (Sergi). 

observed  by  Beddoe,  have  thus  been  formed.1  Such 
variations  may  constitute  sub-races,  but  in  general  it 
is  enough  to  say  that  they  constitute  the  physiognomy 
of  a  population,  for  it  is  important  to  note  that  this 
phenomenon  is  dependent  on  external  physical  as 
well  as  sociological  conditions,  which  may  lead  into 

1  The  Races  of  Britain,  1885. 



error  those   who   think   they   distinguish    race  in   a 
people's  physiognomy. 

The  results  I  have  obtained  in  the  investigation  of 
the  physical  characters  of  the  Mediterranean  stock 
have  been  logically  and  rigorously  drawn  from  the 
zoological  method  I  have  adopted.  By  means  of  a 
single  character,  constant  and  persistent,  we  have 
been  able  to  re-unite  many  populations  which 

Fio.  70. — Ovoid  face,  Italy.     Eurafrican 
species  (Sergi). 

appeared  unlike  in  racial  name  and  in  external 
physical  characters ;  thus  we  have  reconstituted  the 
species.  The  introduction  of  another  character,  i.e. 
pigmentation,  enables  us  to  make  a  natural  division 
into  races ;  while  a  final  sub-division  is  made  by 
means  of  new  characters  acquired  in  the  different 
regions  inhabited  by  the  same  species.1 

1  Cf.  Ripley,  The  Ractt  of  Europe^  pp.  467  et  set/.,  whcie  the  same 
conclusions  seem  to  be  accepted,  at  least  in  part. 



T/ie  Eurasiatic  Species. — The  anthropological  unity 
of  Europe,  existing  from  the  late  quaternary  epoch 
and  greatly  increased  during  neolithic  times,  was 
broken,  at  first  peacefully  and  to  but  a  slight  extent, 
and  afterwards  violently,  by  a  new  species  coming 
from  Asia.  As  we  have  already  found,  at  the  end  of 
the  neolithic  epoch  the  burial-places  reveal  elements 

FIG.  71.— Triangular  face.     Eurafrican 
species  (Sergi). 

foreign  to  the  Eurafrican  species,  the  so-called  French 
neolithic  brachycephals.  These  penetrated,  slowly 
and  sporadically,  as  far  as  Italy,  peacefully,  we  may 
suppose,  for  they  produced  no  change  in  neolithic 
customs,  and  they  accepted  the  burial  custom  of 
inhumation.  But  then. they  began  to  come  in  larger 
and  hence  more  turbulent  bodies,  and  caused  many 
changes  both  in  the  anthropological  distribution  of 

TI1K    KUKASIATIC  Sl'ECli  263 

populations  and  in  customs.  These  invaders  were' 
savages,  inferior  to  the  neolithic  Europeans,  whose 
civilisation  they  in  large  part  destroyed,  re-plunging 
Europe  into  barbarism,  also  introducing  the  new  burial/ 
custom  of  cremation,  together  with  other  customs 
which  it  is  not  necessary  to  investigate  here,  ancj 
transforming  the  existing  languages  into  their  own, 
which  was  a  flexional  language.  To-day  this  new  \ 
anthropological  family,  which  also  constitutes  a 
zoological  unit,  bears  three  chief  names,  indicating 
three  characteristic  linguistic  groups — that  is  to  say, 
Celts.  Germans,  and  Slays. 

The  physical  characters  of  the  new  people  arc 
visible  in  their  cranial  and  facial  forms,  which  are 
those  of  the  neolithic  brachycephals.  In  various 
writings  I  have  dealt  with  this  people; l  it  is  sufficient 
to  mention  here  that  the  skull  shows  four  primary 
forms:  cuboid,  cuneiform  or  sphenoid,  spheroid,  and 
platycephalic,  all  corresponding  to  broad,  brachy- 
cephalic  skulls,  and  not  reducible  to  Eurafrican  forms. 
According  to  my  criterion,  these  forms  are  varieties 
of  an  anthropological  species,  which  must  be  regarded 
as  arising  in  Asia,  where  we  may  suppose  it  had  its 
cradle.  I  term  it  the  Eurasiatic  species,  because, 
since  the  invasions  just  mentioned,  it  has  occupied 
a  large  part  of  Europe.  Others,  with  Linnzeus,  have 
termed  these  Asiatics  Homo  Alpinns;  it  seems  to  me 
erroneous,  however,  to  preserve  this  name,  for  these 
people  are  not  only  found  in  the  Alps  but  they  are 
also  found  in  Germany  and  France,  and  they  occupy 
the  plains  of  Russia,  that  is  to  say  a  great  part  of 
Central  Europe  from  cast  to  west,  as  well  as  the 
valley  of  the  Po,  which  is  anything  but  Alpine, 

1  See,  e.g. ,  Specie  e  Varied  Umane. 



I  am  convinced  that  this  Eurasiatic  species  is  of 
Asiatic  origin;  since  Ujfalvy  has  found  in  the  Hindu- 
Kusch  the  same  types  that  are  found  in  Europe;1 
and  since  their  cephalic  forms  are  all  Asiatic,  and 
are  found  not  only  among  the  so-called  Aryans  of 

FIG.  72  — Dolicho-ovoid  face,  German,  Reihengriilicr  type. 
Eurafrican  species  (Von  Holder). 

the  Hindu-Kusch,  but  among  the  Mongols  and  others. 
I  am  also  convinced  that  this  Eurasiatic  species  has 
yielded   those   populations-  called  Aryan,  and  to-day 
\    represented    by  three   chief  branches,  the  Celts,  the 

1  L*s  Aryem  au  nord  et  au  sud  de  P  f/imioti- /Conch,  Paris,   1896; 
Kipley,  Kates  of  Europe,  pp.  470  et  sftj. 

TIIK    EURASIA!  1C    SPKCI  265 

Germans,  and  the  Slavs;  while  the  populations,  out- 
side these  three  branches,  which  have  been  called 
Aryan  on  linguistic  grounds,  i.e.,  the  Latins, 
Hellenes,  and  Germans  of  the  Reihcngrabcr  type, 
are  not  Aryans,  though  Aryaniscd  in  language.  I 
am,  finally,  convinced  that  these  Aryans  when  they 
invaded  Europe  were  savages,  very  inferior  in 
civilisation  to  the  neolithic  Eurafricans,  and  that 
hence  they  were  not  the  importers  of  a  new  and 
superior  civilisation,  as  has  been  stated  by  those  who 
were  in  ignorance  of  the  real  facts. 

This  is  not  the  place  to  speak  at  length  of  the 
Kurasiatics;  on  another  occasion  I  propose  to  deal 
with  their  physical  characters  and  their  primitive 



Architecture  of  Tombs — Culture —  Writing — Language. 

Architecture  of  Tombs. — The  burial  customs  of  ancient 
and  modern  peoples  not  only  present  a  curious  study, 
but  they  furnish  indications  of  the  ideas  and  feel- 
ings which  peoples  have  cherished  regarding  human 
existence.  There  are  two  forms  of  burial  which  may 
be  said  to  be  universal:  the  preservation  of  the  dead 
by  various  methods,  and  their  destruction  by  fire  or 
other  means.  It  often  happens  that  a  burial  custom 
may  serve  to  indicate  a  stock;  sometimes  it  supplies 
important  evidence  of  the  presence  or  dominance  of 
some  other  stock,  and  at  times  it  is  difficult  to  dis- 
tinguish the  effects  of  the  mixture  ot  stocks.  In  the 
Mediterranean  stock  the  primitive  funeral  custom, 
preserved  unchanged  in  many  regions,  is  the  preserva- 
tion of  \human  remains  by  inhumation;  the  tomb,  in 
its  architecture,  shows  special  features  peculiar  to  this 
stock,  in  all  the  regions  where  it  is  diffused  and 
established,  although  apparently  there  are  differences 
in  the  external  constructions  of  the  graves  which  at 
first  sight  would  give  the  impression  of  varying 

The  dominant  feature  in  the  tombs  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean stock  is  to  be  found  in  the  fact  that  the  dead 


were  deposited  in  more  or  less  spacious  chambers, 
whether  natural,  like  grottoes  and  caves,  or  artificial, 
and  in  the  further  fact — which  seems,  but  is  not, 
accessory — that  the  tombs  emerged  above  the  surface 
and  assumed  a  peculiar  form.  The  grotto  or  cave, 
if  natural,  is  found  in  mountains;  may 
either  be  in  mountains  or  beneath  the  surface  in  level 
country,  but  in  the  latter  case  an  artificial  mound  of 
earth  or  stones,  or  both  mixed,  may  be  raised  over  it 

Flfl.  73. —  Dolichocephalic  Frenchmen  of  Dordognc. 
species  (Collignon). 

The  grottoes  may  contain  more  than  one  individual, 
even  several  families,  and  the  corpses  may  be  deposited 
there  at  different  periods. 

Sometimes,  however,  it  is  not  possible  to  excavate 
artificial  grottoes  on  account  of  the  nature  of  the  soil, 
and  then  they  arc  constructed  with  huge  stones 
according  to  the  greater  or  less  facilities  possessed, 
and  the  more  or  less  favourable  conditions  of  the 
district  A  subterranean  grotto  may  thus  be  con- 
structed with  stones,  above  or  beneath  the  soil,  and 


possessing  pillars  to  support  the  artificial  roof.  If 
over  these  constructions  earth  is  piled  and  a  mound 
raised,  we  have  tumuli,  long  or  circular,  with  a  cone 
or  rounded,  or  we  have  dolmens,  which  are  chambers 
covered  by  great  slabs  of  stone,  and  we  have  more 
perfect  constructions  made  with  worked  stones. 

Now  any  one  who,  in  the  light  of  this  primitive 
conception,  considers  the  ancient  burying-places  from 
Asia  Minor  to  Egypt,  from  Libya  to  the  Atlantic, 
from  Greece  to  Italy  and  its  islands,  from  the  Iberian 
peninsula  to  Great  Britain,  in  Central  Europe  and 
in  Russia,  will  find  throughout  the  apparent  diver- 
sity of  architecture  the  same  essential  feature:  the 
chambered  tomb  (of  varying  size)  in  which  the  corpse 
lies,  without  being  covered  by  earth. 

In  the  Ligurian  Riviera,  the  Ligurians  are  buried 
in  natural  chambers,  as  also  in  Vczere  in  France 
where  is  found  that  branch  of  the  Mediterranean 
family  called  Cro-Magnon  from  the  cave  in  which 
their  ancient  remains  were  found.  This  cave,  it  is 
known,  with  others,  including  those  with  Ligurian 
remains,  are  probably  of  quaternary  age.  In  the 
Iberian  peninsula  natural  grottoes  are  employed  as 
graves,  while  artificial  grottoes  are  also  excavated 
beneath  the  surface,  similar  to  those  at  Syracuse  and 
Palermo  in  Sicily.  In  the  Balearic  Islands  chambered 
tombs  are  found  beneath  the  surface,  and  are  more 
complex  in  their  internal  construction,  as  Cartailhac 
has  shown ;  while  at  Cyprus  Ohnefalsch-Richter  has 
discovered  some  of  the  same  type  as  those  of  the 
Siculi  and  Iberians.  Throughout  Northern  Africa  are 
found  dolmens  and  sepulchral  tumuli  like  those  of 
France,  Britain,  and  Corsica,  and  in  Russia  the  early 
kunrans  have  the  same  character. 


The  most  artistic  tombs  arc  found  in  Asia  Minor, 
ulu-rc  they  arc  excavated  in  the  mountains;  a  I 
celebrated  example  is  that  in  Lydia  described  by 
Herodotus,  the  tomb  of  Alyattcs,  which  must  have 
been  an  artistic  pyramid.  Greece  has  the  treasure  of 
Atreus  in  Myccnas,  Sardinia  its  numerous  monuments, 
regarded  as  mysterious,  and  Egypt  has  its  pyramids, 
the  grandest  sepulchral  tumuli  which  a  people  has 
ever  erected.  To  a  careful  observer  the  interior  of 
a  pyramid,  as  a  sepulchre,  is  not  different  from 
a  British  tumulus,  or  from  a  Russian  kurgan,  or 
from  the  nurags  or  the  dolmens  or  the  artificial 
grottoes  of  Spain  and  Sicily;  the  differences  arc 
according  as  there  is  more  or  less  subterranean  space, 
as  the  art  is  rough  and  primitive  or  more  advanced 
and  perfected.  The  exterior,  it  is  fairly  obvious,  is 
different;  but  a  tumulus  is  a  pyramid  in  embryo,  and 
the  pyramid  is  a  tumulus  in  its  most  magnificently 
colossal  form;  it  is,  moreover,  well  known  that  the 
pyramids  developed  out  of  more  modest  modes  of 
burial.  If  this  were  the  proper  place  for  such  an 
exposition,  I  could  show  that  the  Etruscan  chambered 
tomb  belongs  to  the  same  type  as  the  Egyptian 
pyramids  and  the  tumuli,  and  that  the  paintings  and 
scenes  from  real  life  in  the  Etruscan  tombs  arc 
comparable  to  those  of  the  pyramids. 

Thus,  wherever  the  Mediterranean  stock  established 
itself,  it  preserve.!  its  primitive  burial  custom  of  in- 
humation and  the  characteristic  architecture  of  the 
chambered  tomb  ;  the  varying  exterior  which  renders 
the  tombs  of  some  regions  different,  depends  on  local 
conditions,  more  especially  the  nature  of  the  soil,  and 
also  on  the  special  circumstances  of  each  particular 
branch  of  the  common  stock,  and  the  various  con- 


dition  of  development  of  its  civilisation  and  political 
power,  the  influences  which  it  had  undergone  in 
contact  with  other  nations.  When,  later  on,  various 
branches  of  the  Mediterranean  stock  were  conquered 
by  that  Eurasiatic  stock  which  has  been  called  proto- 
Celtic,  or  by  some  other  Eurasiatic  branch;  or  when 
the  new  stock  only  came  into  relation  with  the  Medi- 

FlG.  74. — Islander  of  Lewis  (Hebrides),  Northern  Race. 
Eurafrican  species  (Bed doe). 

terranean  stock,  the  influences  were  reciprocal  and 
a  noteworthy  phenomenon  may  be  observed.  The 
conquerors,  as  may  be  seen  in  the  English  tumuli, 
adopted  the  funeral  custom  existing  among  the  con- 
quered, the  tumuli  and  the  dolmens,  but  to  some 
extent  they  at  the  same  time  introduced  crema- 
tion. Where  the  contact  of  the  two  stocks  was 
effected  without  violence  each  preserved  its  own 



custom  ;  in  the  terramare  of  the  Po  cremation  is 
practised  by  the  inhabitants,  and  the  tombs  are  of 
very  poor  character,  while  in  the  same  valley  of  the 
Po  the  Ligurians,  where  they  still  exist,  preserved  the 
burial  type  of  the  stock  to  which  they  belonged, 
adopting  cremation  also,  perhaps  from  the  Eurasiatic 

FIG.  75. — Anglian  type,  common  in  north  and  north-east  of 
England.     Eurafrican  specie*,  Northern  Race  (Beddoe). 

peoples.1  But  in  the  more  advanced  stage  of  the 
bronze  age  in  Italy,  as  at  Villanova,  where  the  same 
type  of  civilisation  is  found,  cremation  is  the  accepted 
funeral  rite.  These  sepulchres  are  attributed  to  the 
Umbrians  or  to  the  Italic!,  typically  considered, 

1  Not  from  Italic  influences,  as  supposed  by  Pigorini,  "  I  Lipuri  nelle 
toml*  dclla  prima  eta  del  ferro  di  Golasecca,"  A(tad.   Lined,  Rome, 




both  by  Pigorini,  who  believes  that  these  Italic!  are 
the  people  of  the  terrainare,  and  by  Brizio,  who 
regards  them  as  Indo- Europeans  from  beyond  the 
Alps.  On  my  part,  having  shown  the  unity  of  the 

FIG.  76. — Englishwoman  of  Plymouth  (Devon). 
Eurafrican  species  (Bediloe). 

Mediterranean  stock,  and  hence  the  filiation  of  the 
Italici  to  that  stock,  I  believe  that  at  that  rather  late 
epoch,  this  people,  together  with  the  importation  of 
bronze,  had  also  undergone  the  influences  of  the  new 

CULTURE.  2/3 

civilisation  as  well  as  of  the  new  burial  customs.  The 
same  thing  had  happened  also  in  Greece. 

These  sepulchral  monuments,  therefore  —  tumuli, 
dolmens,  pyramids,  nurags,  the  constructions  of  the 
Balearic  Islands  and  those  of  Pantcllaria,  the  natural 
and  artificial  grottoes  of  the  Mediterranean  region — 
contain  the  bones  of  the  Mediterranean  stock  which, 
from  the  early  days  during  which  it  peopled  the 
Mediterranean  and  a  large  part  of  Europe,  dominated 
the  sea  and  the  land  during  so  long  a  period. 

Culture. — Any  one  who,  while  investigating  Euro- 
pean origins,  encounters  that  epoch  which  French 
ethnologists  have  called,  with  De  Mortillet,  Magda- 
lenian — an  epoch  which  may  be  considered  as  the 
last  European  palaeolithic  period — marvels  to  find 
artistic  products  which  are  wonderful  for  their  realism 
and  their  technical  execution.  The  bear  of  the  grotto 
of  Massat,  near  Toulouse,  the  mammoth  of  La 
Madeleine,  the  reindeer  of  the  grotto  of  Thayingen, 
near  Lake  Constance,  the  horses,  human  figures, 
bisons,  and  other  animals  carved  in  bone  and  horn, 
in  large  part  found  in  Dordogne,  and  finally  the 
carvings  in  relief  found  by  Piette  at  Brassempouy 
and  Mas-d'Azil,  all  show  clearly  the  character  of  the 
ait  at  this  period,  so  ancient  and  so  remote  from 
modern  civilisation.1 

In  my  opinion,  as  already  expressed  elsewhere,2 
these  prehistoric  artists  who  possessed  such  developed 
artistic  feelings  arc  the  precursors  of  the  historical 

1  Cf.  Wilson,  "  Prehistoric  Art ;  ..r,  the  Origin  of  Art  as  manifested 
in  the  work  of  Prehistoric  Man,"  Ktforl  of  Lr.S.  National  .Musduit  for 
/.?</>,  Washing'on,  1898.  In  this  vork,  with  the  aid  of  clear  and 
Itcautiful  illustrations,  all  the  prehistoric  discoveries  «>f  Kurope  ami 
Ainriii M  are  brought  together. 

*  Arii  €  /talifi. 




artists  who  created  the  marvellous  works  of  Egypt, 
Greece,  and  Rome.  And  if  it  is  true,  as  I  have  sought 
to  show,  that  a  stock  coming  from  Africa  was  diffused 
during  quaternary  times  throughout  the  Mediter- 
ranean and  over  all  Europe,  and  that  this  stock,  by 
me  now  classified  as  the  Eurafrican  species,  continued 
its  existence  into  neolithic  times,  and  later  in  the 

FIG.  77. — Norwegian  of  South  Osterdal.     Ceph.  ind.,  70.2. 
-     Northern  race.     Eurafrican  species  (Arlxj). 

successive  ages  of  metal,  it  is  to  this  stock  that  we 
must  attribute  these  artistic  manifestations  which 
were  afterwards  to  assume  such  marvellous  forms  and 
to  reach  their  height  in  the  classic  art  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean. This  conviction  has  grown  within  me  as  I 
have  observed  the  constant  convergence  of  physical 
characters  among  the  primitive  inhabitants  of  these 
regions,  and  belief  in  this  unity  of  the  stock  is  con- 

CULTURE.  275 

finned  by  the  persistent  artistic  tendency  which  it 
has  shown  even  in  epochs  so  remote. 

The  Neolithic  age  presents  a  singular  uniformity, 
from  prehistoric  Egypt  to  Scandinavia,  from  the 
British  Isles  to  the  Black  Sea,  and  throughout  the 
whole  Mediterranean.  This  uniformity  is  chiefly 
shown  in  the  shape  and  ornamentation  of  the  pottery 
and  in  the  working  of  the  stone,  as  well  as  in  the 
curious  mode  of  burying  the  dead,  in  a  doubled-up 
and  crouching  position,  except  in  rare  instances,  and 
in  the  grotto  tombs,  with  chambers  of  more  or  less 
artistic  character,  of  which  I  have  already  spoken. 
Such  uniformity  records  and  confirms  the  anthropo- 
logical uniformity  of  the  various  populations  from 
whom  these  customs  and  this  art  proceeded.  This 
neolithic  uniformity  corrects  in  part  the  discontinuity 
of  the  Magdalcnian  period,  for  at  present  the  mani- 
festations of  that  period  do  not  appear  to  be  so 
continuous  or  so  extended  as  those  of  the  Neolithic 
period.  It  is  reasonable,  however,  to  believe  that  in 
quaternary  times  the  population  was  less  numerous 
and  less  diffused,  and  that  among  some  portions  of 
it  the  artistic  tendency,  which  we  find  so  advanced 
among  other  portions,  had  not  yet  developed. 

Concerning  this  epoch,  so  important  in  the  history 
of  mankind  and  especially  in  the  history  of  the  Eur- 
african  species,  we  possess  to-day  valuable  documents 
in  prehistoric  Egypt  and  in  the  eastern  Mediterranean, 
in  both  which  regions  a  very  archaic  indigenous  civilisa- 
tion appears.  In  fact,  the  discoveries  of  1'ctrie,  of  Amc- 
lincau,  and  of  DC  Morgan  show  that  prehistoric  Egypt 
was  not  influenced  by  any  oriental  civilisation,  as  many 
authors  have  been  inclined  to  believe.  I  have,  however, 
already  dealt  with  this  matter,  and  have  concluded  that 


the  historical  Egyptian  civilisation  is  a  continuation 
and  a  development  of  the  prehistoric,  so  that  there  is 
no  need  to  assume  an  Asiatic  immigration.  Certainly 
we  cannot  absolutely  exclude  all  relations  with  Asia, 
on  account  of  the  proximity  of  Egypt  to  that  region, 
but  the  prehistoric  civilisation  of  Egypt  is  purely 
Libyan,  and  in  comparison  with  contemporary  Euro- 
pean civilisation  very  developed,  as  may  be  seen  by 
its  products  and  by  the  exquisitely  worked  flints. 

If  we  turn  to  the  facts  revealed  at  Cyprus  we  find 
for  the  most  part  a  confirmation  of  the  views  here 
expressed  regarding  the  origins  of  Mediterranean 
civilisation.  And  as  I  have  already  said,  Ohnefalsch- 
Richter's  fresh  explorations  in  this  island  have  lately 
shown  how  ancient  the  civilisation  there  is,  anterior 
to  any  Asiatic  influence,  even  anterior  to  the  corre- 
sponding periods  at  Hissarlik.  He  has  also  affirmed 
the  relationship  of  Cyprus  with  the  Nile  valley,  since 
a  common  civilisation  existed  in  prehistoric  times  and 
an  exchange  of  manufactures.  This  civilisation  is 
not  Asiatic,  but  indigenous  and  very  ancient;  it  may 
be  termed  Afro-Mediterranean. 

Asiatic  influences  came  later,  perhaps  some  thousand 
years  later,  if  the  «first  Cyprus  period,  as  Ohnefalsch- 
Richter  concludes,  is  anterior  to  the  last  Hissarlik 
stratum,  which  stratum,  it  appears  to  me,  cannot  be 
considered  Asiatic,  though  situated  in  the  Troas,  but 
Mediterranean,  since  it  is  exempt  from  Mesopotamian 
and  Hittite  influence  and  common  with  the  primitive 
Mediterranean  civilisation,  that  of  Cyprus  especially, 
so  as  to  lead  Ohnefalsch-Richtcr  and  Myres  to  regard 
it  as  an  importation  from  Cyprus.1 

1  Ohnefalsch-Richter,  "  Xeues  Uber  die  auf  Cypern  Ausgrabungen,'' 
«'';  PP-  39,  353- 

CULTURE.  277 

It  appears  to  me  also  that,  in  the  recesses  of  the 
eastern  Mediterranean,  in  Libyan  Egypt,  in  the 
western  regions  of  Asia  Minor,  as  well  as  in  the 
western  Mediterranean  and  in  Europe  generally  to 
the  north  of  the  great  basin,  the  civilisation  that  we 
call  neolithic,  and  in  its  later  development,  when 
copper  was  used  as  well  as  worked  stone,  seneolithic, 
is  indigenous  and  free  from  Asiatic  influences.  It 
seems  to  me  that  in  this  civilisation  we  see  a  unity 
corresponding  to  that  of  the  Eurafrican  species  which 
possessed  it  and  created  it,  although  indeed  certain 
variations  of  development  and  form  appeared  in 
different  districts,  due  to  biological  as  well  as  to 
regional  causes.  In  Sicily  Orsi  has  discovered  forms 
of  primitive  civilisation  analogous  to  those  of  the 
most  ancient  strata  of  Cyprus  and  Hissarlik,  though 
in  spite  of  the  analogies  there  seemed  something 
special  and  independent  in  the  civilisation  of  the 
island,  possessing  its  own  peculiar  characters.  But 
oriental  importations  soon  reached  the  island,  and 
then  began  imitation. 

By  means  of  the  skulls  exhumed  by  Orsi,  and 
belonging  to  his  first  Siculic  period,  the  yEneolithic 
period,  I  have  been  able  to  show  the  oriental  current 
to  the  west,  especially  in  Sicily,  at  that  remote  epoch. 
Amidst  the  Mediterranean  cranial  forms  I  have  found 
foreign  shapes  which  I  judge  to  be  of  Asiatic  origin, 
chiefly  from  the  region  of  the  Caucasus  and  Armenia.1 

But  while  the  presence  of  Asiatic  heads  in  the 
Mediterranean  proves  relations  with  the  east,  it  can- 
not be  said  to  disprove  the  statement  already  made 
as  to  the  purely  indigenous  nature  of  the  Afro- 
Mediterranean  civilisation.  These  foreign  skulls 

1   "Cranii  preistorici  ilcllu  Sicilia,"  fit. 


merely  show  the  tendencies  of  populations  to  flow 
towards  centres  of  commercial  movement,  and  hence 
to  mingle  and  emigrate  with  those  who  are  leading 
such  movements.  We  may  thus  interpret  the 
presence  of  foreign,  and  especially  Caucasic  and 
Armenian  elements  in  the  west  at  this  remote  period, 
together  with  the  absence  of  the  influence  of  any 
corresponding  Asiatic  civilisation.  This  may  be  seen 
by  the  objects  found,  some  of  them  local  products, 
and  others  imported,  but  always  Mediterranean. 

But  it  was  the  metallic  art,  the  use  of  copper  and 
bronze,  which  was  destined  to  change  the  whole  physi- 
ognomy of  these  ages  and  develop  the  latent  germs  of 
Mediterranean  civilisation.  While  discoveries  in  Egypt 
seem  to  show  that  bronze  was  only  known  there  at 
a  relatively  late  date,  it  is  now  established  that  at 
Cyprus  the  use  of  copper  existed  at  a  very  remote 
period,  anterior,  it  seems,  to  the  last  Hissarlik  period. 
Ohnefalsch-Richtcr  even  doubts  the  existence  of  a 
stone  age  in  Cyprus,  on  account  of  the  very  small 
number  of  flints  yet  found  in  the  island  j1  and  Myres 
also  believes  that  "  the  stone  age  is  apparently  not 
represented  in  Cyprus  as  a  distinct  period  of  long 
duration  ;  "'2  while  copper  and  soon  afterwards  bronze 
are  found  in  abundance.  In  1895  I  had  already 
written  that  "  the  origin  of  the  use  of  metals  in  the 
Mediterranean  may  be  found  in  Cyprus,  the  island  of 
copper ;  thence  its  use  was  diffused  through  other 
Mediterranean  regions,  and  through  the  Black  Sea, 
and  thence  probably  by  the  Danube  into  Hungary."3 

1  Op.  «'/.,  pp.  32,  300. 

1  "  Copper  and  Bronze  in  Cyprus  and  in  South-East  Europe,"  four. 
Aifhrop.  Inst.,  Nov.  1897. 

3  Origins  e  Diffusioiu  de/la  Slirpe  AfeJ:tcrraiiea,  pp.  134-5. 

<  n.TUki-:.  279 

To-day  the  fact  that  Cyprus  was  the  centre  of  diffu- 
sion of  copper  and  then  of  bronze  throughout  the 
Mediterranean  and  Europe  generally,  seems  confirmed 
by  new  discoveries,  and  by  explorers  like  Ohncfalsch- 
Richter  and  Myrcs,  who  have  been  able  to  show  the 
contemporaneous  existence,  at  least  in  part,  of  the 
copper  age  in  Cyprus  with  the  late  neolithic  period 
in  other  regions ;  as  likewise  it  seems  to  be  shown 
that  the  primitive  types  ot  axes  came  from  this  island, 
and  were  diffused  throughout  the  Mediterranean  and 

The  civilisation  which  I  have  termed  Afro-Mediter- 
ranean, and  which  might  perhaps  be  better  called 
indigenous  A  fro- European,  was  succeeded  by  more 
or  less  powerful  Asiatic  influences,  until  ue  reach  a 
new  type  of  civilisation  characterised  by  the  art  and 
architecture  of  the  city  and  the  acropolis,  the  so- 
called  Mycenaean  or  ./Egean  civilisation. 

To  realise  the  oriental  characters  in  Mycenaean 
art  it  is  sufficient  to  observe  the  golden  model  of  a 
temple,  found  in  the  fourth  sepulchre  of  Mycenae,  the 
siege  scene  on  a  silver  vase  recalling  similar  if  not 
identical  representations  in  Nineveh  and  Babylon,  the 
lion  hunt  on  a  bronze  blade,  certain  steles  with  reliefs 
representing  a  chariot  drawn  by  a  horse,  many  gem 
intaglios,  and  very  many  productions  in  gold  and 
silver.5  I  am  therefore  surprised  to  find  Flinders 
Petrie,  one  of  the  best  authorities  on  the  eastern 
Mediterranean,  stating  that  "  the  whole  of  the  early 
civilisation  of  the  Peloponnesus,  commonly  now 

1  Op.  tit. 

-  Schlicmann,  Afyken*,  Ixindon,  1888;  Tsountas  and  Manatt,  Tkt 
Mytenean  Age,  I»ndon,  1897;  Hall.hcrr  and  Orsi,  Anti(ki(A  del? 
ant  to  i/i  Zeus  Idco,  Florence,  1888. 


known  as  the  '  Mykcnajan  period,'  is  a  branch  of  the 
civilisation  of  the  bronze  age  in  Europe,  which  had 
but  little  contact  with  the  East.  Gaul,  Hungary, 
Italy,  Greece,  and  Libya  all  enjoyed  a  simultaneous 
civilisation  which  brought  these  countries  far  more 
into  contact  with  one  another  than  with  the  Asiatic 
lands  which  played  so  great  a  part  in  the  later-Greece 

Nor  can  we  attribute  any  value  to  the  argument  of 
Tsountas  regarding  the  supposed  northern  origin  of 
the  Mycenxans.  Two  of  these  arguments  have  been 
sufficiently  answered  by  Dorpfeld,  I  refer  to  the  form 
of  the  roofs  of  the  Mycenaean  houses  which  Tsountas 
supposes  to  be  gable  roofs,  and  to  the  basements  of 
the  houses  which,  he  considers,  resemble  those  of 
the  pile  huts,  both  constructions  by  him  regarded  as 
peculiar  to  northern  countries.  The  comparison  with 
the  terramare  of  the  Po  valley,  as  interpreted  by 
Pigorini,  is  still  more  fallacious  and  erroneous,  as  I 
have  shown  at  length  elsewhere.2 

The  opinion  of  Reinach  on  this  matter,  though 
brilliantly  set  forth  in  his  "Mirage  Oriental,"3  scarcely 
seems  to  me  worth  discussion.  I  dealt  with  it  in  the 
Italian  edition  of  this  work,  but  I  now  consider  it 
unnecessary  to  do  so,  since  he  has  found  no  followers, 
and  his  conclusions  are  indeed  contrary  to  the  evident 
nature  of  the  facts. 

For  Montelius  the  Mycetiicans  are  the  Tyrrhenians 
and  Pelasgians  of  Asia  Minor,  since,  he  writes,  "  it  is 
evident  that  the  Mycensean  civilisation  in  Greece  is 

1  "The  Egyptian  Bases  of  Greek  History,"  Journal  of  Hellenic 
Studies,  xi.,  1890. 

1  Tsountas  and  Manalt,  cit.,  pp.  xxvii.,  xxix.,  xxx.,  70,  325;  chs. 
iv. ,  vi.,  xiv. ;  Sergi,  Arii  c  Italici,  cap.  ii. 

9  L'Ant/iroJtologie,  1893. 

CULTURE.  28l 

due  not  only  to  an  influence  from  another  country, 
but  to  immigration  of  a  new  people.  That  this 
people — or  at  least  the  great  majority  of  the  immi- 
grants— cnmc  from  Asia  Minor  is  proved  by  the  im- 
portant fact,  which,  however,  has  not  been  sufficiently 
noticed,  that  the  Mycenaean  tombs  are  of  the  same 
kind  as  those  common  in  Asia  Minor.  .  .  .  The  lions 
on  the  famous  gate  of  Mycenae  and  numerous  other 
objects  point  also  in  the  direction  of  Asia  Minor, 
because  similar  remains  have  been  discovered  there, 
but  do  not  exist  in  Phoenicia  or  Egypt."1  He  also 
believes,  as  I  have  already  remarked,  that  the  Tyr- 
rhenians who  came  to  Italy,  or  the  Ktruscans,  were 
Pelasgians  emigrating  from  Greece,  united  with  re- 
lated peoples  from  Asia  Minor. 

Ohnefalsch-Richter  considers  that  Arcadians,  La- 
conians,  Pelasgo-Tyrrhenians,  Lycians,  all  took  part 
in  Mycenaean  civilisation.2  I  am  not  prepared  to 
deny  this,  and  would  only  remark  that  it  is  hypo- 
thetical ;  it  is  possible,  even  natural,  that  many  racial 
elements  should  have  assisted  in  the  formation  and 
expansion  of  Mycenaean  civilisation,  but  it  is  difficult 
to  determine  with  precision  what  these  elements  and 
their  national  names  were.  However  this  may  have 
been,  all  these  racial  elements  belonged  to  the 
Mediterranean  stock,  as  localised  portions  in  different 
regions  with  different  names,  and  my  conviction  is 
that  they  belonged  to  the  Pelasgian  branch,  for  this 
branch  from  prehistoric  times  occupied,  as  I  have 
already  pointed  out,  the  east  of  the  basin,  includ- 
ing Asia  Minor,  the  /Kgcan  Sea,  and  the  Greek 

1  "The  Tyrrhenians  in  Greece  and  Italy,"  tit. 
J  Of.  (it.,  pp.  356-365. 


It  is  very  probable,  therefore,  that  the  eastern 
importers  of  Mycenaean  civilisation  were  the  Pelasgo- 
Tyrrhenians,  as  Montelius  supposes,  united  with 
other  related  peoples  having  no  prominent  racial 
names.  As  we  have  already  seen,  the  Asiatic  immi- 
grants, Pelasgians  or  Pelasgo-Tyrrhenians,  were  not 
anthropologically  foreign  to  the  Mediterranean  stock, 
nor  to  the  primitive  inhabitants  of  the  yEgean  islands 
and  the  Peloponnesus,  who  were  likewise  Pelasgians. 
These  already  possessed  a  pre-Mycenaean  civilisation 
in  common  with  the  Mediterranean  or  Afro-Mediter- 
ranean civilisation,  and  received  from  the  new  immi- 
grants new  elements  of  Pelasgic  civilisation  trans- 
formed and  evolved  under  Asiatic  influences,  probably 
Mesopotamian  and  Hittite. 

We  then  meet  with  a  phenomenon  which  it  is 
important  to  note,  and  that  is  that  this  so-called 
Mycenaean  civilisation  in  the  JEgcan  preserved  many 
of  its  oriental  characters,  so  as  to  render  its  imme- 
diate derivation  obvious,  but  when  it  spread  towards 
the  west  and  the  north,  in  the  Mediterranean  and  in 
Continental  Europe,  it  began  to  lose  many  of  these 
characters  and  to  acquire  others  peculiar  to  the  popu- 
lations which  adopted  it ;  the  oriental  character  thus 
diminished  togeth'er  with  distance  from  the  centre  of 
propagation.  As  the  Mycenaean  civilisation  spread 
in  Italy  and  Spain  its  eastern  character  became 
attenuated,  and  still  more  as  it  spread  through 
Central  and  Northern  Europe. 

This  is  natural,  since  every  people  receives  germs 
from  other  regions  but  develops  them,  imitating  an 
art  according  to  its  own  disposition  and  earlier  condi- 
tions, and  thus  gives  a  special  physiognomy  to  a 
product  imported  from  another  place.  Many  forms 

CULTUUK.  283 

and  many  artistic  motives  arc  preserved  in  such  a 
migration,  but  they  no  longer  retain  their  original 

Sicily  offers  an  illustration  of  this  statement. 
Mycenaean  civilisation  penetrated  there,  as  Orsi  has 
well  shown ;  and  a  superficial  observation  of  the 
vases,  bronzes,  and  other  objects  from  Orsi's  first 
Siculic  period  reveals  the  Mycenaean  character  of 
many  products.  But  these  only  represent  a  part  of 
the  entire  products  which  have  very  marked  local 
characters,  not  to  be  confounded  with  those  of  the 
typical  Mycenaean  or  any  other  products.  A  local 
centre  of  production  existed,  and  to  this  the  My- 
cenaean importation  was  added,  as  well  as  imitated 
with  more  or  less  success.  Nor  is  this  the  only 
fact  that  we  observe  in  Sicily  ;  the  artistic  wealth 
which  we  admire  at  Mycenae,  at  Tiryns,  at  Crete,  and 
wherever  else  Mycenaean  culture  is  found,  only  exists 
as  a  mere  shadow  in  Sicily,  which  seems  to  repre- 
sent, as  it  were,  the.  dusk  of  the  great  light  from  the 
./Cgean,  whether  from  lack  of  mineral  resources  or 
from  some  other  cause. 

There  is,  however,  one  fact  which  at  first  seems  sur- 
prising, the  presence,  that  is,  of  objects  of  Myccna-an 
character  in  the  first  Siculic  period,  which  is  an 
it-neolithic  period.  1  may  refer  to  the  two  stones 
which  serve  to  close  the  tombs,  with  spiral  orna- 
mentation which  is  crude  but  of  exactly  the  same 
type  as  the  Mycenaean  ornamentation,1  as  well  as  to 
other  imported  or  imitated  objects  (Fig.  86).  It 
is  surprising  because  the  Mediterranean  aeneolithic 
period  is  more  ancient  than  the  Mycenaean  period, 

1  Cf.  Schliomann,  Afycettir,  fiys  145-157;  Otsi,  "La  Nccropoli  di 
Caatclluccio,"  Bull.  Falet,  Ila.'iana,  xvii.,  1872.  p.  8j,  I'lalc  VI. 



and  the  explanation  seems  to  be  that  in  Sicily  the 
anieolithic  period  lasted  on  until  the  Mycenaean 
period  reached  this  district. 

It  is  in  the  second  Siculic  period  that  we  find  the 

FIG.  78.— Grave-stone  from  the  Siculic  Necropolis  of 
Castelluccio  (Orsi). 

most  marked  Mycenaean  influences,  with  the  fine 
bronze  swords  and  characteristic  fibulae.  Thus  it 
seems  to  me  that  what  Orsi  calls  the  second  Siculic 
period  is  really  the  period  in  which  Mycenaean  civili- 

CULTURE.  285 

sation  is  most  evident  and  abundant,  although  products 
of  Siculic  character  neither  disappear  nor  diminish,  as 
is  clearly  visible  in  the  pottery,  which,  however,  as 
Orsi  shows,  presents  different  characters  in  the  two 

I  have  been  led  to  these  conclusions  by  a  recent 
visit  to  the  Archaeological  Museum  at  Syracuse, 
which  may  be  read  like  a  book  written  in  clear 
characters  on  account  of  the  admirable  arrangement 
and  order  which  has  been  introduced  by  the  dis- 
tinguished director,  Professor  Orsi,  as  also  in  conse- 
quence of  the  demonstration  which  he  himself  has 
courteously  given  me. 

It  is,  however,  in  Italy  and  the  Iberian  peninsula 
that  Mycenaean  culture  seems  to  me  to  receive  its 
western  explanation.  While  in  the  southernmost 
part  of  the  Italian  peninsula  we  meet  with  a 
civilisation  very  similar  to  the 'Siculic,2  in  the  central 
portions,  from  Latium  towards  Ktruria,  and  in 
Umbria  and  the  valley  of  the  Po,  especially  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Bologna,  we  find  a  culture  the 
origin  of  which  has  given  occasion  to  various  in- 

Thus,  as  I  have  pointed  out  in  my  A  n't  e 
Italici,  we  have  three  types  of  culture :  one  primitive 
and  very  ancient,  the  neolithic  and  amcolithic — i.e., 
the  Afro-Mediterranean,  now  conscientiously  and 
accurately  studied  by  Colini  ;s  a  second  which  is 
divisible  into  two  periods,  that  of  pure  bronze  and 

1  "  I.a  Nccropoli  cli  Licodia  Eubea,"  Bull,  fns.'i'ufo  Gtrm.,  vol. 
xiii.,  1898,  pp.  347  el  st,j. 

•  r.itrnni,  "  I'M  Villaggio  Siculo  presso  Matcra  ncll'  antica  Apulia,'' 
Monumenti  Antithi,  A'.  ./...;/.  /.ftifei,  Rome,  1898. 

*  //  Sefolcrelo  di  Rtmedelto-iotto  net  />/ tifiano  e  il  ftriodo  entjhli.o 
in  Italia,  Parle  I.,  Rome,  1899. 


that  of  the  first  iron  age  ;  a  third  which  may  be 
termed  more  particularly  Etruscan. 

In  the  first  burial  is  by  inhumation  in  natural  and 
artificial  grottoes,  or  in  the  absence  of  these  the 
corpse  is  buried  in  the  doubled-up  position,  as 
observed  in  Sicily  and  elsewhere  in  the  Mediter- 
ranean. This  culture  is  indigenous  to  the  Mediter- 
ranean without  any  Asiatic  influence,  but  revealing 
the  influence  of  the  culture  of  the  eastern  Mediter- 
ranean, since  copper  could  only  have  been  imported 
from  Cyprus. 

In  the  second  period,  including  the  bronze  age  and 
the  early  iron  age,  burial  is  by  incineration,  a  funeral 
custom  which  I  hold  to  be  of  absolutely  Aryan 
origin,  as  shown  by  its  presence  in  the  whole  Po 
valley,  in  the  terremare  of  the  bronze  age,  and  in 
the  well  tombs  of  Villanova,  of  Certosa,  of  Bologna, 
in  Etruria,  and  part  of  Latium.  But  this  culture, 
whether  of  pure  bronze,  or  of  bronze  with  the  first 
indications  of  iron,  as  found  at  Villanova  and  Vetu- 
lonia,  is  an  importation  from  the  eastern  Mediter- 
ranean, with  influences  from  that  Asiatic  culture  which 
had  now  become  Mycenaean  civilisation. 

The  third  or  Etruscan  form  of  culture  is  sub- 
stantially the  same  as  the  second  ;  but  while  the 
second  is  more  ancient,  though  it  has  already  under- 
gone a  transformation,  as  already  pointed  out,  losing 
in  part  its  Asiatic  colouring,  so  well  and  clearly 
preserved  in  the  Mycenaean  of  the  .digean,  the  third 
is  a  direct  Etruscan  or  Tyrrhenian  importation,  pre- 
serving better  than  the  second  its  eastern  character, 
though  to  a  less  degree  than  the  original  Mycenaean 
or  Asiatic. 

This  may  be  explained  by  the  fact  that  while  in 

CULTURE.  287 

Adriatic  Umbria  we  do  not  know,  except  by  tradition, 
of  any  Pclasgian  colonies,  and  hence  the  culture  was 
imported  in  the  form  of  commercial  products  and  then 
imitated,  in  Etruria,  whatever  may  be  said  to  th2 
contrary,  we  possess  the  certainty  that  an  oriental 
colony  has  preserved  much  of  the  original  culture. 
And  while  in  the  civilisation  anterior  to  the  Etruscan 
period  the  funeral  custom  of  incineration  dominated, 
since  Aryan  influences  prevailed  and  the  culture  was 
of  Mycenasan  origin,  in  the  Etruscan  period  Aryan 
domination  had  departed,  giving  place  in  the  greater 
part  of  Italy  north  and  south  of  Etruria  to  Etruscan 
influence;  we  hence  find  a  return  to  the  ancient  custom 
of  inhumation  peculiar  to  the  Mediterranean  stock. 

Certainly  archaeologists  have  had  a  difficulty  in 
recognising  the  eastern  origin  of  the  Villanova  and 
Etruscan  civilisation  on  account  of  the  loss  or 
diminution  of  oriental  characters  in  the  passage 
towards  the  west,  where  new  local  centres  of  culture 
were  created,  beginning  naturally  with  the  imitation 
of  importations.  This  phenomenon  may  be  observed 
elsewhere,  in  central  and  northern  Europe,  as  I  shall 
have  to  point  out,  where  the  discrepancy  is  greater 
since  the  importation  is  indirect  and  comes  from  the 

The  signs  are  so  evident,  however,  that  Pigorini 
himself,  who  persists  in  associating  with  the  tcrramare 
an  Italico-Aryan  population  and  a  northern  culture, 
has  been  forced  to  recognise  the  relations  between 
these  old  stations  and  the  ./Egcan,  though  he  regards 
these  relations  as  late,  a  superposition  of  Mycenaean 
culture  over  a  terramarc  culture  of  other  and  more 
ancient  origin,1  in  opposition  to  Orsi  and  Peterscn, 

1  ftnll.  a'i  /'jftttin.  /fa/.,  vol.  xx.,  p.  173;   xxiii.,  p   85. 


who  admit  an  intimate  relationship  between  the 
ALgcan  and  the  Italic  culture  of  the  ten-aware  and 
of  Villanova.1 

It  is  difficult  to  recognise  this  fact  in  the  culture  of 
the  early  iron  age  in  Italy,  still  more  difficult  to 
recognise  the  similarity,  in  some  cases  even  the 
identity,  between  the  bronze  terramare  products  and 
the  Mycenaean  ;  it  is  so  difficult  that  even  yet  it  is 
denied.  To-day,  however,  after  the  detailed  investi- 
gation, especially  by  Montelius,  of  the  products  in 
question,  as  well  as  by  such  comparisons  as  those 
made  by  Orsi,  I  believe  that  there  is  no  longer  any 
room  for  doubt.2 

It  is  probable,  as  I  have  already  said,  that  in  its 
introduction  into  upper  Italy,  this  culture  followed 
two  roads,  one  by  sea,  and  the  other  along  the 
Danube  and  over  the  Alps.  This  would  also  ex- 
plain the  later  expansion  of  the  Hallstalt  culture 
to  Watsch,  to  the  whole  of  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina, 
and  to  the  extended  zone  which  I  have  elsewhere 
described.3  The  explanation  of  the  variations  which 
we  may  find  is  to  be  sought  in  local  conditions,  the 
products  being  imitated  and  hence  varied  with  greater 
freedom  by  the  artist 

Let  us  now,  however,  turn  to  the  Iberian  peninsula, 

1  Petersen,  "  Comparazione  fra  le  antichiti  italiche  e  le  egeo- 
micenee,"  Bull.,  fit.,  xxiii.,  p.  81.  Orsi  finds  everywhere  that  the 
bronzes,  swords,  daggers,  and  other  objects  are  of  AFyceiiiran- 
ter ram are  form. 

-  The  discovery  of  tombs  showing  incineration  in  Apulia  and  near 
Taranto,  in  which  were  found  bronze  objects  like  those  of  the  terra- 
mare  of  the  Po  valley,  and  which  have  improperly  been  called  terra- 
mare,  by  no  means  invalidates  my  conclusions.  It  is  quite  possible 
that  Eurasiatic  tribes  of  the  proto-Slavonic  branch  reached  Apulia  by 
sea  from  the  opposite  side  of  the  Adriatic. 

3  Arii  e  Ilalici,  p.  145,  fig.  38. 

CULTURE.  289 

where,  in  the  now  celebrated  discoveries  in  south-east 
Spain,  we  have  revealed  to  us  a  rich  and  wonderful 
culture.  Here  also  there  are  clear  and  evident  indi- 
cations of  Mycenaean  influence,  together  with  local 
production,1  which  at  once  gives  rise  to  the  idea  that 
oriental  imports  have  awakened  a  latent  activity,  and 
that  the  fortunate  geological  conditions  of  the 
peninsula,  rich  in  metals,  have  caused  the  artistic 
production  to  rise  easily  to  a  level  higher  than  that 
of  Sicily,  which  is  poor  in  metals.  Nor  is  it  unreason- 
able to  believe,  with  Orsi,  that  many  Iberian  products 
have  reached  Sicily,  and  that  this  island  has  thus 
been  affected  not  only  by  direct  Mycenaean  influence 
but  by  a  reflux  and  transmuted  Mycenaean  wave  of 
Iberian  character.2 

After  Reinach's  strange  suppositions,  however,  a 
master-hand  like  that  of  Montelius  was  needed  in 
order  to  delineate  the  movement  of  south-eastern 
culture  towards  western  and  northern  Europe.  On 
the  basis  of  a  special  examination  of  copper  and 
bronze  products,  and  in  part  also  of  pottery,  Montelius 
reaches  the  conclusion  that  the  culture  associated 
with  these  two  metals  —  one  in  the  pure  state  and  the 
other  alloyed  with  tin  —  reached  central  and  northern 
Europe  from  the  Mediterranean.  I  will  quote  his 
own  words:  —  "In  the  countries  to  the  south  of  the 
northern  region,  as  well  as  in  western  Europe,  much 
copper  and  tin  are  found.  In  these  two  districts  the 
influence  of  eastern  culture  is  more  ancient  than  in 
the  north,  and  through  this  influence  a  knowledge 

1  Sirct,  Iss  Premiers  Ages  dit  Mttal  lians  le  snd  '  esl  at 

'*  "  Mink-re  tli  sclce  e  sepolcri  encolitici  a  Monte  Tal»uto  c  Monte- 
raccllo,"  /•'«//.  i'a'ttltn.  //a.'.,  \\iv.,  1898,  p.  200. 




was  acquired  of  the  use  of  the  metal  as  discovered  in 
the  east.     The  northern  region,  during  the  stone  age, 

FIG.  79. — Alphabetiform  signs  from  French  dolmens. 

was  already  in  relation  with  the  east  through  the 
peoples  of  the  south  and  west.  There  were  two 
roads  by  which  the  elements  of  eastern  culture 



reached  the  north.  One,  which  I  call  western, 
followed  the  northern  coasts  of  Africa  as  far  as 
Spain,  and  through  France  and  by  the  British  Islands 
reached  the  shores  of  the  North  Sea,  Germany,  and 
Scandinavia.  The  other,  which  I  call  southern, 
penetrating  the  Balkan  peninsula,  or  coming  by  the 

FIG.  80.  —  A1phal>cliform  signs  from  Mas-d'Azil  (Pietle). 

Adriatic  coast,  passed  along  the  valley  of  the  Danube 
and  continuing  along  German  rivers,  especially  the 
Moldau  and  the  Elbe,  reached  the  northern  sea- 

After  a  scries  of  comparisons,  and  evidence  derived 

1  "  Die  Chronologic  tier  Altcstcn  Bronzenzeit  in  Nord  Dcutschland 
iiml  Skandinavicn,"  Archivfiir  Anthro(>ologitt  xxvi.,  1899,  p.  465. 


from  the  products,  Montelius  thus  concludes:  "All 
this  proves  that  very  soon  an  influence  from  the 
eastern  Mediterranean,  including  Cyprus,  was  exer- 
cised, leading  to  a  knowledge  of  metals  among  the 
peoples  of  the  Balkan  peninsula  and  the  Danube 
valley."  He  insists  also  that,  as  he  had  stated  many 
years  before,  bronze  reached  the  north  from  the 
Mediterranean,  and  not  from  the  Phoenicians,  and 
that  it  was  not  even  imported  by  the  Celts  or  the 
Germans.1  He  believes  that  Italy  has  been  the  centre 
of  diffusion  of  bronze  manufactures,  but  that  at  the 
same  time  there  were  many  local  forms,  of  which, 
however,  the  original  types  may  be  found  in  Italy.2 

From  the  considerations  brought  forward  by 
Montelius, — and  harmonising  with  my  own  conclu- 
sions, as  expressed  on  various  occasions,  regarding 
the  origins  of  Mediterranean  civilisation  and  its 
diffusion, — it  appears  that  there  has  been  a  move- 
ment of  culture  passing  from  one  spot  to  another,  as 
from  a  focus  of  production ;  but,  on  the  other  hand, 
there  appears  to  have  been  as  it  were  the  movement 
of  a  wave  propagated  from  a  centre,  in  such  a 
manner  that  the  waves,  as  they  became  remote  from 
the  centre,  grew  broader  and  less  marked,  until  they 
disappeared,  leaving  only  the  signs  of  movement.  It 
is  thus  that  Mediterranean  culture  appears  after  the 
primitive  Afro-Mediterranean  period,  which  also  had, 
in  part,  more  or  less  definite  centres  of  diffusion.  But 
what  we  call  the  culture  of  metals,  especially  bronze, 
arose  in  the  east,  moved  towards  the  western  Mediter- 
ranean, reaching  continental  Europe  through  various 
currents  from  south  to  north  until  it  arrived  at  the 
British  Isles  on  one  side,  Germany  and  Scandinavia 
1  op.  «'/.,  pp.  480,  489.  2  Op.  dt.,  pp.  506-509. 

CULTURE.  293 

on  the  other,  and  Central  Russia  through  the  Black 

But  if  the  forms  of  Mediterranean  culture  were 
gradually  dispersed  and  lost  through  these  roads  of 
dispersion,  another  important  phenomenon  also  took 
place;  new  kinds  of  production  arose,  especially  under 
favourable  conditions,  leading  to  local  products  which 
departed  wholly  or  in  part  from  the  original  models 
and  from  their  technique.  It  is  on  account  of  this 
phenomenon  that  the  traces  of  the  origins  of  European 
culture  have  often  been  lost 

The  question  finally  arises  :  What  relation  has 
bronze  culture  with  the  peoples  called  Aryan  ?  were 

FIG.  81.  —  Linear  writing  signs  on  clay  vessels  (De  Morgan). 

they  the  importers  of  it  ?  Notwithstanding  that  I 
attempted  to  show,  some  time  ago,  against  the 
prevalent  opinions,  that  the  Aryan  invaders  of 
Europe  were  barbarians  and  savages  and  possessing 
a  culture  inferior  to  that  of  the  neolithic  population, 
I  still  admitted  that  they  were  the  importers  of 
bronze.1  That  view  seemed  to  me  correct,  since,  on 
the  whole,  bronze  appeared  in  Europe  contempo- 
raneously with  the  Aryan  invasion.  Not  being  an 
archaeologist,  I  had  not  been  able  to  examine  the 
shapes  of  such  products,  as  has  been  done  by  com- 
petent authorities  ;  and  seeing  the  distribution  of 

1  Arii  e  /fa/iif,  fi/. 



bronze  in  Europe  always  accompanying  the  distribu- 
tion of  Aryan  culture,  especially  in  the  graves  which 
show  signs  of  cremation,  I  was  led  to  suppose  that 
the  two  were  connected  and  were  both  manifestations 
of  the  same  stock. 

But  the  new  analyses  and  new  facts  bearing  on 
Mediterranean  civilisation  and  its  diffusion,  which  we 

FIG.  82. — Alphabetic  signs  of  the  Mycenaean  epoch  at  Crete  (Evans). 

owe  to  the  labours  of  Ohnefalsch-Richter,  Myres, 
Orsi,  Montelius,  and  others  ;  the  now  better  known 
characters,  moreover,  of  Mycenaean  culture,  which  is 
of  bronze,  having  its  source  in  the  Asiatic  east,  and 
being  diffused  throughout  Europe  by  the  movement 
already  described ;  all  this,  together  with  the  appear- 
ance of  new  centres  of  production  due  to  the  propaga- 



lion  of  Mcditcrranco -Oiicntal  culture,  has  led  me 
naturally  to  the  conclusion  that  it  was  not  the  Aryans 
who  imported  bronze  into  Europe,  as  has  hitherto 
been  so  widely  believed. 

A  coincidence  which  united  the  diffusion  of  the 
metallic  arts  of  Asia  and  of  the  Mediterranean  led  to 
the  supposition  of  a  causal  connection;  just  as  it  led 

Fir..  83. — Comparison  of  alphabctifbrm  signs  (Evans). 

to  the  supposition  that  the  two  great  Mediterranean 
civilisations  of  later  times,  Greek  and  Latin,  were  due 
to  the  Aryans.  Certainly  the  Aryans  profited  by  the 
metals  that  reached  them  from  the  civilisation  they 
were  submerging  by  their  invasion  and  their  barbarism, 
but  they  did  not  contribute  to  improve  the  technique, 
since  they  were  unskilled  in  the  new  art ;  such 


improvements  always  came  to  them  from  Mediter- 
ranean regions. 

I  know  that  this  conclusion  will  be  opposed  by 
those  who  are  crystallised  in  the  old  ideas  arising 
from  the  impressions  produced  by  earlier  researches; 
but  we  need  not  fear ;  the  future  will  illumine  the 
truths  that  are  still  obscure. 

Writing. — To  complete  the  picture  of  Eurafrican 
culture  in  Africa  and  Europe  previous  to  the  Asiatic 
invasion,  which  marks  a  new  epoch,  it  remains  to 
occupy  ourselves  with  the  alphabetiform  linear 
writing,  the  first  indications  of  which  appeared  at  a 
very  early  time,  anterior  to  the  neolithic  period. 

The  alphabetical  characters  of  Libya  and  the 
Canaries  have  long  been  known,  chiefly  through  the 
labours  of  Faidherbe,  but  such  characters,  though 
they  revealed  relationship  to  the  Phoenician,  were  not 
interpreted  in  what  seems  the  most  natural  manner 
since  the  prehistoric  discoveries  in  Egypt,  and  those 
anterior  to  the  neolithic  period  in  Europe. 

Lctourneau,  in  1893,  communicated  to  the  Paris 
Society  of  Anthropology  certain  observations  of  the 
alphabetiform  signs  in  megalithic  inscriptions,  and 
showed  that  many  of  these  signs  resembled  Phoenician 
characters.  He  concluded  : — "  Among  the  signs  im- 
pressed on  the  megaliths  and  on  the  rocks  of  Celtic 
countries,  in  Spain,  in  the  Canaries,  in  Africa,  we  find 
some  which  have  an  undeniable  resemblance  with 
certain  letters  of  the  best  known  ancient  alphabets 
of  African  origin.  The  alphabetiform  characters  of 
the  megaliths  and  rocks  are  still  crude,  badly  arranged 
in  inscriptions  or  isolated,  sometimes  employed  as 
motives  of  decoration.  It  is  impossible  to  say  what 
real  value  we  ought  to  attribute  to  these  characters; 

WRITING.  297 

but  we  seem  to  be  in  presence  of  an  alphabet  in 
course  of  formation,  earlier  than  the  best  known 
ancient  alphabets,  which  all  belong  to  historical 
peoples.  On  the  whole,  these  signs  seem  to  indicate 
that  the  builders  of  our  megalithic  monuments  came 
from  the  south  and  were  related  to  the  races  of  North 

I  have  brought  together  some  of  these  signs  taken 
from  French  dolmens  (Fig.  79). 

A  more  curious  discovery  was,  however,  made  by 
Piette  among  the  remains  of  a  period  earlier  than 
that  of  the  dolmens,  altogether  anterior  to  neolithic 
times;  that  is  to  say  at  the  end  of  the  Magdalenian 
epoch,  in  a  period  of  transition  from  palaeolithic  to 
neolithic  Europe;  he  discovered  at  Mas-d'Azil,  in  the 
south-east  of  France,  in  a  grotto  he  was  excavating, 
many  pebbles  coloured  with  peroxide  of  iron,  and 
showing  alphabetiform  signs,  some  of  them  similar  to 
those  already  found  on  the  dolmens. 

A  specimen  of  these  signs,  from  Piette's  plates,  will 
be  found  in  Fig.  80.  Piette's  investigation  is  of  con- 
siderable importance  and  reveals  a  fact  worthy  of 
careful  attention,  as  he  himself  points  out  when 
making  a  comparison  of  the  signs  from  the  Mas- 
d'Azil  grotto  with  the  Cypriote  and  jEgean  characters 
already  in  use  in  the  Mediterranean  before  the  so- 
called  discovery  of  the  Phoenicians.  He  concludes: — 
"  A  comparative  study  shows  that  nine  of  the  Mas- 
d'Azil  graphic  signs  are  identical  with  characters  in  the 
Cypriote  syllabary:  Kot  mo,  fa,  to,  si,  ve,  sat  //',  fa. 
Eight  of  the  Mas-d'Azil  signs,  of  which  some  are 
also  Cypriote,  form  part  of  the  >Egean  alphabet 
Many  ancient  inscriptions  from  Asia  Minor,  also, 

1  Bull.  Je  fa  Sof.  cTAntk.  de  Paris,  April,  1893. 



especially  from  the  Troad,  present  characters  re- 
sembling the  pictures  from  Mas-d'Azil.  Recognising 
in  the  Cypriote  and  yEgean  alphabets,  or  in  the 


/-x+  rx+ 











LlkYAN  IN- 




H  w 












FIG.  84.  — Comparative  Table  (Evans). 

writing  in  use  in  Asia  Minor  before  the  Trojan  war, 
the  characters  of  Mas-d'Azil,  there  is  ground  for 
believing  either  that  the  invasions  from  the  west  to 
the  east  carried  into  these  regions  at  a  very  ancient 

WRITING.  299 

period  the  writing  used  in  Pyrcnean  districts,  or 
that  the  rudimentary  writing  of  Mas-d'Azil  was  in 
prehistoric  times  the  common  patrimony  of  the 
Mediterranean  littoral  and  the  coasts  of  the  Archi- 
pelago." l 

Putting  aside,  for  the  present,  Piette's  hypotheses 
regarding  the  alphabetical   signs,  it  is  important  to 

D  O 

x      H       ffl(D 




FIG.  85  —  Alphabet  from  the  Canaries  (Vcrneau). 

show  that  many  such  signs  existed  in  neolithic 
Egyptian  times.  Fig.  81  shows  some  of  these  alpha- 
betical signs,  found  incised  in  clay  vessels,  and 
collected  by  De  Morgan,2  which  may  be  compared 

1  "Etudes  d'cthnographie  prx'historiquc,"  1?  Anthropologie,  vii., 
1896,  with  special  atlas  ;  cf.  Bordicr,  "  Origincs  prlhistoriques  de 
IVcrilure,"  Bull.  Sot.  daupkinoiit  d?  ethnographic,  iv.,  Grenoble,  1897. 

•  Ketkenfus  stir  rorigitte  de  fEgyfte,  ii.,  p.  166,  figs.  528-548, 


with  those  discovered  in  the  eastern  Mediterranean 
by  Arthur  Evans,  as  Mycenaean  or  ^Egean,  and  of 
course  pre-Phoenician. 

Arthur  Evans,  in  an  interesting  study,1  has  shown 
the  existence  of  writing  in  the  Mediterranean,  first  at 
Crete,  and  then  at  other  localities  in  the  ^Egean, 
earlier  than  the  writing  called  Phoenician.  In  Fig.  82 
are  reproduced  some  of  the  signs  of  Cretan  writing, 
according  to  Evans.  In  a  more  recent  study,  the 
same  able  author  has  shown  the  convergence  of  the 
Cretan  and  vEgean  writing  with  the  Proto-Egyptian 
or  Egypto-Libyan,  as  he  calls  the  prehistoric  Egyp- 
tian writing,  found  at  Ballas,  Naqada,  Abydos, 
Kahun,  and  other  prehistoric  localities  on  Egyptian 
soil  (Fig.  83).2 

Nor  does  Evans  close  the  comparison  here  ;  con- 
vinced that  the  prehistoric  Egyptians  were  Libyans, 
and  therefore  of  the  same  stock  that  peopled  Africa 
to  the  west  of  Egypt,  including  the  Sahara,  he  shows 
the  convergence  of  Cretan,  ^Egean,  and  Proto- 
Egyptian  writing  with  that  now  known  in  Libyan 
inscriptions  under  the  name  of  tijinagh,  which  includes 
the  Libyan  alphabet  (Fig.  84).  A  similar  conver- 
gence is  evident  with  the  alphabet  of  the  Canaries, 
allied  to  the  Libyan  of  Africa  (Fig.  85). 

We  may  even  extend  the  comparison  still  further 
than  Evans,  who  has  confined  himself  to  the  Medi- 
terranean, to  prehistoric  or  Libyan  Egypt,  and  to 
Libya  proper ;  we  may  compare  them,  that  is,  to 
the  alphabetiform  signs  of  Mas-d'Azil  and  of  the 

1  "  Primitive  Pictographs  and  a  Pre-Phoenician  Script  from  Crete, ' 
Jour.  Hellenic  Studies,  1894,  vol.  xiv. 

2  "Further  Discoveries  of  Cretan  and  ^Egean  Script,  with  Libyan 
and  Proto-Egyptian  Comparisons/'yowr. ,  «'/.,  1897,  xvii. 

WRITING.  301 

European  dolmens,  of  which  I  have  already  given 
some  examples.  Thus,  in  the  little  ivory  tablets  of 
prehistoric  Egypt  (p.  97),1  we  find  signs  identical 
with  those  of  the  dolmens  (Fig.  79),  and  with  others 
from  Mas-d'Azil  (Fig.  80),  and  it  is  easy  to  prove 
that  others  of  these  latter  signs  are  identical  with 
those  of  Cretan,  vEgean,  and  Libyan  writing,  and 
that  of  the  Canaries.  Such  signs  may  still  be  seen 
in  certain  cubes  of  earth  or  clay  found  in  the  fourth 
city  of  Troy  (Fig.  86),  and  reproduced  in  the  Egyptian 
ivory  tablets  already  mentioned.  Contemporary, 
also,  with  Cypriote  and  yEgean  writing  is  found  that 
scattered  on  vases  and  other  clay  vessels  in  the 
Troad,  in  many  of  the  Trojan  cities.2  Similar  forms  of 
writing  appeared  later,  in  the  first  iron  age,  in  Italy. 
Gozzadini  transcribed  the  signs  he  found  incised  on 
the  terra-cotta  vases  of  the  Villanova  and  other  graves 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bologna.  I  have  collected 
and  brought  together  these  signs,  by  him  called  seals, 
and  regarded  as  mere  workers'  marks,  according  to 
their  shape  and  more  complex  formation,  and  I  have 
expressed  the  opinion  that  they  must  be  a  form  of 
writing,  on  account  of  the  resemblance  they  exhibit 
to  the  writing,  afterwards  called  Phoenician,  which 
became  universal  in  the  Mediterranean  and  else- 

Any  one,  indeed,  who  compares  the  signs  of  Villa- 
nova  with  the  most  ancient  Cypriote  characters  (Fig. 
87),  archaic  Phosnician,  the  Mesa  inscription,  Cartha- 
ginian money  (Fig.  88),  etc.,  will  find,  I  will  not  say 
identity,  but  resemblance  of  form.  And  in  the  same 

1  De  Morgan,  op.  (it.,  ii.,  1897,  p.  167,  figs.  550-555 

*  Arii  e  //a/id,  p.  2l6,  fig.  47. 

1  Arii  e  Italiei,  (it.,  p.  218,  fig.  47. 



way,  if  we  compare  more  recent  characters,  the  Etruscan 
(Fig.  89),  and  those  we  see  incised  on  the  mysterious 
stele  lately  discovered  in  the  Roman  Forum  (Fig.  90), 

FIG.  86.— Terra-cotta  objects  from  the  fourth  city  of  Troy 

we  shall  obtain  confirmation  of  the  belief  that  the 
characters  called  Phoenician  are  only  a  derived  form 
of  the  alphabetiform  signs  that  appeared  during 

FIG.  87. — Tablet  with  Cypriote  characters 

prehistoric  times  in  Africa,  in  the  Mediterranean,  and 
in  Western  Europe.  The  Phoenicians,  if  indeed  it 
was  the  Phoenicians  who  diffused  the  alphabet,  only 
systematised  signs  that  were  already  known  and 



already  indicated  phonetic  characters,  reduced  their 
number,  and  thus  rendered  them  simpler  and  more 
communicable;  each  people  which  accepted  the  forms 









FIG.  88.  —  i.  Archaic  Phoenician  characters. 

2.  Mesa  inscription. 

3.  Incised  stones. 

4.  II'-. mil. ul  inscription. 
5  Carthaginian  coin. 

6.  Archaic  Hebrew. 

modified  them  in  its  own  way,  so  that  they  now  appear 
as  if  they  had  had  different  origins. 

But   alphabctiform    characters   have   a   still    more 


ancient  origin,  of  symbolic  and  pictographic  nature, 
and  in  every  part  of  the  world  we  have  indications  of 
writing.  In  our  own  part  of  the  world  also,  there 
must  have  been  the  same  early  origins,  and  indications 
of  this  may  be  found  in  the  Ligurian  inscriptions 
which  originated  at  an  unknown  epoch.1  Any  one 
who  carefully  observes,  for  instance,  Figs.  91-92, 
sees  at  once  that  here  are  represented  imple- 
ments, animals,  and  men  in  a  manner  that  recalls 
American  pictography.  Similar  also  is  the  signifi- 
cance of  some  of  the  inscriptions  on  the  dolmens,  as 
is  clear  from  Fig.  93,  which  reproduces  one  of  these 
carvings  from  Brittany;  here  are  found  human  feet, 
primitive  axes,  and  other  designs  which  must  indicate 
implements  or  other  objects  of  unknown  significance. 
The  same  may  be  said  regarding  the  carvings  and 
inscriptions  found  on  Swiss  rocks,  the  date  of  which 
is  undetermined  and  is  indeed  difficult  to  determine.2 
The  use  of  writing  signs  is  thus  very  ancient  in  the 
Eurafrican  species,  so  ancient  that  it  already  reached 
definite  shape  in  the  Magdalenian  epoch,  that  is  to 
say,  earlier  than  Neolithic  times,  while  its  diffusion 
also  is  very  ancient  in  the  regions  over  which  the 
species  was  diffused,  in  Africa,  in  the  Canaries,  in  the 
Mediterranean,  in  western  and  central  Europe.  This 
supplies  additional  evidence  as  to  the  high  develop- 
ment of  civilisation  among  the  races  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean basin,  and  among  those  portions  of  them 
which  adopted  various  racial  names  in  proto-historic 

1  Cf.  Bucknell,  "  Le  Incisione  preibtoriche  sulle  rocce  cli  Fontalba," 
Atti  Soc.  Lig.  di  Sci.  Nat.,  Genoa,  1897;  Issel,  "  Rupe  incisa  dell' 
Aquasanta,"  Atti,  cif.,  1899;  /'</.,  "  Iscrizioni  scoperte  nel  Finalese, " 
Bull.  PaUthn.  //«'.,  1898. 

-  Reber,  "  Vorhistorische  in  Canton  Wall  is  (Schweiz),"  Axhiv  f. 
Ant/i.,  xx.,  pp.  375-3/7!  xxi-»  PP-  279-294;  xxiv-.  PP-  9i-"5- 


and  historic  times.  At  the  time  of  the  Asiatic  in- 
vasions and  immigrations  they  were  at  a  higher  level 
of  civilisation  than  the  new  people  who  submerged 
their  civilisation  and  plunged  the  primitive  inhabi- 
tants into  barbarism,  until  new  germs  arose  in  the 
Mediterranean  and  furnished  the  two  great  forms  of 
Gr.tco- Latin  civilisation. 

From  the  history  of  primitive  and  prehistoric 
writing  we  may  draw  the  same  conclusion  as  from 
the  history  of  the  culture  or  cultures  of  Mediterranean 
Europe;  that  is  to  say  that  this  primitive  civilisation 
was  in  part  of  African  origin,  like  the  species  itself, 
in  part  an  Asiatic  importation,  the  latter  being  later 
than  the  former,  while  the  appearance  of  metals  took 
place  at  Cyprus,  an  island  marked  by  its  situation  as 
the  bridge  to  unite  the  eastern  Mediterranean  to 
western  Asia,  and  also  to  form  a  connection  with 
Egypt  and  the  yEgean ;  by  its  mineral  wealth  Cyprus 
becomes  a  point  to  which  the  Asiatic  west  and  the 
Mediterranean  east  alike  flowed,  a  point  at  which  the 
civilisation  of  Asia  accumulated,  as  well  as  that  of 
the  Mediterranean  from  Mycenaean  to  classic  Hellenic 

Language.—  That  portion  of  mankind  which  I  have 
called  the  Eurafrican  species  must  have  had  a 
language;  this  is  a  very  important  and  curious 
problem,  at  the  same  time  one  of  the  most  difficult 
and  intricate  for  prevalent  linguistic  theories  to  solve. 
Notwithstanding  this  I  wish  to  express  certain  con- 
victions which  I  have  derived  from  ethnographic 
inductions  and  from  some  linguistic  facts.  First  of 
all  I  will  recall  what  I  wrote  some  years  ago  when 
investigating  prehistoric  Italy. 

Having  determined  that  the  primitive  populations 



of  Italy  were  evidently  of  the  Mediterranean  stock,  a 
Eurafrican  variety,  and  that  the  successive  arrivals  from 
the  north  were  of  Asiatic  origin,  Cello-Slavs,  as  they 
would  to-day  be  called,  or  Proto-Celts  and  Proto-Slavs, 
I  wrote:  "  Archaeological  and  anthropological  observa- 
tions in  Italy  reveal,  it  is  true,  a  regional  fact,  but  at 
the  same  time  they  serve  to  prepare  the  solution  of 
the  Aryo-European  problem.  For  if  it  is  true,  as 

O  m 



C     >  9 

FIG.  89  —Characters  of  the  Etruscan  alphabet. 

results  from  the  anthropological  documents  furnished 
by  the  most  ancient  graves  in  Italy,  that  the  Aiyans 
who  invaded  Italy  possessed  brachycephalic  heads  of 
various  shapes  —  spheroidal,  sphenoidal,  and  platy- 
cephalic —  the  other  Aryans  who  spoke  German  or 
Slavonic  must  have  possessed  similar  physical  charac- 
ters, if  they  were  genuine  Aryans.  It  would  then  be 
the  case  also  that  the  real  Germanic  Aryans  were  not 



those  of  the  Rcihcngrabcr  cephalic  type,  but  ihose 
whose  type  was  identical  with  that  of  the  Slavs  and 
the  Celts. 

"  If  the  archaeological  monuments  which  I  have 
examined,  and  compared  with  others  from  the  regions 
where  the  Aryans  represent  the  Proto-Cclts  arid  the 
Proto-Slavs,  indicate  that  the  Aryans  who  invaded 
Italy  were  also  Proto-Celts  and  Proto-Slavs ;  if  the 

FlG.  90. — Inscription  from  the  Lapis  niger  monument  in  the 
Roman  Forum,  northern  side  of  the  Stela. 

documents  discovered  in  the  graves  of  Etruria,  of 
Latium,  of  Bologna,  confirm  this  result,  it  cannot  but 
be  admitted  that  such  Aryans  did  not  bring  the  Italic 
language  with  them,  but  languages  which  must  have 
been  of  the  same  type  as  those  to-day  called  Celtic  / 
and  Slavonic,  and  derived  from  prehistoric  Proto- 
Slavic  tongues,  that  is  to  say,  they  must  have  been 
genuinely  primitive  Aryan  tongues. 

"  Italy,  on   the   other   hand,  at  the  period  of  the 


Aryan  invasion,  must  have  possessed  a  language, 
doubtless  with  many  dialects,  having  nothing  in 
common  with  the  Aryan  tongues.  If  the  stock 
occupying  it  from  time  immemorial  was  the  Medi- 
terranean, which,  as  I  have  shown,  was  divided 
into  'many  peoples,  including  the  Egyptians,  the 
Libyans,  the  Iberians,  the  languages  must  have  been 
of  the  same  type  as  those  spoken  by  Egyptians, 
Libyans,  and  Iberians,  that  is  to  say,  of  what 
is  called  the  Hamitic  type,  and  very  different  in 
phonetic  and  morphological  characters  from  the 

"  Hence  it  is  natural  to  believe  that  the  Aryans  who 
dominated  the  Italic  populations  in  the  Po  valley  and 
central  Italy  not  only  transformed  the  customs  but 
also  the  language.  To  investigate  the  process  of 
formation  of  the  Italic  languages  we  do  not  need, 
therefore,  to  go  outside  Italy.  The  Aryan  language 
when  spoken  by  a  people  with  another  vocabulary, 
other  phonetics,  other  flexions,  another  syntax,  could 
not  be  preserved  in  its  original  forms  and  sounds ;  it 
had  to  undergo  a  transformation  on  the  basis  of 
a  language  with  different  characters.  The  special 
Aryan  flexion  had  to  undergo  a  particular  alteration 
in  the  mouth  of  him  who  spoke  it  incorrectly  and 
imperfectly.  Hence  may  be  observed  a  phenomenon 
noted  by  linguists,  the  fragmentary  character  of 
flexion  often  so  complete  in  other  languages  of 
Aryan  type,  and  then  a  vocabulary  different  in  great 
part  from  other  Aryan  vocabularies,  whether  Greek, 
Celtic,  or  Germanic."1  Hence  I  concluded  generally 
that  the  language  of  the  Aryans  transformed  but  did 
not  destroy  the  languages  spoken  in  Greece  and 
1  Arii  e  Italici,  cap.  viii.,  p.  170. 


Italy,  and   that  both   must  have  contained  the  two 
linguistic  elements  in  different  composition.1 

Keanc,  who  accepts  this  conception,  believes  that  he  modifies 
it  by  saying  :  "To  me  it  appears  rather  that  Aryan  tongues 
everywhere,  so  to  say,  took  possession  of  the  soil,  and  effaced 
those  previously  current,  but  in  so  doing  became  themselves  / 
somewhat  modified,  especially  in  their  vocabulary  and  phonetics. 
Even  their  structure  was  disturbed  by  the  conflict,  so  that  there 
were  often  great  losses  and  reconstructions,  as  is  plainly  seen  in 
the  Italic  (Latin,  Umbrian,  Oscan)  verbal  system."3  But  really 
Keane  is  affirming  the  same  thing,  and  the  divergence  is  apparent 
rather  than  real.* 

Now  if  it  is  true  that  the  Mediterranean  stock  is  an 
anthropological  variety  of  the  Eurafrican  species,  if 
the  Nordic  is  another  variety  of  the  same  species,  we 
have  to  admit  that  the  languages  of  these  two  varieties 
must  be  of  the  same  origin  as  the  languages  of  the 
African  varieties,  belonging^  that  is  to  say,  to  the 
linguistic  group  called  Hamitic.  It  is  known  also 
that  of  the  Mediterranean  varieties,  ancient  Egyptian 
was  one  of  the  Hamitic  languages  like  Libyan,  as 
Basque  appears  to  be,  an  old  Iberian  residue.  Nor  is 
that  all,  for  we  have  to  add  to  the  Hamitic  group  of 
the  Mediterranean  the  Pelasgic  language  represented 
by  Etruscan,  hitherto  undeciphered  because  investi- 
gators have  violently  sought  to  find  in  it  the  characters 
of  Aryan  languages.  Brinton  attempted  to  lead 
Etruscan  back  to  Libyan,  and  hence  to  affirm  the 
ethnological  affinity  of  the  Etruscans  with  the 
ancient  Libyans,4  and  I  believe  that  along  this  path 

1  Op.  tit.,  p.  176. 

8  Keane,  Man  Past  and  Present,  pp.  512-13. 

3  Cf.  Kcanc,  of.  (if. ,  pp.  460  tt  sty. 

*  "On  Etruscan  anil  Libyan  Names:  a  comparative  study,"  Pioc. 
Awer.  Phifos.  Sof.,  Philadelphia,  xxviii.  132,  1890;  ''The  Ethno- 
logical Affinities  of  the  Ancient  Etruscans,"  /£.,  xxvi.,  1889. 



we  may  reach  the  interpretation  of  this  mysterious 
language,  hitherto  refractory  to  every  investigation 
from  the  Aryan  standpoint.  Nor  need  we  wonder, 
as  I  have  already  said  elsewhere,  to  find  in  Etruscan 
certain  deceptive  characters  of  Aryan  flexion,  since 

FIG.  91.— Prehistoric  inscription  on  the  rocks  of  Val  Fontanallxi  (Bucknell). 

such  alterations  were  inevitable  in  Italy  in  the  midst 
of  languages  of  Aryan  flexion  ;  it  is  probably  these 
features  which  have  led  some  linguists  to  find  Aryan 
characters  here  at  all  costs.1 

1  Arii  e  It  olid,  p.  175. 



I  have  much  pleasure  in  referring  here  to  an 
address  by  Professor  Ascoli  at  the  Twelfth  Inter- 
national Congress  of  Orientalists  at  Rome.  In  this 
address  one  of  the  most  eminent  of  European 
linguists  refers  to  the  new  directions  of  science  and 
to  the  aid  which  ethnology  and  anthropology  may 
bring  to  various  hypotheses.  Coming  to  the  position 
of  Latin  in  the  Indo-European  linguistic  family,  he 

Fir..  92. — Petrogliphs  from  Finalcsc,  Liguria  (Issel). 

remarks : — "  There  must  then  have  been  a  cause 
for  the  inferiority  of  Latin  apart  from  time  or 
climate,  and  this  could  only  have  been  an  ethno- 
logical cause,  due  to  special  or  new  racial  crossings. 
We  may  take  another  example,  again  from  the  Indo- 
European  field.  A  merely  descriptive  writer  notes 
the  regularity  which  governs  the  various  reflections 
with  which  a  given  phonetic  clement  of  the  original 


patrimony  reverberates  in  the  various  languages  of 
the  family.  He  notes  this  regularity  and  admires 
it,  but  fails  to  understand  it.  Now  the  ethnologist 
may  initiate  an  explanation  of  such  a  wide  extent 
of  fundamental  phenomena.  We  are  concerned  with 
an  Aryan  speech  which  comes  into  successive  conflict 
with  various  other  speeches  and  subdues  them,  but 
not  without  itself  remaining  injured  or  changed. 
Under  certain  conditions  a  subdued  and  conquered 
people  loses  its  own  language,  but  it  subjects  the 
language  of  the  conqueror  to  the  habits  of  its  own 
vocal  organ.  Something  of  this  kind  happened  in 
the  case  of  the  Gaul  who  adapted  Latin  to  his  use. 
We  have  then  a  kind  of  musical  transposition  which 
passes  with  natural  precision  over  all  the  material  of 

"  Thus  there  may  be  constructed  the  hypothesis  of 
the  formation  of  various  Indo-European  complexes, 
crossed  with  peoples  who  were  irradiating  from  their 
primary  seat.  '  But  how  shall  we  represent  to  our- 
selves these  complexes,  especially  as  regards  their 
numerical  importance?  We  here  touch  the  great 
problem  which  ethnology,  anthropology,  glottology, 
and  all  history  are  even  more  eagerly  pursuing,  the 
problem  as  to  the  number  of  individuals  who  may 
reasonably  be  assigned  to  the  various  countries  at 
diverse  epochs.  The  belief  that  a  series  of  fine  and 
complete  nations  moved  from  a  common  centre  to 
people  a  large  part  of  the  world  with  Indo-Europeans 
is  dying,  or  already  dead,  together  with  a  number  of 
other  fables  regarding  the  migrations  of  whole  peoples 
in  various  historical  ages. 

"So  many  ancient  complexes  of  people  speaking 
Indo-European  languages  should  lead  us  to  imagine 



them  as  very  small  in  size.  Only  with  much  labour 
has  the  earth  become  populous.  A  poor  clan  be- 
comes, in  thousands  of  years,  a  nation.  The  imagina- 
tion of  writers  has  always  seen  ancient  Europe 
crowded  with  people,  and  the  notion  has  not  yet 
died  out.  Thus,  in  regard  to  the  phonetic  combina- 
tion KV,  Oscan  and  Umbrian  reach  P  while  Latin 
remains  at  KV  (quod,  pod,  etc.),  and  similarly,  leaving 

FlG.  93.  —Sculptured  stones  from  dolmens  in  Brittany. 

Greece,  we  find  the  Britons  in  opposition  to  the 
Hibernians,  and  again  hear  of  KV  peoples  and  P 
peoples  in  historical  contrast  to.  each  other.  We  are 
really  only  in  the  presence  of  a  mere  peculiarity  of 
pronunciation  marking  a  family  which  has  become  a 

The  idea  expressed  in  this  discourse  coincides  in 
great  part  with  my  own  view,  though  I  have  no  wish 
to  give  it  a  greater  extension  than  Ascoli  himself 


would  accept.  Certainly,  however,  it  cannot  but  be 
true  that  the  various  languages  of  Aryan  type  have 
been  formed  under  the  influence  of  other  languages, 
conquered,  like  the  peoples  who  spoke  them.  My 
supposition  is  that  the  Latin  language  shows  this 
phenomenon  in  a  specially  marked  degree;  and  hence 
when  I  recently  observed  the  interpretations,  furnished 
by  philologists,  of  the  inscriptions  on  the  stela  dis- 
covered in  the  Roman  Forum,  by  means  of  Aryan 
and  more  especially  Nordic  languages,1  I  was  greatly 
surprised  ;  these  interpreters  have  not  understood 
what  has  now  been  understood  by  the  father  of 
Italian  linguists  and  what  I  myself  expressed  some 
years  ago :  Latin  is  not  a  language  which  reached 
Italy  in  a  beautiful  and  completed  form,  just  as  Italy 
was  not  entered  by  an  Italic  people  speaking  Latin; 
but  Latin  was  formed  in  Italy  itself,  as  well  as  all  the 
languages  related  to  Latin,  fragmentary  in  phonetics 
and  flexion.  The  stela  of  the  Roman  Forum,  like 
other  ancient  inscriptions,  necessarily  showed  the 
traces  of  the  primitive  Italic  (Mediterranean)  language 
transformed  by  that  of  various  invaders;  to  seek  to 
interpret  it  with  the  aid  of  Gothic  or  old  German  is 
as  absurd  as  it  would  be  to  seek  to  interpret  Etruscan 
or  Pelasgic  with  the  help  of  Sanscrit  or  Finnic. 

In  the  other  languages  called  Indo-European  this 
formation,  so  clear  in  the  primitive  Italic  tongues,  is 
perhaps  less  apparent ;  thus  it  may  also  be  in 
Greek,  in  spite  of  the  fulness  of  its  forms,  and  in 
the  Germanic  tongues  spoken  by  those  populations 
which,  like  the  Italic  and  the  Greek,  underwent  in- 
vasion and  transformation  in  customs  and  language. 

1   "  Stela  con  iscrizione  Latina  arcaica  scoperta  nel  Foro  Romano," 
Notizie  d^.'i  Scavi,  Maggio,  1899. 

LA  MIL' AGE.  315 

It  is  necessary  to  seek  for  this  vanished  language 
from  the  Mediterranean  to  the  Baltic,  and  we  may 
thus  also  find,  perhaps,  the  real  cause  of  the  phonetic 
transformations  which  now  can  be  only  accepted  as 
facts.  As  the  present  populations  of  Europe  are  in 
varying  proportions  a  compound  of  the  old  Eur- 
african  species  and  of  the  more  recently  arriving 
Eurasiatic  species,  which  brought  with  it  flexional 
languages  of  Aryan  or  Indo-European  type,  so  also 
the  languages  which  seem  to  be  altogether  Aryan 
have  an  archaic  stratum,  of  Eurafrican  origin,  corre- 
sponding to  the  languages  otherwise  called  Hamitic, 
like  Egyptian  and  Libyan.1 

1  As  I  have  already  observed  (p.  246,  note  i),  a  proof  of  this 
phenomenon  has  been  brought  into  evidence  by  the  authors  of  The 
Wchh  People,  Prof.  Rhys  and  D.  Brynmor-Joncs,  and  especially  Prof. 
Morris  Jones,  through  the  analysis  of  the  Neo-Celtic  language.  I 
venture  to  assert  that  a  study  of  the  ancient  Italic  languages,  conducted 
with  the  intuition  and  method  of  Morris  Jones,  would  remove  the  veil 
of  mystery  that  still  enwraps  them ;  but  to  attain  this  end  theie  must 
be  a  diminution  of  the  philo-Aryanism  of  our  linguists. 


^neolithic  period,  277 

Africa,  origin  of  name,  54 ;  blonds 

of,  59  tt  seq. 

Alphabetical  characters,  296  et  seq. 
Andersen,  199 
Anthropophagy  in  Egypt,  alleged, 


Arab  racial  types,  1 19 

Arbo,  222 

Architecture  of  tombs,  266  et  seq. 

Armenoid  type  of  skull,  141,  148 
it  set/. 

Arya,  I 

Aryans,  origin  of,  2  et  sea.,  21  et 
sea.,  29;  in  Italy,  178;  invasion 
of,  241  et  seq. ;  their  lack  of 
culture,  295;  their  language, 
307  et  sea. 

Ascoli,  311 

Barrows,  British,  205  et  sea.,  243 

Barth,  222 

Basques,  anthropology  of,  161 

Beddoe,  260 

Benfey,  5 

Berl>ers,  53  et  seq.,  \\\et  seq. 

Berthelot,  129 

Bertholon,  67,  120 

Biving,  l.)e,  92 

Blasio,  De,  107 

Blonds,  of  Africa,   59" et  seq.;   at 

high  level  al>ove  sea,  73 
Bogdanof,  231 
Bohemia,  anthropology  of,  220  et 

Booster,  79 

Bordicr,  299 

Brachycephals,  alleged  superiority 

of,  22;  in  Neolithic  times,  237 

el  seq. 

Brinton,  158,  258,  309 
Biitain,   anthroi>ol<>gy  of,   205   et 


Brizio,  I  Si 
Broca,  63,  69,  161 
Bronze  culture,  292  ft  seq. 
Brugsch,  45,  85 
Brynmor -Jones,  246 
Bucknell,  304 
Burial   customs,   in   Egypt,  92  // 

seq.;  among  Mediterranean  slock 

generally,  266  et  seq. 

Cara,  C.  de,  24,  14$ 
Caret lc,  50,  55,  Il8 
Carlailhac,  1 60 

Celts,  16,  18,  21  el  seq.,  69,  243 
Chancelade  type  of  skull,  193 
Chil,  129 
Collignon,  119 

Coloration  of  Mediterranean  race, 

('••I  1.1  IT,    146 

Cremation,  in  Egypt,  alleged,  92; 

among     Mediterranean      stock 

generally,  270 
Cretan  writing  signs,  300 
Cro-Magnon   type  of  skull,    135, 

188,  193.  210 
Culture  of  Mediterranean  race,  273 

et  seq. 
Cyprus,   anthropology   of,    152  et 

seq. ;  culture  of,  276  et  seq. 


Davis,  203 

Dawkins,  15.,  197.  207 
Dcir-el-Hahari,  87 
Dcniker,  202 
Dcsor,  64 

Dolmen  race,  59,  64 
Dolmens,  writing  on,  97,    296  ft 

Egypt  to  Greece,  relations  of,  170 
et  seq. 

Egyptian  language,  100 

England,  anthropology  of,  205  et 

Eskimo  and  European  relation- 
ships, alleged,  195  et  seq. 

Etruscans,  165,  180  et  seq.,  286  <tf 
seq.,  302,  309 

Eurafrican  species,  257  et  seq. 

Eurasiatic  species,  241  et  seq.,  262 
et  seq. 

Evans,  A.  J.,  44,  95.  97,  157.  iSi, 

Eye-colour  in  Germany,  14 

Face,  anthropology  of,  257 

Faidherbe,  60,  1 1 5 

Finnic  type,  1 5 

Flower,  77 

Fouquet,  94,  103 

France,  anthropology  of,  163,  188 

et  seq.,  210  et  seq. 
Franks,  18 
Fiiesland,  Neanderthal   type  still 

persisting  in,  203       t 

Garson,  208 

Gciger,  5 

Gerba,  anthropology  of,  120 

Germans  as  primitive  Aryans,  8 

Germany,  anthropology  of  modem, 

1 2  el  seq. 
Great    Biitain,    anthropology    of, 

205  et  seq. 
Greece,   anthropology   of,    165   et 


Greenwcll,  205 
Grimth,  87 
Guanches,    anthropology   of,     128 

et  seq. 

Hair  colour  in  Germany,  14 

1  lamiles,  40  et  seq. 

Hartmann,  66 

Hatshepsu,  85 

Herodotus,  anthropological  evi- 
dence from,  46  et  seq.,  167  et  seq. 

Herve,  190 

Hieroglyphic  script,  98 

Hittiles,  25,  144  et  sej. 

Holder,  17,  220 

Holl,  Ij 

Homer  and  the  fair  type  in  Greece, 
1 3  et  seq. 

Homo  Alpinns,  263 

Iberians,  159  et  seq. 
Issel,  304 
Italici,  176  et  seq. 
Italy,  anthropology  of,    164,   172 
et  seq. 

Jones,  M  ,  246 

Kabyles,  67 

Keane,   43,    125,    158,    162,    179, 

225,  253,  258,  309 
Kohl,  219 
Kollmann,  236 
Kurgan   type   of  skull,    140,    226 

et  seq. 

Language,  Egyptian,  TOO;  of 
Mediterranean  race  generally, 
305  et  seq. 

Lapponic  type,  15 

Latham,  5 

Latin,  origin  of,  314 

Letourneau,  296 

Letourneux,  64 

Libyans,  Sallust  on,  57 

Ligurians,  162  et  seq 

Linear  writing  characters,  97,  296 
et  seq. 

Lissauer,  17 

Lithuanians,  21  et  seq. 

Livi,  73 

Lomhroso,  156 

Luschan,  F.  von,  136,  148 



Lycia,  anthropology  of,  148 

Macalislcr,  no 

Martin,  65 

Malirgka,  J_M 

Megalithic   tombs   in  Africa,   64, 


Mehlis,  219 
Meyer,  136 

Montelius,  181,  199,  288,  289 
Morgan,    De,    88,    91,    94,     iO2, 

275.  299 

Mortillet,  G.  de,  191 
Moschen.  12 
Milller,  Max,  5,  7 
Miiller,  O.,  166 
Mycencean  culture,  279  ef  set/, 
Myres,  181,  276,  279,  294 

Naqada,  88  et  seq. 

Naville,  87 

Neanderthal  type  of  skull,  10,  77, 
191,  2OI  et  seq. 

Neo-Celtic,  246 

Neolithic  times,  brachycephals  of, 
237  et  set/. ;  uniformity  of  cul- 
ture during,  275 

"  New  race  in  Egypt,  Petrie'-s 
89  el  set/.,  113 

Ohnefalsch-Richter,  152,  276,  279, 

281,  294 
Orsi,  277,  283 

Palaeolithic  implements  in  Africa, 

42,  80 

Pelas»ians,  165  tt  st<j 
Penka,  8  et  seq. 
Petrie,  F.,  84,  88,  95,  102,  113, 

275-  279 

Ph'i-nicians.  anthropology  of,  15 
ft  stq.\  their  diffusion  of  al[.li.i 

1*1,  302 
Pi.  let,  7 
I'ietle,  273,  297 
Pigmentation     of     Meiliterranean 

Pigmies  of  Murop-,  233  ft  teq. 

Pigorini,  271,  287 

Pit.ud,  215 

rithtcanthrofus  e>ef/ns,  2OI 

Poole,  76 

I'iischc,  8 

Pott,  7 

Pruncr  Bey,  66,  69 

Punites,  76,  Betsey.,  154 

Quatrefages,  63, 
Quedenfeldt,  75 

Ranke.  13 

Reihengraber  type,    10,   14,    219, 

220,  225,  252 
Rcinach,  107,  289 
Retzius.  222 
Rhys,  246 

Ripley,  214,  255,  261 
Roknia  skulls    u$etseq. 
Rossellini,  76 
Russia,  anthropology  of,  226  et  se./. 

Saint-Martin,  47.  54 

Salmon,  190,  212,  237 

Sayce,  84.  146 

Scandinavia,  as  cradle  of  white 
race,  10;  when  first  inhabited, 
199;  anthropology  of,  221  et  uq. 

Schliemann,  283 

Schmidt,  107,  237 

Schrader,  7 

Schweinfurlh,  103 

Scilax,  49 

Sepulture,  in  Africa,  64,  70  et 
seq.  ;  among  Mediterranean 
stock  generally,  266  et  seq. 

Seton-Karr,  42 

Sicily,  culture  of,  283  e!  seq. 

Siret,  289 

Slavs,  8,  230 

Somaliland  as  cradle  ol  Mediter- 
ranean race,  42 

Spain,  anthropoli>gy  <»f,  150^  <e</.; 
influence  of,  on  Sicily,  289 

Stature  of  Mediterranean  race,  25  \ 

Slieda,  227 

Switzerland,  anthropology  of,  213 



Tamahu,  64,  68,  75  el  seq. 

Taylor,  Canon,  21 

Terramare  culture,  287 

Thane,  102 

Thomson,  IO2 

Thurnam,  161,  205,  207 

Tissot,  53.  62 

Tombs,  architecture  of,  266  et  seq. 

Topinard,  62,  119 

Tsountas,  280 

Tuaregs,  53,  95 

Tunis,  anthropology  or,  120  et  set]. 

Ujfalvy,  264 
Uvarof,  226 

Vandals  in  Africa,  supposed,  59 

Verneau,  129,  130 

Viking  type  of  skull,  222  el  seq., 

Virchow,  10,  15,  17,  203,  237 

Weinzerl,  220 
VVeisgerl)cr,  8 1 
Welcker,  12 
Wiedemann,  92 
Wilson,  273 
Wright,  146 

Writing,   in   Egypt,   95    et    se.j. ; 
origins  of,  296  ei  seq. 

Zaborowski,  43,  103 


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9  POE 


11  BURNS.     Songs 

12  BURNS.     Poems 


14  KEATS 


16  HUGO 

17  COWPER] 



20  SONNETS    OF    THIS    CEN- 



22  SCOTT.     Lady  of  the  Lake,  etc. 

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27  LOVE  LETTERS,  etc. 




31  BYRON.     Miscellaneous 

32  BYRON.   Don  Juan 




36  POPE 

37  HEINE 


39  BOWLES,  LAMB,  etc. 










49  MOORE 

London  :  WALTER  SCOTT,  Paternoster  Square. 

The  Canterbury   Poets  -continued. 




53  OSS  I  AN 









62  FAfST 































Pippa  Passes,  etc.     Vol.  I. 


A  Blot  in  the  'Scutcheon,  etc. 
Vol.  2. 


Dramatic  Lyrics.     Vol.  3. 

93  MACKAY'S    LOVER'S    MIS- 






In  Memoriam,  etc. 


The  Princess,  etc. 




London  :  WALTRK  SCOTT,  Paternoster  Square. 

The   World's    Great    Novels. 

Large  Crown  &V0,  lllusti  ated,  y.  6d.  each. 
A  series  of  acknowledged  masterpieces  by  the  most  eminent  writers 
of  fiction. 

THE     COUNT     OF     MONTE- CRISTO.       By 

ALEXANDER  DUMAS.  With  Sixteen  Full-page  Illustrations 
drawn  by  FRANK  T.  MERRILL. 


DUMAS.  With  Twelve  Full-page  Illustrations  by  T.  EYRE 
MACKLIN,  and  a  Frontispiece  Portrait  of  the  Author. 


DUMAS.  With  Sixteen  Full-page  Illustrations  by  FRANK  T. 


DUMAS.      With    Nine    Full-page    Illustrations    by    FRANK    T. 



SOREAU).  By  ALEXANDER  DUMAS.  With  Nine  Full-page 
Illustrations  by  FRANK  T.  MERRILL. 

ANDRE  DUMAS.  With  Nine  Full-page  Illustrations  by  FRANK 
T.  MERRILL.  . 

LES  MISliRABLES.    By  VICTOR   HUGO.     With 

Eleven  Full-page  Illustrations. 

NOTRE    DAME.      By    VICTOR    HUGO.     With 

numerous  Illustrations. 


Sixteen  Full-page  Illustrations,  and  Thirty-two  Illustrations  in  the 
Text,  by  EDMUND  II.  GARRKTT,  and  1'hotogravure  Portrait  of 
Charlotte  Bronte. 

Tolstoy's  Great  Masterpiece.     New  Edition  of  Anna  Kare"nina. 

ANNA    KARENINA:    A    NOVEL,      By   COUNT 

TOLSTOY.  With  Ten  Illustrations  drawn  by  PAUL  FRENZK.NY, 
and  a  Frontispiece  Portrait  of  Count  Tolstoy. 

"  Other  novels  one  can  afford  to  leave  unread,  but  Anna  Kartnina 
never;    it  stands  eternally  one  of  the  peaks  of  all  fiction." - 
of  Hcv  eus.  

LONDON:  WALTER  SCOTT,  Paternoster  Square. 




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DATE     | 



The  Mediterranean  race,  .54